Western & Eastern Europe
•
2000 BC – 476 AD
Ancient Greece and
Rome
– Established a
standard of
excellence by
which later
societies
measured their
culture.
Parthenon in Athens Greece
Ancient Greece
• Geography let to trade and
borrowing of beneficial
ideas
• Mountains cut them off
from each other
– Developed individual
city-states or polis
– Each having own
government, laws and
army
– Two major city-states
• Athens
• Sparta
• Athens – pluralistic
society (encouraged free
expression, new ideas,
and change)-direct
democracy (all nativeborn free males citizens
over 18) took part in
lawmaking assembly –
citizens were educated,
loyal, and willing to run
the city-state
The major philosophers of ancient Greece
by Raphael.
• Sparta – monolithic only
one way of thinking and
behaving)- totalitarian state
(government controlled
every part of the lives of its
people – limiting freedom
and demanding complete
loyalty)
Golden Age of Greece
• Age of Pericles (461-429
BC)
– growth of democracy and
building of Parthenon
(temple to goddess
Athena)
– as Athens grew – resent
from Sparta grew
• Peloponnesian
Wars – weakened
Greece conquered by
Phillip of Macedonia
and his son,
Alexander the Great
• Hellenistic Period
– Alexander spread
Greek culture and
blended it with Middle
Eastern
Greek Contributions
• Poetry –
– Homer wrote Iliad and
Odyssey
• Theatre – tragedies ad
comedies –
– Sophocles, author of
Oedipus Rex
• Philosophy – attitude of belief
that affects how a person lives
– Socrates
– Plato
– Aristotle
• Architecture –
marble building
– 3 styles of
columns
• Doric
• Ionic
• Corinthian
• Sculpture
– emphasized
beauty and
perfection –
human body
• Mathematics
– Pythagoras theorem
(right triangles)
– Euclid (geometry based
on deductive reasoning)
• Science
– Archimedes (lever and
pulleys)
– Hippocrates ( Father of
Medicine – ethical
standards)
Ancient Rome
• Monarchy from 753
– 509 BC (not like
Greece)
– on peninsula
where all people
could be united
under one
government
centered in
Rome
• Roman Republic
– Government headed by
elected officials. Rome
was larger than any of
the Greek city-states so
people couldn’t
effectively participate
directly in running the
government
• Real power held by
Senate – represented
upper class
• Two Consuls –
served as heads of
state
• Twelve Tables of
Law – rights of
Roman citizens
protected by these
• Roman Empire (27
BC – 476 AD)
– Rome expanded its
territory through
wars – borrowed
from people they
conquered –
especially the
Greek
– Gap began growing
between rich and
poor
• conflict arose
and republic
declined (people
supported strong
rulers during
times of conflict)
• Autocracy
– Power is held by one man
– the emperor – Augustus
– established a strong
central government
• Pax Romana
– Period of great peace and
peak of Rome’s civilization
Roman Contributions to Civilization
• Architecture
– Massive structures – The
Colosseum – domes and
arches
• Engineering
– Extensive roads and
bridges – “Every road leads
to Rome” – Apian Way –
aqueducts (carry water
from country to cities)
• Language
– Latin language of
Rome basis of
Romance languages
of Spanish, Italian,
French, Portuguese,
Romanian, and
English
• Law/Justice – coded
law
– Centered on Twelve
Tables of Law and
were carved into
stone tales and
displayed in the
forum
• equal treatment
• innocent until
proved guilty
• Growth of Christianity
– Attracted poor and
slaves because of
preaching’s of equality
and brotherhood
– Emperor Constantine
concerted in 395 AD
and church became
one of the most
important institutions
in western Europe
Fall of Rome - 395 AD divided into two parts
• Eastern Roman Empire
– Byzantine Empire –
capital Constantinople
• Western Roman Empire
– Capital in Rome –
declined
Causes of the Fall of Rome
• Political
– Weak and corrupt
government
– No orderly way to
choose next emperor
– Assassinations
common
– Power went to
strongest general
• Economic
– Heavy taxation
– High unemployment
– Decline in trade
• Social
– Selfish attitude
– Lack of patriotism
– Had to rely on
mercenary armies of
non-Romans who only
went for spoils of war
• Rome fell to the
Ostrogoths (Germanic
Tribe)
– Led to blending of
Roman and Germanic
cultures
Middle Ages (500 – 1500 AD)
• Medieval - describes this
period of transition when
the people of Western
Europe attempted to
rebuild what had been
lost as a result of Rome’s
collapse.
I. Early Middle Ages (500 – 1000 AD) – Dark
Ages - problems
• Lack of strong central
government
– Chaos and constant
warfare
• Decline in Trade
– Roads deteriorated and
merchants were afraid to
travel
– Money ceased and people
bartered
– Cities and towns declined
because trade declined
• Decline in Formal Learning
– Warfare destroyed
libraries, schools and
museums
– Education was neglected to
concentrate on survival
• Christianity
– Kept learning alive through its
education system
• Byzantine Empire
– Became center of trade and culture
– Justinian’s Code
• Basis for legal system by recording
ideas before the law and
guarantee of legal rights
• Charlemagne (771 – 814 AD)
– King of Germanic tribe the
Franks
– Christian and spread his
beliefs through his
conquests
– United many tribes in
Europe
– After death many invaders
tried to take over his lands
• Feudal system developed
as means of restoring
order and insuring
protection against
invaders
II. Feudalism
• Political System
– Kings granted land ( a
fief) to nobles (lords
or vassals) in return
for loyalty and military
support
– No strong central
authority
– Lords made own laws
and controlled own
armies made up of
knights
• Economic System –
Manorialism
– System in which land,
rather than trade and
commerce, was the
major source of
wealth
– Replaced cities and
towns, entirely self
sufficient
• Social System
– Divided into classes
• Kings, lords, lesser
lords, knights,
peasants (or serfs)
and townspeople
– No social mobility
• Kings lords and
knights were noble
elites bound by code
of behavior known as
chivalry
• Only relief peasants
or serfs had was their
Christian promise of
heaven as a reward
for a good life
III. Medieval Church
• 1054 AD Christian
Church in Europe split
into two churches
– Eastern or Orthodox
• Became church of
Byzantine Empire
and Russia
– Roman Catholic
Church
• Dominant religious
institution in
Western Europe
• Roman Catholic Church
– Religious Function
• Place of refuge and hope
• Violate laws –
excommunicated
– Political Function
• Educated Church
leadership
• Took on many
responsibilities of
government
– Kept records of births,
marriages, deaths
– Made religious laws
– Claimed supremacy
over civil authority and
conflicts between
kings and lords
– Economic Function
• Important landowner in
Western Europe – tithe
– Social Function
• Maintained education
– First universities
– Cultural influences
in music, sculpture,
painting and
architecture –
Gothic cathedrals
IV. Late Middle Ages (1000 – 1500 AD)
• Catholic church
– Influence criticized
non-believers
– Anti-Semitism began
• Jews put in ghettos
• Muslims
– Considered enemies
of church
– Crusades (holy wars)
against Turks
• Cultural Diffusion
– Crusades resulted in
exchange of ideas when
contact with advanced
civilization of Muslim world
– People became curious
about the world around
them and renewed interest
in learning began
• Revival of Trade
– Demand for goods from
East
• Silk, spices perfumes
– Goods introduced by
returning Crusaders,
stimulated trade and
growth of cities
• Decline of Feudalism
– Money came back into use
and middle class of
merchants and craftsmen
developed
– Organized under guilds (they
regulated trade or crafts in
towns)
– Members of guilds became
rich and influential
– Shift from land to money
declined power of lords and
king’s dependence on lord
– Nation-states began with
strong kings that hired
armies provided by middle
class wealth
V. Renaissance (1350 – 1650 AD)
“rebirth” of culture and learning in western Europe
• Rediscovery of classical
civilization of Greece and
Rome
• Renewed interest in worldly or
secular matters
• Emphasis upon uniqueness
and worth of individual
• Began in Italy – 14th Century
– Milan and Florence grew
rich from trade
– Medici became a patron of
the arts – tombs - church
employed artists
• Humanism
– Focused on man and his
world
– Conflict with Church
• Accomplishments of
Renaissance
– Literature – began writing
in the vernacular (language
of the people)
• Machiavelli – The
Prince – promoted
ideas of “power politics
– “the end justifies the
means”
• Shakespeare
– Art – sculpture and
painting employed Greco –
Roman style and themes
(realistic approach rather
than two-dimensional style
of Middle Ages
• Leonardo da Vinci
– Mona Lisa
– Last Supper
• Michelangelo
– David
– Pieta
– Science – Scientific
Revolution
• Copernicus (1473 –
1543)
– Heliocentric theory – sun
center of universe with
mathematical formulas
• Galileo Galilei
– Telescope
– Against what church
taught and tried as
heretic (a Christian
that disagrees with
official Church
doctrine)
VI. Protestant Reformation (1517 – 1650)
• Challenged Roman
Catholic Church
• Objected to teachings of
church and attempted to
reform
• Martin Luther
– Indulgences
• Spread his ideas
through use of
printing Press
• Causes of Reformation
– The Renaissance
• Philosophy of
humanism
• Question church
authority
– Rise of nation-states
• Monarchs resented
pope’s power in their
countries
• Rise of nationalism
• More loyalty to king
than pope
– Economic
restrictions
• Ban on usury
• Middle class
wanted to lend
money since
they had
wealth –
resented tithe
– Worldliness and
corruption within
the church
• Crisis of faith
• Results of Reformation
– Formation of new Christian
religions
• Protestant
– denied authority of
pope and looked to
Bible as source of
truth
– John Calvin –
predestination and
the theory of the
elect
• All
predetermined
by God and
nothing can
change it
• Success of
middle class was
a sign of
salvation
– Henry VIII of
England
• Act of
Supremacy in
1543 - created
national religion
– The
Anglican
Church of
England
and English
monarch
was the
head
– Greater power for
civil authorities
• Church lost
power because of
split
• Religious
differences led to
warfare
• Protestant
England and
Catholic Spain
• Spanish Armada
– competed for
trade and rivalry
for power
– Counter Reformation
• Council of Trent –
ended sale of
indulgences
• The Index (list of
books condemned
by Church) was
created to stop antiChurch statements
VII. Age of Exploration and Colonization
(1450 – 1750)
• Desire to find new route to
riches of Asia
– Portugal
• Prince Henry the
Navigator (school for
sailors – went down
African coast)
• Bartholemeu Dias
(reached the Cape of
Good Hope)
• Vasco da Gama
(rounded cape and
reached India) – water
route safer and more
profitable than overland
– Spain
• Christopher
Columbus
• Ferdinand
Magellan
(first to
circumnavigate
the earth)
• Curiosity about the
world
– inspired by Crusades,
Renaissance, Marco
Polo
• Possible because of
compass, astrolabe,
gunpowder (safe to
venture outside borders)
• Establishment of Colonial
Empires – colonies –
effects of building empires
– Competition for colonies
led to war among
European powers
– Christianity spread
throughout world
– Ethnocentric attitude –
mistreatment of natives
(Mayas, Aztecs, Incas)
– Slave trade – violation of
human rights and
harmful effect on
development of African
civilizations
VIII. Age of Absolutism ( 1500 – 1789)
• Nearly all nations were ruled by
monarchs
• Nations were autocracies and leaders
were called absolute monarchs
• Theory of Divine
Right
– Justified their power
saying “The king is
from God and the
law is from the king”
– The people had no
rights
– King was above the
law and could rule
any way he wanted
to
• Louis XIV of France
– French people very
poor during this time
• spent money on
lavish parties
– Palace of Versailles
• Left debt, social
unrest that led to
French
Revolution
IX. Growth of Democracy in England
(step by step until limited constitutional monarchy was established)
• Magna Carta – King John
1215
– Limited power of king by
law, forcing him to consult
with Parliament in order to
raise taxes
• Puritan Revolution
– Stuart rulers attempted to rule as absolute
monarchs and disregard Parliament
– Civil war broke out and Puritan forces in
Parliament defeated Charles I armies and
executed king
– Republican form of government set up led by
Oliver Cromwell
• Limited monarchy restored after his death
• Glorious Revolution
– James II –
Catholic, believed
in divine rights of
kings
– Bloodiest
revolution and was
replaced by William
and Mary
(daughter) who
agreed to share
their power with the
people
– Ensured Anglican
kings in future and
limited powers
• English Bill of Rights
(1689)
– Placed further
limits on power of
king to tax and
make laws
– Listed basic civil
liberties
• Right to fair and
speedy trial by
jury
– Became model for
US
– From then on
monarch less
powerful and
eventually a
figurehead only
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Western & Eastern Europe