Chapter 14
Immigration and Urbanization
1. The New Immigrants
• Early immigrants had been primarily protestant
•
(Germany); Catholics from Ireland learned to
speak English and assimilated; many settled on
farms
“New Immigrants” – 1870’s from southern and
eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia,
Hungary) in massive numbers
– Unskilled, Catholic, Jewish, poor, settled in cities
– New cultures and languages
Immigrant Experience
• Long journey, could only take essentials, tickets were
•
•
•
expensive
Most traveled steerage (worst accommodations – lower
decks, not private)
Filthy, disease, crowded
Processing in American ports
–
–
–
–
Requirements: Healthy, money ($20), skill
After 1892 – Ellis Island, NY
Wealthier passengers processed on board
Chinese processed at Angel Island, San Francisco
• Had to prove they had relatives; often held for weeks
http://www.history.com/videos/ellis-islandregistering-as-an-american-citizen
http://www.history.com/videos/immigrants
-detained-at-ellis-island
http://www.history.com/videos/passingthe-medical-inspection-at-ellis-island
http://www.history.com/videos/immigrants
-reunited-with-loved-ones
http://www.history.com/videos/ellisislands-dark-underbelly-in-pictures
Immigrant Experience cont.
•
•
•
•
•
•
New language, new culture
Those without family had a difficult time
Had to decide where to live and what to do
Lived in ethnic neighborhoods together
Exclusionary but also felt familiar
Americanization programs – helped them learn
language, adapt to U.S. way of life
• “Melting Pot” theory
• Children generally assimilated better than first
generation and felt more “American”
• Older generation clung to religion, heritage, families
Immigrant Experience
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hostility due to competition for jobs
Nativism – native-born were superior
Religion – major source of hostility
Chinese Exclusion Act – restricted numbers
Exclusions for those who were immoral,
criminals, paupers
BUT – fueled industrial growth, made their
traditions part of America, provided massive
labor supply, helped U.S. become a world power
Chinatown
2. Cities Expand and Change
• Urbanization
• Advantages
– Many opportunities, products, services, education,
jobs
• Disadvantages
– Tenements (low cost family housing), slums, no
heat/air, poor sanitation, no water, sewage, fires,
crime , conflict (gangs)
– Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives
– http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-ofus/videos/jacob-riis
Improvements in the Cities
• Skyscrapers made of steel
• Safety elevator that wouldn’t fall if the rope
•
•
broke (Elisha Otis)
Electricity powers mass transit – trains,
commuter rails, cable cars, underground
railways (subways) in Boston and NY
City Planners control growth
– Architectural standards, parks and recreation areas
reserved
3. Social and Cultural Trends
• Gilded Age – era of wealth, new products,
•
•
•
•
•
markets, growing middle class, shopping, sports
Consumerism expands greatly
Advertising attracts customers
“Department” stores emerge (Macy’s, Marshall
Field, Jordan Marsh)
Mail order catalogs (Sears)
Overall higher standard of living
– Began to get indoor plumbing, appliances, prepackaged food
Mass Culture
• Consumption patterns became similar – clothing
•
styles, gadgets, food preferences – mass culture
Widespread newspaper circulation
– Joseph Pulitzer – sensational stories of corruption,
politics, sports – designed to sell papers
– William Randolph Hearst – competed with Pulitzer,
papers became even more sensationalized
• Literature – Mark Twain, Horatio Alger (succeed
by hard work), Stephen Crane
Mass Culture cont.
• Education – growth of public schools, kindergartens,
•
•
•
•
literacy rate climbed, some women’s colleges
Entertainment – amusement parks (Coney island)
and first roller coasters, parks for city laborers
(Central Park)
Outdoor events – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show,
Annie Oakley – riding, roping, rodeos
Vaudeville – medley of drama, songs, off-color
comedy
Movie theatres – The Great Train Robbery – first
movie, nickelodeons – charged one nickel!
Mass Culture cont.
• Expos and exhibitions
• Sports drew thousands, especially baseball
(Fenway Park); baseball organizes into a
business (NL), “Coloured League”
• Horse racing, bicycle racing, boxing,
football, basketball invented by George
Naismith
• Sports heroes emerged
Descargar

Chapter 14