1880 - 1920
Old Immigrants 1800 - 1880
• 10 million
• Came from Northern and Western Europe
• U.K. Netherlands, German States, Sweden,
• Protestant Christians
• Came to U.S. = to have a voice in
government, escape political turmoil, for
religious freedom
• Irish came to escape poverty and starvation
Old Immigrants cont
• Chinese arrive in 1840 - 1850, 25,000
seeking gold
• Later build railroads, found employment as
farmers, miners, domestic servants
New Immigrants 1880 - 1910
• 18 million
• Came from Southern and Eastern Europe
• Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish,
Russian, Slovak
• Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Jews,
Arab, Armenian
• Majority came to seek religious freedom
• Some came because of poverty, and economic
Trip to America
• 1st approved by ships captain
• Had to have $30 cash
• Paperwork stating they were never in
prison, poorhouse, or mental institution
• Medical Exam
• Most traveled in steerage
Ellis Island
• Located: New York harbor
• 20% of people entering Island were
detained and questioned further.
• 2% of those entering were sent home
• Sent away because of crimes, health,
literacy, or money
• From 1892-1924; 17 million people
passed through Ellis Island
Angel Island
• Located: In San Francisco Bay
• Not as nice as Ellis Island and rules
were more strict, conditions were less
sanitary, and people less friendly
• 1910-1940; 50,000 immigrants entered
the U.S.
Sticking together
• Immigrants flock to communities where
their culture is represented
• Settled for low paying jobs
• Form churches
• Benevolent societies created to helped
immigrants obtain jobs, health care, or
• Nativism: overt favoritism toward
native-born Americans.
• They want them to go back because
they take jobs from native born
Nativists continued
• Restriction League: Stated people from
British, German and Scandinavia were
• Stated people from Slav, Latin, and Asia
were unacceptable.
• Stated that Protestant was the superior
religion and Roman Catholic and Jewish
people were corrupting America.
Nativists organize
• Denis Kearney in 1870 starts the
Workingmen’s Party
• Unemployed workers organize to not allow
Chinese immigrants to work in California
• California state constitution in 1879
prohibited Chinese from holding a state job
• And Chinese could be banned from
communities and districts
Hatred of Foreigners
• Anti-Asian Sentiment formed because
they would work for lower wages.
• Chinese Exclusion Act: Act banned
entry to all Chinese except students,
teacher and merchants, tourists, and
government officials. 1882 starts and
ends in 1942.
Japanese limitations
• Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japanese
agreed to limit immigration of
unskilled workers to the U.S. in
exchange for the repeal of the below
• San Francisco Segregation Act: all
Japanese students were put in their
own schools.
New Tests
• 1917 Congress passes a literacy test act.
• All immigrants must pass a literacy test
before entering the U.S.
Being Accepted
• Americanization movement:
Citizens and government want
immigrants to learn English, American
History, Government, Cooking, and
Social Etiquette.
New Make-up of U.S.
• Melting Pot: a mixture of people of
different cultures and races who
blended together by abandoning their
native languages and cultures.
• Many Immigrants did not want to give
up their cultures to fit in.
Change in Cities
• Elisha
Otis Builds the
Urban Problem
• Tenements: multifamily urban dwellings.
• Mass Transit: trains, street cars; cities could
not keep them repaired.
• Safe drinking water was a problem
• Few buildings had indoor plumbing.
• Bad Sanitation
• High Crime
• Fires
• Social Gospel Movement: salvation
through service to the poor.
• Formed settlement houses; or homes
for the poor.
• Run by middle-class college educated
Jane Addams
• Hull House 1889
in Chicago.
• 1910; 400
settlement houses
were across the
Political Machine
• Organized group that controlled the
activities of a political party.
• Offered services to voters and
businesses in exchange for financial
and political support.
Political Machine
Ward Boss
Local Prescient Workers
Immigrant Voters Fuel the Political Machine
Control of
Political Machine Parts
• Top Level = City boss was at the top;
controlled the activities of the political
party in a city.
• Middle Level = Ward boss gain votes by
providing services.
• Bottom Level = local precinct workers and
captains who tried to gain voters support on
a city block or neighborhood and reported
to a ward boss.
Parts continued
• 3 levels worked together to elect their
candidates “Political Candidate” and
guarantee the success of their machine.
• Bosses could gain money and power.
• Immigrants were granted help with
citizenship in exchange for votes.
Ways to use the machine
• Graft = illegal use of political influence
for personal gain
• Workers would bill the city for more
than the actual cost of the job and the
leaders would get a kick back.
Boss Tweed
• William M. Tweed
• Head of Political
Machine named
Tammany Hall, New
York City
• Democratic party
Tweed Scandal
• Build New York
Courthouse for $13
million but it only
cost $3 million.
• Tweed and his men
got the other $10
• Bribed Politicians,
Judges, Police, and
Thomas Nast
• A political
cartoonist for
Harpers Weekly
newspaper broke
the story of Tweeds
Tweed Scandal
• Tweed offered Nast $5 million not to publish the
corrupting material.
• Offered $500,000 to stop printing political
cartoons against him.
• 1871 Tweed is charged with 120 counts of fraud
and extortion.
• Sentenced to 12 years, got out in 1.
• Sentenced to a second but escaped.
• Captured in Spain in 1878 and died in jail.
Job Allocation
• Patronage: giving of government jobs to
people who had helped a candidate get
• Civil Service: jobs should go to the most
qualified person.
• Pendleton Civil Service Act: a
commission is set up to give out federal
jobs to those who are best qualified.
Grant Scandals
• Crédit Mobilier construction company set
up by Union Pacific Railroad
• It was to build part of the Transcontinental
• They charged $23 Mil more than necessary
• Gave stock to members of congress and the
Vice Pres Schuyler Colfax
• Rutherford B. Hayes went
though New York and fired
corrupt customhouse
• Executive order issued stating
government employees could
not manage political parties
or campaigns.
• Roscoe Conkling a New
York Senator hated this and
organized his group the
Stalwarts to help find a new
president in 1880.
Presidential Reform Cont.
• James A. Garfield is the
Republican nominee and
Chester A. Arthur is his
Vice Pres, a Conkling
• July 2 1881 President
Garfield is shot by
Charles Guiteau, and
dies September 19th.
• Chester A. Arthur
changes and starts to
Populist Party
Party for the People
Called for income tax
Bank Regulation
Government ownership of the R&R and
telegraph companies
• Free unlimited coinage of silver
• Bimetallism = use of gold and silver to back
paper money.
• Farmers prices for crops were falling
• Farmers barrow money to buy new
equipment to plant more
• Prices drop further because of over
• Farmers also pay large rates to R&R to ship
• Causing farmers to not pay back loans
National Grange
• Farmers organize to help each other
• 1st organization was the Order of Patrons of
Husbandry or National Grange
• Oliver Hudson Kelly in 1867
• Fought against R&R high rates
Farmers Alliance
• Lobbied for banking reform and regulation
of R&R rates
• Helped farmers buy equipment
• Helped farmers sell goods at market
• Wanted government to print more money “
thought more money would inflate the price
of goods”
• Munn v. Illinois = state legislatures did have
the right to regulate businesses that involved
the public interest
• Wabash v. Illinois = federal government had
power to regulate R&R traffic moving across
state boundaries
• Interstate Commerce Act 1887 made railroad
rates fair for all customers also created the ICC
to enforce the laws
Panic of 1893
• R&R companies failed
• Investors pull out of stock market and
businesses collapsed
• 3 million people lost jobs
• Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 =
required U.S. to pay for silver with paper
money redeemable in either gold or silver.
New silver is found making silver worthless
Election of 1896
• William Jennings Bryan =
• William McKinley = Rep
• Bryan wanted unlimited
coinage of silver to put
more money in circulation.
• McKinley wanted only
paper money backed by
Election of 1896
• William McKinley wins
• The Gold Standard
would allow only as
much money in
circulation as gold in
the treasury to back it
• Reduced the number of
paper dollars in
• Poll Tax = Pay to vote and pass a literacy test
• Grandfather Clause = men could vote if their
father or grandfather had been eligible to vote
before Jan 1, 1867.
• Jim Crow Laws = laws to enforce segregation
in the south which created separate facilities for
blacks and whites.
• Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 = Native
American citizenship
• Plessy v. Ferguson = “separate but equal” is
• Racial etiquette = blacks were supposed to
know their place and defer to whites in every
• Lynching = racial hanging or murder
• Debt peonage = workers were tied to their
jobs until they could pay off their debts.
Black Leaders
• Booker T. Washington
• Created Tuskegee
Institute in Alabama =
technical school
• Thought blacks would
prosper through farming
and vocational skills
Black Leaders
W.E.B. Du Bois
Created NAACP
Harvard trained
Niagara Movement =
protested discrimination
• Though blacks should be
well educated
• Blacks should be uplifted
by their most educated

Immigration - Riverdale High School