Chapter 1 lesson 1
Life in Ancient Rome
I. A Prosperous Empire
1. Augustus was Rome’s first
emperor, who led a long era of
peace known as the Pax
Romana, or Roman Peace.
2. Augustus provided security
for his empire by building a
professional army of Roman
citizens. He also rebuilt Rome, fed
the poor, improved government,
and reformed the tax system.
Roman accomplishments of the Pax Romana
3. No laws stated how the next emperor
would be chosen after the death of
Augustus. Members of his family known
as the Julio-Claudian emperors
followed him. Some were poor and
4. After the Julio-Claudian emperors,
Rome went through a period of
disorder. Vespasian took the throne
and eventually restored order.
Emperor Nero
Known as a cruel emperor
Emperor Vespasian
The “Good Emperor”
5. After Vespasian, five emperors
unrelated to Augustus or Vespasian
came to power. These emperors were
known as the “good emperors.” The
empire expanded and prospered under
their rule.
6. Hadrian, the third emperor, decided
the empire had grown too large and he
pulled troops out of Mesopotamia.
The wall Hadrian had built
separating Britain into the
Hadrian – Third
Land controlled by Rome and of the five “good
The land of the barbarians.
Limit expansion and control the area Rome has
already conquered. Build a wall to keep out those
that would cause harm to Rome (Hadrian)
7. The Roman Empire was one of the
greatest empires in history. It was very
large and contained people who spoke
different languages, and practiced
different customs. All these people
shared Roman law.
Comparative history: How is the Roman
Empire similar to the United States?
II> Roman Culture
1. The Romans admired the Greeks and
copied some of their ideas.
2. Roman statues portrayed flaws while
Greek statues portrayed ideal (NO
3. The Romans incorporated Greek
ideas into their architecture such as
columns and porches. The Romans also
had their own ideas such as domes,
arches, and vaults.
4. Two of Rome’s most famous buildings
still stand today: The Colosseum, a
large arena, and the Pantheon, a large
temple built to honor the gods.
5. The Roman writer Virgil wrote the
Aeneid, which tells the story of the
Trojan prince Aeneas.
6. The poet Horace wrote satires,
works that poke fun at human
weaknesses and odes which express
strong emotions.
7. The writers Ovid and Catullus were
both inspired by Greek writing and
8. Livy, one of Rome’s most famous
historians wrote “The History of Rome”
9. Many modern European languages
today are based on Latin, the language
of the Romans.
10. The Greek doctor Galen brought
many ideas to Rome.
11. Ptolemy was a famous scientist
who studied the stars.
12. Engineers built advanced road
systems and aqueducts to bring water
into Roman cities.
13. Greek gods and goddesses were
popular in Rome.
14.Romans borrowed from the Greeks
the idea of Stoicism, which encouraged
Romans to live in a practical way.

Chapter 1 lesson 1