North and South
Chapter 13
The North’s Economy
 Influenced greatly by technology and
 Mass Production became common and
soon factories would take over 2/3 of the
countries goods.
 Transportation was greatly improved.
 Steamboats were developed – they
carried both passengers and goods.
 Steam Locomotives would fail, but soon
after engineers would improve their
Machine belt…
The North cont…
 Railroads
 Between 1840-1860 rail roads would
gradually connect making a track uniting
the Midwest and the East.
 Railroads also played a role in
industrialization and settlement of the
Communication in the North
 The vast growth of industry called for
a faster method of communication.
 The telegraph, which transports electrical
signals, filled that need.
 Soon Morse code, a series of dots and
dashes that represent letters of the
alphabet, was developed.
 Finally a faster version of the printing
press was developed to spread the news.
Farming in the North
 Not only were the factories improved,
but so were the farms of the North.
 Various heavy-duty farming machines
were developed to stand up to the tough
soil of the prairies.
 Cash Crops, selling part of your crop for
cash, now became a much bigger idea.
 With the development in transportation
farmers were able to sell their crops to
more distant locations.
The People of the North
 With the development of factory
systems the conditions inside
 Workers worked longer hours, accidents
became more common, machinery in
factories was unstable, factories were at
uncomfortable temperatures, wages
were low.
 In 1830’s the workers began to organize
against these conditions.
Greater attempts to organize
 With the fear of factory growth Trade
Unions, organization of workers with the
same trade or skill, began to form.
 Unskilled workers, those who did not have
a particular “talent” also banned together in
an effort to fight working conditions.
 In New York skilled workers would go on
strike, however it was not legal to strike in
all states.
African American Workers
 Although slavery was mostly gone
from the North discrimination was
 Free African Americans generally were
not allowed to vote, attend public
schools, and obtain the same jobs as
 They took the lowest paying jobs there
were to offer.
Women Workers
 Employers also discriminated against
women workers.
 They were paid less than men were for
the same exact job.
 They were excluded from many unions.
 Some women would form together to
make their own union.
 Many early efforts of women to gain
equality in the work place were failed.
Immigrants in the North
 Between 1840-1860 there was a
large tide of Immigrants who flooded
the cities of the North who worked for
long hours and low pay.
 The largest group of Immigrants at this
time came from Ireland, because a
potato famine caused many to leave
their homes for America.
 The second largest group was the
German immigrants.
Immigrants changing the nation
 These immigrants changed the character of
the united States.
 They brought their languages, religion, customs
and ways of life with them.
 Many Catholic immigrants came in with the new
flow – not many had taken residence in the
North yet.
 However, some Americans believed that the
immigrants were changing the character of the
United States too much.
 The Immigrants too would face discrimination
and prejudice.
The South Land/Economy
 Cotton crop had grown large and soon
became the leading crop.
 Cotton –This was the “King” and the main topic
of conversation in the south.
 The leading crop was revolutionized with the
invention of the cotton gin.
 The removal of the Native Americans from the
southeast allowed for the cotton crops to
 The demand for cotton in Great Britain kept the
cotton fields filled and flowing.
Industry? I think not!
 Although industry was flourishing in
the North the South stayed mainly
 The south’s economy became
increasingly different from the north’s
 One reason was the boom of cotton sales
and growth.
 Another reason was because southerners
had their money in land and slaves, there
was not much left to put towards industry.
The South…
 Some factories did open based on the
fear that the South might become too
dependent on the North for
manufactured goods.
 The transportation grew slowly
 Their railways were short and slow
The South’s People
 Small farmers who did not own slaves
made up a majority of the white, male
 They owned and farmed their own land.
 Not all southern whites owned their own
 Tenant farmers were farmers that rented or
worked someone else's land.
 Large Plantation owners generally lived
comfortably in large farm homes.
 They generally measured their wealth by the
number of slaves they owned.
The South’s People
 The Women Plantation wives were generally in charge of
watching over the enslaved people.
 The African Americans They faced many tough days.
 They had to worry about being sold and
separated from their loved ones.
 They had to endure misery and pain.
 They worked long hard hours in various weather
 They were ALWAYS busy doing hard labor,
women and children included.
The South’s People cont…
 Some Slaves resisted The Slaves would rebel against their
 They fought against the poor treatment and
harsh work they were forced to do.
 The cities in the south were populated
with a variety of different people.
 Free African Americans
 White city dwellers
 Some enslaved workers

North and South