Chapter 1 lesson 1 Life in Ancient Rome I. A Prosperous Empire 1. Augustus was Rome’s first emperor, who led a long era of peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. 2. Augustus provided security for his empire by building a professional army of Roman citizens, rebuilt Rome, fed the poor, improved government, reformed the tax and legal systems and placed governors in charge of regions. Augustus Roman accomplishments of the Pax Romana Roman mosaics inside the Baths of Caracalla (Rome) Mr. Mispagel at Trajan’s Market, Rome – Summer 2011 3. No laws stated how the next emperor would be chosen after the death of Augustus. Members of his family known as the Julio-Claudian emperors followed him. Some were poor and cruel. 4. After the Julio-Claudian emperors, Rome went through a period of disorder. Vespasian took the throne and eventually restored order. Ruins on Palatine Hill of the Emperor’s arena The ancient Forum – The center of Roman Government Roman Forum Trajan’s Column – The column tells the story how the Emperor Trajan defeated the Dacians Detail of Trajan’s Column - Rome Emperor Nero Known as a cruel emperorbuilt a huge palace in the center of Rome for himself with public taxes. Emperor Vespasian The “Good Emperor”Tore down Nero’s Golden Palace and built the Coliseum for the citizens of Rome The Roman Forum https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPVvXvf4xRc 5. After Vespasian, five emperors unrelated to Augustus or Vespasian came to power. These emperors were known as the “good emperors.” The empire expanded and prospered under their rule. 6. Hadrian, the third emperor, decided the empire had grown too large and he pulled troops out of Mesopotamia. HADRIAN’S WALL BRITAIN c. 122 AD Hadrian – Third of the five “good Emperors” Limit expansion and control the area Rome has already conquered. Build a wall to keep out those that would cause harm to Rome (Hadrian) 7. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires in history and people spoke different languages, and practiced different customs. All these people shared Roman laws (The Twelve Tables) Comparative history: How is the Roman Empire similar to the United States? What connects us in the United States? II> Roman Culture 1. The Romans admired the Greeks and copied some of their ideas. 2. Roman statues portrayed flaws while Greek statues portrayed ideal (NO IMPERFECTIONS) people. How would you like to be displayed for generations to see you? Would you like a realistic statue or one that makes you look more perfect? 3. The Romans incorporated Greek ideas into their architecture such as columns and porches. The Romans also had their own ideas such as domes, arches, and vaults. 4. Two of Rome’s most famous buildings still stand today: The Colosseum, a large arena, and the Pantheon, a large temple built to honor the gods. Colosseum The Pantheon Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time built this.” Inside the Pantheon (domes, arches and columns) 5. The Roman writer Virgil wrote the Aeneid, which tells the story of the Trojan prince Aeneas. 6. The poet Horace wrote satires, works that poke fun at human weaknesses and odes which express strong emotions. Virgil Can you think of a modern day satire? Any TV show that might make fun of our weaknesses? Why would “I Love Lucy” be considered a satire? 7. The writers Ovid and Catullus were both inspired by Greek writing and myths 8. Livy, one of Rome’s most famous historians wrote “The History of Rome” 9. Many modern European languages today are based on Latin, the language of the Romans. 10. The Greek doctor Galen brought many ideas to Rome. 11. Ptolemy was a famous scientist who studied the stars. 12. Engineers built advanced road systems and aqueducts to bring water into Roman cities. Roman roads were made with interlocking stones. Notice how the roads slope to allow for drainage. 13. Greek gods and goddesses were popular in Rome. 14.Romans borrowed from the Greeks the idea of Stoicism, which encouraged Romans to live in a practical way. Roman / Greek gods QUICK REVIEW 1.1 What was the Pax Romana? Why was the Pantheon built? What is the difference between a satire and an ode? Who wrote “The History of Rome” Who was Galen? What were the Roman excellent at building to connect their empire?