Essential Knowledge
Essential Knowledge
1.Name the 3 types of scientists who
study human origins.
2.What are artifacts?
3.Name 2 ways scientists may determine
the age of artifacts/fossils.
4.How do fossils differ from artifacts?
Essential Knowledge
5. Where would one find the Olduvai Gorge?
6. What is the significance of the Olduvai
7. Who is the most famous anthropological
8. What is the name of the oldest, most
complete hominid skeleton found to
• 1.
Essential Knowledge
9. What 2 time periods make up the Stone
10. What important discovery preceded the
New Stone Age?
11. Define Domestication.
12. What type of farming began during the
New Stone Age?
Essential Knowledge
13. What were the 1st 4 River Valley
14. What was the name of the earliest
known civilization?
15. What is an independent city surrounded
by farmland?
16. What is the earliest known written
Essential Knowledge
17. Who was the World’s 1st Emperor?
18. Which Mesopotamian Civilization had
Hammurabi as their greatest ruler?
19. What was Hammurabi’s greatest
20. True or False: All people were equal
under Hammurabi’s Law Code?
Essential Knowledge
21. What was the capital of the Assyrian
22. What were the Assyrians best known
23. Who was the Assyrians’ best known
24. What was Sennacherib best know for?
Essential Knowledge
25. Who was the Chaldeans’ greatest ruler?
26. Which people did Nebuchadnezzar
27. What is Nebuchadnezzar famous for
28. In what science did the Chaldeans
Essential Knowledge
29. Who were the first to sail beyond the
Strait of Gibraltar?
30. What was the Phoenician’s greatest
31. What was the Lydians’ greatest
32. What metal are the Hittites known for?
Essential Knowledge
33. Which Persian Emperor was known for
his tolerance?
34. Which Persian Emperor was known for
conquering Egypt?
35. Which Persian Emperor built the Royal
36. Which Persian Emperor’s defeat by the
Greeks ended Persian expansion?
Essential Knowledge
37. In what 2 ways did the Persians unify
their empire?
38. Who was the Persian prophet who
influenced their religion?
39. Who was the Persian god of good?
40. Who was the Persian god of evil?
Essential Knowledge
41. Who is the founder of Judaism?
42. What is a promise between God & his
43. What is the real name of ‘Israel’?
44. What did Jacob’s sons & families form?
Essential Knowledge
45. What is the Hebrew word for God?
46. Who ‘delivered’ the Hebrews from
slavery in Egypt?
47. What is this process of leaving Egypt
48. What did Moses receive during the
Essential Knowledge
49. What city did David establish as the
Jewish capital?
50. What name is given to the Jews forced
slavery in Babylon?
51. What was written during the Exile?
52. What is the ‘scattering’ of Jews around
the world?
Essential Knowledge
53. What is considered the ‘Lifeblood’ of
• 54.Who united the kingdoms of Egypt?
• 55.Define Theocracy.
• 56.What enabled historians to decipher
• 57.
Essential Knowledge Questions
57. What 2 mountain ranges protected the
Indian Subcontinent from invasion?
58.What mountain pass did the Aryans use
to migrate to the Indus River Valley?
59. What were the 2 major cities of the
Harappan civilization?
60. What are the 2 most important rivers of
the Indian civilization?
Essential Knowledge Questions
61. What social class system did the Aryans
introduce to India?
62. What are the Sacred writings of the
Aryans and Hindus?
63. Which Indian text is a conversation
between student and teacher?
64. Name the 2 famous Indian epics?
Essential Knowledge Questions
65. What type of religion has one god who
takes many forms?
66. What do we call the cycle of rebirth?
67. The actions people take in this life
determine the next. What is this called?
68. What is the ultimate goal of a Hindu?
Essential Knowledge Questions
69. Who was the founder of Buddhism?
70. What does Buddha mean?
71. What was Buddha’s answer as to why
people suffer?
72. What 2 elements of Hinduism did
Buddha reject?
Essential Knowledge Questions
73. What religion spread from India to Asia
during the Mauryan Empire?
74. How did the Mauryans improve medical
75. Which empire ushered in the Golden
Age of India?
76. What mathematical concepts did the
Guptas introduce?
Essential Knowledge
77. What was the impact of China’s
geography on its civilization?
78. What fabric did the Chinese introduce to
the world?
79. What do the Chinese call the emperor’s
divine right to rule?
80 Who was the 1st emperor of China?
Essential Knowledge
81. What system of educated workers did
the Han develop?
82. What new material did the Han invent for
83. What is the term for Chinese peace?
84. List 4 inventions of the Tang dynasty.
Essential Knowledge
85. Which Chinese philosophy emphasized
politeness, respect for elders, &
86. Which Chinese philosophy focused on
finding the balance in nature?
87. What symbol represents balance in both
Chinese Philosophies?
88. What Indian religion had a great impact
on China?
Essential Knowledge
89. Who was considered a citizen in Ancient
90. List the 4 forms of government found in
Athens before the development of
91. Name the 2 men who tried to Reform
Athenian government.
92.What type of government was found in
Essential Knowledge
93. Aeschylus, Sophocles, & Euripides were
all famous Greek ________________.
94. Herodotus & Thucydides were famous
Greek _______________.
95. Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle were Greek
96. Name the 3 column styles.
Essential Questions
97. What do we call ‘representative
98. What were the 2 main classes of the
Roman Republic?
99. Who were the 2 men who represented
the Executive Branch in the Republic?
100. What name was given to the Roman
law code?
Essential Knowledge
101. What name was given to the wars
between Rome & Carthage?
102. What sea trade were they hoping to
103. What was the name of the Carthaginian
general who attacked the Apennine
104. Who was the victor of the
Rome/Carthage wars?
Essential Knowledge
105. Who was brought in to work the
106. How did slaves impact small farmers?
107. Who fought in Rome’s 1st Civil War?
108. What title was given to the man who
ruled in time of crisis?
Essential Knowledge
109. What is the term given to 3 men who
rule simultaneously?
110. Who made up the 1st Triumvirate?
111. What river did Caesar cross to start a
2nd Civil War?
112. When was Caesar killed?
Essential Knowledge
113. Who was the 1st Emperor of Rome?
114. In what battle did Octavian defeat Marc
115. What do we call the Roman time of
peace & prosperity?
116. How did the Emperors attempt to
‘appease’ the people?
Essential Knowledge
117. Who wrote the epic, Aeneid?
118. What are the 5 Romance languages?
119. What temple made use of the Roman
architectural element of the dome?
120. Where were the 12 Tables displayed?
Essential Knowledge
121. What is the Greek word for “Messiah?”
122. Where can we find the most
biographical information about Jesus?
123. What do we call Jesus’ followers?
124. Which man is most responsible for the
spread of Jesus’ teachings?
Essential Knowledge
125. Which Roman Emperor ‘legitimized’
126. Which Emperor made Christianity the
official religion of Rome?
127. Which document became the
foundation of the Christian doctrine?
128. What term is used for someone willing
to die for their faith?
Essential Knowledge
129. Which Emperor DIVIDED the Roman
130. Which Emperor moved the capital from
Rome to Byzantium?
131. What name was given to the many
tribes who moved into the Roman Empire?
132. Which tribe settled in Gaul?
Essential Knowledge
133. What former Roman city was the
capital of the Byzantine Empire?
134. Who was the Byzantine Empire’s
greatest ruler?
135. What was Justinian’s greatest
136. Name the church Justinian had built to
represent Christianity & Royal power?
Essential Knowledge
137. What do we call the first split in the
Christian Church?
138. In what year did the split take place?
139. What is the term for religious images?
140. What alphabet was created to enable
Slavs to read the Bible?
Essential Knowledge
141. What 3 groups influenced the
development of Russia?
142. What religion did Russia adopt?
143. What alphabet was created for the
144. What title did the Russian emperors
Essential Knowledge
145. Who was considered the ‘last & the
greatest’ of the prophets?
146. What are God’s messages to
Muhammad called?
147. What is the shrine in Mecca called?
148. What is the Arabic word for God?
Essential Knowledge
149. What is Muhammad’s migration to
Yathrib called?
• 150.What name means, ‘city of the
• 151.Term which means, ‘submission to
the will of Allah.’
• 152.Term which means, ‘one who
submits to the will of Allah.’
• 153.
Essential Knowledge
153. List the 5 Pillars of Islam.
154. What do Muslims call the pilgrimage to
155. During what month do Muslims fast?
156. Toward what city must Muslims pray?
Essential Knowledge
157. What is the Islamic house of worship?
158. Who are the prayer leaders in the
house of worship?
159. What is the name given to Islamic law?
160. Who do Muslims call the “People of the
Essential Knowledge
161. What was the title given to the Islamic
162. What were the 1st 4 rulers after
Muhammad called?
163. What were the 2 dynasties of the
Islamic Empire?
164. After the split, what were the 2 divisions
of the Islamic Religion?
Essential Knowledge
165. Why were Muslims interested in Education?
166. What was the Muslims’ first ‘university’?
167. Match the following Muslims to their correct
field of study: Al-Razi, Al-Khwarizmi, Ibn alHaythim (Medicine, Mathematics, Optics)
168. From where do the Arabic Numerals
Essential Knowledge
169. What is the art of beautiful handwriting?
170. Name India’s most classic form of
Islamic architecture?
171. What art form, borrowed from the
Byzantines, uses small pieces of tile/glass
to create images?
172. What battle is credited with stopping
the Muslim advance on Europe?
Essential Knowledge
173. What 3 elements mixed together to
form Western Europe during the Middle
174. What title was given to Charlemagne?
175. On what date was Charlemagne
176. What was the only institution which
provided stability during the Dark Ages?
Essential Knowledge
177. What is the term for a land grant?
178. What is the term for someone who
pledges their allegiance to a Noble?
179. What word is a synonym for peasant?
180. What was the political system in
Medieval Europe? The economic system?
Essential Knowledge
181. What are religious communities for
men? Women?
• 182.Which Pope expanded the role of
the papacy?
• 183. What is the term for the king giving
the symbols of the church to the
• 184.What is term for bishops selling
positions in the church?
Essential Knowledge
185. Name the Pope who called for the first
186. What was the name of the territory
founded by Crusaders in Palestine?
187. What Christian city was sacked by the
188. What is the name of the Muslim leader
who defeated the Crusaders?
Essential Knowledge
189. What is the name of the Spanish effort to
drive out Muslims & Jews?
190. What is the name of the tribunal held to try &
punish heretics?
191.True or False: Feudalism became stronger at
the conclusion of the Crusades.
192. True or False: The Crusades resulted in the
opening of trade between Europe & Asia.
Essential Knowledge
193. What battle in 1066 resulted in a French duke
ascending to the throne of England?
194. What type of English law developed during
the reign of Henry II?
195. What legislative body allowed for citizens to
participate in English government?
196. What document, signed by King John, limited
the king’s power?
Essential Knowledge
197. What dynasty replaced the Carolingian
dynasty in France?
198. What city became the heart of the new
French government?
199. What French legislative body was
similar to England’s Parliament?
200. Which estate in France rose up to
overthrow the French king?
Essential Knowledge
201. In what event were the Moors expelled
from Spain?
202. Which royal couple wanted a Christian
kingdom in Spain?
203. What was the name of the Spanish
204. Which European country failed to form
a sustainable central government during
the Middle Ages?
Essential Knowledge
205. What 2 countries fought in the Hundred
Years’ War?
206. What did both countries experience as
a result of the War?
207. Who replaced the knights as the
significant warriors in the Hundred Years’
208. What woman is credited with turning
the war in France’s favor?
Essential Knowledge
209. What English Civil war was fought
between the Houses of Lancaster & York?
210. What other name was given to the
Bubonic Plague?
211. What fraction of Europe’s population
was killed because of the Plague?
212. What 5 elements declined because of
the plague?
Essential Knowledge
217. What artist/scientist was considered to be
the true ‘Renaissance Man?’
218. What famous artist was commissioned to
paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?
219. What writer was famous for his sonnets &
was called the ‘Father of Humanism?’
220. What philosophy focused on Human
potential & achievement?
Essential Knowledge
221. Who wrote the famous book The Prince?
222. The Prince was a study of government
referred to as ___________ ___________.
223. In The Prince, Machiavelli advocated the
use of ___________ by a ruler if necessary.
224. A word that best sums up Machiavelli’s
advice is ___________.
Essential Knowledge
225. Northern Renaissance writers
combined the ideas of the Italian
Renaissance with _______________.
226. What invention revolutionized the
production of literature?
227. Who wrote the famous book Utopia?
228. Who wrote the famous book The
Praise of Folly?
Essential Knowledge
229. What trans-Saharan trade was
important to the West African Kingdoms?
230. What religion found its way to West
Africa through traders?
231. What East African kingdom traded with
232. What South African kingdom’s name
means ‘Stone Enclosure?’
Essential Knowledge
233. Which 2 American civilizations were
found in Mexico?
234. Along what mountain range did the Inca
235. What did the Inca have in common with
the Roman & Persian Empires?
236. Besides record keeping, what did each
civilization produce?