Immigration
1880 - 1920
Old Immigrants 1800 - 1880
• 10 million
• Came from Northern and Western Europe
• U.K. Netherlands, German States, Sweden,
Norway
• Protestant Christians
• Came to U.S. = to have a voice in
government, escape political turmoil, for
religious freedom
• Irish came to escape poverty and starvation
Old Immigrants cont
• Chinese arrive in 1840 - 1850, 25,000
seeking gold
• Later build railroads, found employment as
farmers, miners, domestic servants
New Immigrants 1880 - 1910
• 18 million
• Came from Southern and Eastern Europe
• Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish,
Russian, Slovak
• Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Jews,
Arab, Armenian
• Majority came to seek religious freedom
• Some came because of poverty, and economic
opportunities
Trip to America
• 1st approved by ships captain
• Had to have $30 cash
• Paperwork stating they were never in
prison, poorhouse, or mental institution
• Medical Exam
• Most traveled in steerage
Ellis Island
• Located: New York harbor
• 20% of people entering Island were
detained and questioned further.
• 2% of those entering were sent home
• Sent away because of crimes, health,
literacy, or money
• From 1892-1924; 17 million people
passed through Ellis Island
Angel Island
• Located: In San Francisco Bay
• Not as nice as Ellis Island and rules
were more strict, conditions were less
sanitary, and people less friendly
• 1910-1940; 50,000 immigrants entered
the U.S.
Sticking together
• Immigrants flock to communities where
their culture is represented
• Settled for low paying jobs
• Form churches
• Benevolent societies created to helped
immigrants obtain jobs, health care, or
education.
Nativists
• Nativism: overt favoritism toward
native-born Americans.
• They want them to go back because
they take jobs from native born
Americans
Nativists continued
• Restriction League: Stated people from
British, German and Scandinavia were
acceptable.
• Stated people from Slav, Latin, and Asia
were unacceptable.
• Stated that Protestant was the superior
religion and Roman Catholic and Jewish
people were corrupting America.
Nativists organize
• Denis Kearney in 1870 starts the
Workingmen’s Party
• Unemployed workers organize to not allow
Chinese immigrants to work in California
• California state constitution in 1879
prohibited Chinese from holding a state job
• And Chinese could be banned from
communities and districts
Hatred of Foreigners
• Anti-Asian Sentiment formed because
they would work for lower wages.
• Chinese Exclusion Act: Act banned
entry to all Chinese except students,
teacher and merchants, tourists, and
government officials. 1882 starts and
ends in 1942.
Japanese limitations
• Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japanese
agreed to limit immigration of
unskilled workers to the U.S. in
exchange for the repeal of the below
Act.
• San Francisco Segregation Act: all
Japanese students were put in their
own schools.
New Tests
• 1917 Congress passes a literacy test act.
• All immigrants must pass a literacy test
before entering the U.S.
Being Accepted
• Americanization movement:
Citizens and government want
immigrants to learn English, American
History, Government, Cooking, and
Social Etiquette.
New Make-up of U.S.
• Melting Pot: a mixture of people of
different cultures and races who
blended together by abandoning their
native languages and cultures.
• Many Immigrants did not want to give
up their cultures to fit in.
Change in Cities
• Elisha
Otis Builds the
safety
elevator
Urban Problem
• Tenements: multifamily urban dwellings.
• Mass Transit: trains, street cars; cities could
not keep them repaired.
• Safe drinking water was a problem
• Few buildings had indoor plumbing.
• Bad Sanitation
• High Crime
• Fires
Reform
• Social Gospel Movement: salvation
through service to the poor.
• Formed settlement houses; or homes
for the poor.
• Run by middle-class college educated
women.
Jane Addams
• Hull House 1889
in Chicago.
• 1910; 400
settlement houses
were across the
country.
Political Machine
• Organized group that controlled the
activities of a political party.
• Offered services to voters and
businesses in exchange for financial
and political support.
Political Machine
City
Boss
=
Ward Boss
Local Prescient Workers
Immigrant Voters Fuel the Political Machine
Control of
Political
Candidate
Or
Political
Party
Political Machine Parts
• Top Level = City boss was at the top;
controlled the activities of the political
party in a city.
• Middle Level = Ward boss gain votes by
providing services.
• Bottom Level = local precinct workers and
captains who tried to gain voters support on
a city block or neighborhood and reported
to a ward boss.
Parts continued
• 3 levels worked together to elect their
candidates “Political Candidate” and
guarantee the success of their machine.
• Bosses could gain money and power.
• Immigrants were granted help with
citizenship in exchange for votes.
Ways to use the machine
• Graft = illegal use of political influence
for personal gain
• Workers would bill the city for more
than the actual cost of the job and the
leaders would get a kick back.
Boss Tweed
• William M. Tweed
• Head of Political
Machine named
Tammany Hall, New
York City
• Democratic party
Tweed Scandal
• Build New York
Courthouse for $13
million but it only
cost $3 million.
• Tweed and his men
got the other $10
million
• Bribed Politicians,
Judges, Police, and
Citizens
Thomas Nast
• A political
cartoonist for
Harpers Weekly
newspaper broke
the story of Tweeds
corruption.
Tweed Scandal
• Tweed offered Nast $5 million not to publish the
corrupting material.
• Offered $500,000 to stop printing political
cartoons against him.
• 1871 Tweed is charged with 120 counts of fraud
and extortion.
• Sentenced to 12 years, got out in 1.
• Sentenced to a second but escaped.
• Captured in Spain in 1878 and died in jail.
Job Allocation
• Patronage: giving of government jobs to
people who had helped a candidate get
elected.
• Civil Service: jobs should go to the most
qualified person.
• Pendleton Civil Service Act: a
commission is set up to give out federal
jobs to those who are best qualified.
Grant Scandals
• Crédit Mobilier construction company set
up by Union Pacific Railroad
• It was to build part of the Transcontinental
R&R
• They charged $23 Mil more than necessary
• Gave stock to members of congress and the
Vice Pres Schuyler Colfax
Presidential
Reform
• Rutherford B. Hayes went
though New York and fired
corrupt customhouse
workers.
• Executive order issued stating
government employees could
not manage political parties
or campaigns.
• Roscoe Conkling a New
York Senator hated this and
organized his group the
Stalwarts to help find a new
president in 1880.
Presidential Reform Cont.
• James A. Garfield is the
Republican nominee and
Chester A. Arthur is his
Vice Pres, a Conkling
supporter.
• July 2 1881 President
Garfield is shot by
Charles Guiteau, and
dies September 19th.
• Chester A. Arthur
changes and starts to
Reform.
Populist Party
•
•
•
•
Party for the People
Called for income tax
Bank Regulation
Government ownership of the R&R and
telegraph companies
• Free unlimited coinage of silver
• Bimetallism = use of gold and silver to back
paper money.
Farmers
• Farmers prices for crops were falling
• Farmers barrow money to buy new
equipment to plant more
• Prices drop further because of over
production
• Farmers also pay large rates to R&R to ship
goods
• Causing farmers to not pay back loans
National Grange
• Farmers organize to help each other
• 1st organization was the Order of Patrons of
Husbandry or National Grange
• Oliver Hudson Kelly in 1867
• Fought against R&R high rates
Farmers Alliance
• Lobbied for banking reform and regulation
of R&R rates
• Helped farmers buy equipment
• Helped farmers sell goods at market
• Wanted government to print more money “
thought more money would inflate the price
of goods”
Laws
• Munn v. Illinois = state legislatures did have
the right to regulate businesses that involved
the public interest
• Wabash v. Illinois = federal government had
power to regulate R&R traffic moving across
state boundaries
• Interstate Commerce Act 1887 made railroad
rates fair for all customers also created the ICC
to enforce the laws
Panic of 1893
• R&R companies failed
• Investors pull out of stock market and
businesses collapsed
• 3 million people lost jobs
• Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 =
required U.S. to pay for silver with paper
money redeemable in either gold or silver.
New silver is found making silver worthless
Election of 1896
• William Jennings Bryan =
Dem/Populist
• William McKinley = Rep
• Bryan wanted unlimited
coinage of silver to put
more money in circulation.
• McKinley wanted only
paper money backed by
gold.
Election of 1896
• William McKinley wins
• The Gold Standard
would allow only as
much money in
circulation as gold in
the treasury to back it
up
• Reduced the number of
paper dollars in
circulation
Segregation
• Poll Tax = Pay to vote and pass a literacy test
• Grandfather Clause = men could vote if their
father or grandfather had been eligible to vote
before Jan 1, 1867.
• Jim Crow Laws = laws to enforce segregation
in the south which created separate facilities for
blacks and whites.
• Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 = Native
American citizenship
Segregation
• Plessy v. Ferguson = “separate but equal” is
legal
• Racial etiquette = blacks were supposed to
know their place and defer to whites in every
encounter.
• Lynching = racial hanging or murder
• Debt peonage = workers were tied to their
jobs until they could pay off their debts.
Black Leaders
• Booker T. Washington
• Created Tuskegee
Institute in Alabama =
technical school
• Thought blacks would
prosper through farming
and vocational skills
Black Leaders
•
•
•
•
W.E.B. Du Bois
Created NAACP
Harvard trained
Niagara Movement =
protested discrimination
• Though blacks should be
well educated
• Blacks should be uplifted
by their most educated
leaders
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Immigration - Riverdale High School