Urban America
1865-1896
• Section 1: Immigration
• Section 2: Urbanization
• Section 3: The Gilded Age
• Section 4: The Rebirth of Reform
• Standards: 2.1, 2.5, 2.7, 2.9, 2.10, 3.2
Section 1: Immigration
Why did Europeans come to the U.S.?
Push Factors
Farm poverty and worker uncertainty
Wars and conscription
Political tyranny
Religious oppression
Pull Factors
Plenty of land and work
Higher standard of living
Democratic political system
Opportunity for social advancement
The Atlantic Voyage
• Steerage: the cheapest and basic way to
travel on a steamship
• Arrived at Ellis Island
– K= hernia
– X= mental disabilities
– H= heart problems
– Sc= scalp problems
• “Old” Immigrants: Northern & Western
Europe
• “New” Immigrants: Southern & Eastern
Europe
Ethnic Cities
• Jacob Riis
– Journalist called population map of NYC striped
like a zebra
• Ghetto: a section of a city occupied by a minority
group who live there because of social,
economic, or legal pressure
• Jewish immigrants
– Lower East Side
• Italian immigrants
– Little Italy
• A place to continue their languages,
religious, clubs, newspapers
Angel Island
• Chinese Immigrants
– Taiping Rebellion
– Central Pacific Railroad
• Japanese Immigrants
– Economic hardships
• Over 200,000 Chinese and Japanese
immigrants arrived on the West Coast
during the late 1800s
Resurgence of Nativism
– Nativism: extreme dislike for immigrants by nativeborn people and a desire to limit immigration
• Prejudice Against Newcomers
– Prejudice: an adverse judgment or opinion formed
beforehand without knowledge of the facts; an
irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group,
race or religion
– Discrimination: Treatment or consideration based
on class or category rather than individual merit;
partiality or prejudice
– American Protective Association
• Henry Bowers
– Anti-Catholic & Foreigners
– Wanted to stop all immigration
• Impact on the Anti-Immigrant Movement
– Workingman’s Party of California
• Dennis Kearney
– Fighting Chinese immigration
– Chinese Exclusion Act
• Barred Chinese immigration for 10 years
• Barred Chinese immigrants already in the
country from becoming citizens
• Even after Chinese protests became a
permanent act in 1902
• Act was repealed in 1943
Section 2: Urbanization
• Americans Migrate to the Cities
• The New Urban Environment
– Skyscrapers
• Louis Sullivan
– Mass Transit
• Frank J. Sprague
• Separation by Class
– High Society
– Middle-Class Gentility
– The Working Class
• Tenements
– Average annual income $445.00
• Urban Problems
– How the Other Half Lives, Jacob Riis
• Saloons “breed poverty”, corruption of politics,
bringing suffering to women and children
– Typhoid Fever
• Urban Politics
– The Political Machine and the Party Boss
• George Plunkitt, NYC’s most powerful party
boss
– Graft and Fraud
• Graft: getting money through dishonest or
questionable means
– Tammany Hall
• William M. “Boss” Tweed
The Gilded Age
• A Changing Culture
• Gilded Age
– Mark Twain and Charles Wagner
– The Idea of Individualism
– Horatio Alger
• Brave and Bold
• Rags to Riches stories
• Social Darwinism:
– Herbert Spencer
• Survival of the fittest
– Darwinism and the Church
• Rejection of “creation”
• Rejection of “evolution”
– Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth
• Gospel of Wealth, philosophy
• Philanthropy: providing money to support
humanitarian or social goals
• Realism
– Realism in Art
• Thomas Eakins, painter of everything
– Realism of Literature
• William Dean Howells
– The Rise of Silas Lapham
• Mark Twain
– Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
• Henry James
– Portrait of a Lady
• Edith Wharton
– The Age of Innocence
» Pulitzer Prize
• Popular Culture
– The Saloon
• “Free Lunch”
– Amusement Parks and Sports
• Coney Island
– Vaudeville and Ragtime
• vaudeville
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Animal acts
Acrobats
Gymnasts
Dancers
And more…
• Ragtime
– Scott Joplin
» “King of Ragtime”
» Signature piece “The Maple Leaf Rag”
Section 4: The Rebirth of Reform
• Social Criticism
• Disagreements
– Individualism
– Social Darwinism
– Henry George on Progress and Poverty
• Land is basis of wealth
– Reform Darwinism
• Lester Frank Ward
– Dynamic Sociology
– Looking Backward
• Edward Bellamy
– Perfect society
• Naturalism in Literature
• Stephen Crane, Maggie, A Girl of the Streets
– Story of prostitution and death
• Frank Norris, McTeague
– Story of a dentist and his wife driven mad by greed
and violence
• Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie
– Sin without punishment
– Pursuit of wealth and power destroyed character
• Helping the Urban Poor
– The Social Gospel
• Washington Gladden, minister
– “Christian law” to fix problems
• Walter Rauschenbusch
– Baptist minister
– The Salvation Army and the YMCA
• Salvation Army- William Booth
• Young Men’s Christian Association
– Revivalism and Dwight L. Moody
• President of Chicago’s YMCA
• Moody Memorial Church
• The Settlement House Movement
– Jane Addams
• Hull House, Chicago, Illinois
– Lillian Wald
• Henry Street Settlement House, New York City
• Still runs today under the name “Visiting
Nurses Association”
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Medical care
Recreation programs
English classes
Hot lunches
• Public Education
– The Spread of Schools
• Americanization of Immigrants
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English language
American history
Citizenship
Discipline
Work ethic
National values
• African Americans
– Limited educational opportunities
– Booker T. Washington
» Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 1881
– Education for the workplace
• Assimilation: absorbing a group into the culture of
a larger population
• Job preparation
• Grammar School
– Timely attendance
– Neatness
– Efficiency
• Vocational and technical education in high
schools
– Expanding Higher Education
• Morrill Land Grant
– Agricultural and mechanical colleges
– Women’s colleges: Vassar, Wellesley, Smith
– Public Libraries
• Andrew Carnegie
Review Questions:
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Where did the immigrants come from?
Why did labor unions oppose immigration?
What was the most common form of “mass transit”?
Who lived in the streetcar suburbs?
Who was William Tweed?
Who believed that those who are more fortunate should assist
those who are not?
In the cities, what functioned as a community and political
center for men?
What helped immigrants adjust to American life?
Where did the immigrants come into the U.S.?
What is nativism?
Why do we have subways?
What was Tammany Hall?
What is graft?
What is individualism?
What was the first baseball team to be salaried?
What is “survival of the fittest”? What is the name of the
philosophy connected with it?
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Chapter 15- Urban America 1865-1896