Essential Knowledge Questions 2009-2010 Essential Knowledge • • • • 1.Name the 3 types of scientists who study human origins. 2.What are artifacts? 3.Name 2 ways scientists may determine the age of artifacts/fossils. 4.How do fossils differ from artifacts? Essential Knowledge 5. Where would one find the Olduvai Gorge? 6. What is the significance of the Olduvai Gorge? 7. Who is the most famous anthropological family? 8. What is the name of the oldest, most complete hominid skeleton found to date? • 1. Essential Knowledge 9. What 2 time periods make up the Stone Age? 10. What important discovery preceded the New Stone Age? 11. Define Domestication. 12. What type of farming began during the New Stone Age? Essential Knowledge 13. What were the 1st 4 River Valley Civilizations? 14. What was the name of the earliest known civilization? 15. What is an independent city surrounded by farmland? 16. What is the earliest known written language? Essential Knowledge 17. Who was the World’s 1st Emperor? 18. Which Mesopotamian Civilization had Hammurabi as their greatest ruler? 19. What was Hammurabi’s greatest achievement? 20. True or False: All people were equal under Hammurabi’s Law Code? Essential Knowledge 21. What was the capital of the Assyrian empire? 22. What were the Assyrians best known for? 23. Who was the Assyrians’ best known leader? 24. What was Sennacherib best know for? Essential Knowledge 25. Who was the Chaldeans’ greatest ruler? 26. Which people did Nebuchadnezzar enslave? 27. What is Nebuchadnezzar famous for building? 28. In what science did the Chaldeans excel? Essential Knowledge 29. Who were the first to sail beyond the Strait of Gibraltar? 30. What was the Phoenician’s greatest contribution? 31. What was the Lydians’ greatest contribution? 32. What metal are the Hittites known for? Essential Knowledge 33. Which Persian Emperor was known for his tolerance? 34. Which Persian Emperor was known for conquering Egypt? 35. Which Persian Emperor built the Royal Road? 36. Which Persian Emperor’s defeat by the Greeks ended Persian expansion? Essential Knowledge 37. In what 2 ways did the Persians unify their empire? 38. Who was the Persian prophet who influenced their religion? 39. Who was the Persian god of good? 40. Who was the Persian god of evil? Essential Knowledge 41. Who is the founder of Judaism? 42. What is a promise between God & his people? 43. What is the real name of ‘Israel’? 44. What did Jacob’s sons & families form? Essential Knowledge 45. What is the Hebrew word for God? 46. Who ‘delivered’ the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt? 47. What is this process of leaving Egypt called? 48. What did Moses receive during the Exodus? Essential Knowledge 49. What city did David establish as the Jewish capital? 50. What name is given to the Jews forced slavery in Babylon? 51. What was written during the Exile? 52. What is the ‘scattering’ of Jews around the world? Essential Knowledge 53. What is considered the ‘Lifeblood’ of Egypt? • 54.Who united the kingdoms of Egypt? • 55.Define Theocracy. • 56.What enabled historians to decipher Hieroglyphics? • 57. Essential Knowledge Questions 57. What 2 mountain ranges protected the Indian Subcontinent from invasion? 58.What mountain pass did the Aryans use to migrate to the Indus River Valley? 59. What were the 2 major cities of the Harappan civilization? 60. What are the 2 most important rivers of the Indian civilization? Essential Knowledge Questions 61. What social class system did the Aryans introduce to India? 62. What are the Sacred writings of the Aryans and Hindus? 63. Which Indian text is a conversation between student and teacher? 64. Name the 2 famous Indian epics? Essential Knowledge Questions 65. What type of religion has one god who takes many forms? 66. What do we call the cycle of rebirth? 67. The actions people take in this life determine the next. What is this called? 68. What is the ultimate goal of a Hindu? Essential Knowledge Questions 69. Who was the founder of Buddhism? 70. What does Buddha mean? 71. What was Buddha’s answer as to why people suffer? 72. What 2 elements of Hinduism did Buddha reject? Essential Knowledge Questions 73. What religion spread from India to Asia during the Mauryan Empire? 74. How did the Mauryans improve medical care? 75. Which empire ushered in the Golden Age of India? 76. What mathematical concepts did the Guptas introduce? Essential Knowledge 77. What was the impact of China’s geography on its civilization? 78. What fabric did the Chinese introduce to the world? 79. What do the Chinese call the emperor’s divine right to rule? 80 Who was the 1st emperor of China? Essential Knowledge 81. What system of educated workers did the Han develop? 82. What new material did the Han invent for writing? 83. What is the term for Chinese peace? 84. List 4 inventions of the Tang dynasty. Essential Knowledge 85. Which Chinese philosophy emphasized politeness, respect for elders, & education? 86. Which Chinese philosophy focused on finding the balance in nature? 87. What symbol represents balance in both Chinese Philosophies? 88. What Indian religion had a great impact on China? Essential Knowledge 89. Who was considered a citizen in Ancient Greece? 90. List the 4 forms of government found in Athens before the development of Democracy. 91. Name the 2 men who tried to Reform Athenian government. 92.What type of government was found in Sparta? Essential Knowledge 93. Aeschylus, Sophocles, & Euripides were all famous Greek ________________. 94. Herodotus & Thucydides were famous Greek _______________. 95. Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle were Greek ________________. 96. Name the 3 column styles. Essential Questions 97. What do we call ‘representative democracy?’ 98. What were the 2 main classes of the Roman Republic? 99. Who were the 2 men who represented the Executive Branch in the Republic? 100. What name was given to the Roman law code? Essential Knowledge 101. What name was given to the wars between Rome & Carthage? 102. What sea trade were they hoping to control? 103. What was the name of the Carthaginian general who attacked the Apennine Peninsula? 104. Who was the victor of the Rome/Carthage wars? Essential Knowledge 105. Who was brought in to work the Latifundias? 106. How did slaves impact small farmers? 107. Who fought in Rome’s 1st Civil War? 108. What title was given to the man who ruled in time of crisis? Essential Knowledge 109. What is the term given to 3 men who rule simultaneously? 110. Who made up the 1st Triumvirate? 111. What river did Caesar cross to start a 2nd Civil War? 112. When was Caesar killed? Essential Knowledge 113. Who was the 1st Emperor of Rome? 114. In what battle did Octavian defeat Marc Antony? 115. What do we call the Roman time of peace & prosperity? 116. How did the Emperors attempt to ‘appease’ the people? Essential Knowledge 117. Who wrote the epic, Aeneid? 118. What are the 5 Romance languages? 119. What temple made use of the Roman architectural element of the dome? 120. Where were the 12 Tables displayed? Essential Knowledge 121. What is the Greek word for “Messiah?” 122. Where can we find the most biographical information about Jesus? 123. What do we call Jesus’ followers? 124. Which man is most responsible for the spread of Jesus’ teachings? Essential Knowledge 125. Which Roman Emperor ‘legitimized’ Christianity? 126. Which Emperor made Christianity the official religion of Rome? 127. Which document became the foundation of the Christian doctrine? 128. What term is used for someone willing to die for their faith? Essential Knowledge 129. Which Emperor DIVIDED the Roman Empire? 130. Which Emperor moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium? 131. What name was given to the many tribes who moved into the Roman Empire? 132. Which tribe settled in Gaul? Essential Knowledge 133. What former Roman city was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? 134. Who was the Byzantine Empire’s greatest ruler? 135. What was Justinian’s greatest achievement? 136. Name the church Justinian had built to represent Christianity & Royal power? Essential Knowledge 137. What do we call the first split in the Christian Church? 138. In what year did the split take place? 139. What is the term for religious images? 140. What alphabet was created to enable Slavs to read the Bible? Essential Knowledge 141. What 3 groups influenced the development of Russia? 142. What religion did Russia adopt? 143. What alphabet was created for the Slavs? 144. What title did the Russian emperors adopt? Essential Knowledge 145. Who was considered the ‘last & the greatest’ of the prophets? 146. What are God’s messages to Muhammad called? 147. What is the shrine in Mecca called? 148. What is the Arabic word for God? Essential Knowledge 149. What is Muhammad’s migration to Yathrib called? • 150.What name means, ‘city of the prophet?’ • 151.Term which means, ‘submission to the will of Allah.’ • 152.Term which means, ‘one who submits to the will of Allah.’ • 153. Essential Knowledge 153. List the 5 Pillars of Islam. 154. What do Muslims call the pilgrimage to Mecca? 155. During what month do Muslims fast? 156. Toward what city must Muslims pray? Essential Knowledge 157. What is the Islamic house of worship? 158. Who are the prayer leaders in the house of worship? 159. What is the name given to Islamic law? 160. Who do Muslims call the “People of the Book?” Essential Knowledge 161. What was the title given to the Islamic rulers? 162. What were the 1st 4 rulers after Muhammad called? 163. What were the 2 dynasties of the Islamic Empire? 164. After the split, what were the 2 divisions of the Islamic Religion? Essential Knowledge 165. Why were Muslims interested in Education? 166. What was the Muslims’ first ‘university’? 167. Match the following Muslims to their correct field of study: Al-Razi, Al-Khwarizmi, Ibn alHaythim (Medicine, Mathematics, Optics) 168. From where do the Arabic Numerals originate? Essential Knowledge 169. What is the art of beautiful handwriting? 170. Name India’s most classic form of Islamic architecture? 171. What art form, borrowed from the Byzantines, uses small pieces of tile/glass to create images? 172. What battle is credited with stopping the Muslim advance on Europe? Essential Knowledge 173. What 3 elements mixed together to form Western Europe during the Middle Ages? 174. What title was given to Charlemagne? 175. On what date was Charlemagne crowned? 176. What was the only institution which provided stability during the Dark Ages? Essential Knowledge 177. What is the term for a land grant? 178. What is the term for someone who pledges their allegiance to a Noble? 179. What word is a synonym for peasant? 180. What was the political system in Medieval Europe? The economic system? Essential Knowledge 181. What are religious communities for men? Women? • 182.Which Pope expanded the role of the papacy? • 183. What is the term for the king giving the symbols of the church to the bishops? • 184.What is term for bishops selling positions in the church? Essential Knowledge 185. Name the Pope who called for the first crusade? 186. What was the name of the territory founded by Crusaders in Palestine? 187. What Christian city was sacked by the Crusaders? 188. What is the name of the Muslim leader who defeated the Crusaders? Essential Knowledge 189. What is the name of the Spanish effort to drive out Muslims & Jews? 190. What is the name of the tribunal held to try & punish heretics? 191.True or False: Feudalism became stronger at the conclusion of the Crusades. 192. True or False: The Crusades resulted in the opening of trade between Europe & Asia. Essential Knowledge 193. What battle in 1066 resulted in a French duke ascending to the throne of England? 194. What type of English law developed during the reign of Henry II? 195. What legislative body allowed for citizens to participate in English government? 196. What document, signed by King John, limited the king’s power? Essential Knowledge 197. What dynasty replaced the Carolingian dynasty in France? 198. What city became the heart of the new French government? 199. What French legislative body was similar to England’s Parliament? 200. Which estate in France rose up to overthrow the French king? Essential Knowledge 201. In what event were the Moors expelled from Spain? 202. Which royal couple wanted a Christian kingdom in Spain? 203. What was the name of the Spanish navy. 204. Which European country failed to form a sustainable central government during the Middle Ages? Essential Knowledge 205. What 2 countries fought in the Hundred Years’ War? 206. What did both countries experience as a result of the War? 207. Who replaced the knights as the significant warriors in the Hundred Years’ War? 208. What woman is credited with turning the war in France’s favor? Essential Knowledge 209. What English Civil war was fought between the Houses of Lancaster & York? 210. What other name was given to the Bubonic Plague? 211. What fraction of Europe’s population was killed because of the Plague? 212. What 5 elements declined because of the plague? Essential Knowledge 217. What artist/scientist was considered to be the true ‘Renaissance Man?’ 218. What famous artist was commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel? 219. What writer was famous for his sonnets & was called the ‘Father of Humanism?’ 220. What philosophy focused on Human potential & achievement? Essential Knowledge 221. Who wrote the famous book The Prince? 222. The Prince was a study of government referred to as ___________ ___________. 223. In The Prince, Machiavelli advocated the use of ___________ by a ruler if necessary. 224. A word that best sums up Machiavelli’s advice is ___________. Essential Knowledge 225. Northern Renaissance writers combined the ideas of the Italian Renaissance with _______________. 226. What invention revolutionized the production of literature? 227. Who wrote the famous book Utopia? 228. Who wrote the famous book The Praise of Folly? Essential Knowledge 229. What trans-Saharan trade was important to the West African Kingdoms? 230. What religion found its way to West Africa through traders? 231. What East African kingdom traded with Asia? 232. What South African kingdom’s name means ‘Stone Enclosure?’ Essential Knowledge 233. Which 2 American civilizations were found in Mexico? 234. Along what mountain range did the Inca live? 235. What did the Inca have in common with the Roman & Persian Empires? 236. Besides record keeping, what did each civilization produce?