New Movements in America
Immigrants, Reformers, and the Arts
Irish Immigration
• In the 1840s a blight
on the potato crop
caused a famine in
• Four million
Irishmen fled to the
U.S. between 18401860.
• They settled mostly
in Boston, New
York, New Jersey,
and Pennsylvania .
German Immigrants
• Revolutions and
political instability
in Europe in 1848
prompted many
Germans to seek
refuge in the
• They settled
mainly in the west
where they
became farmers
and craftsmen.
Urban Squalor
• Many immigrants
lived in crowded
• Immigrants were
often employed
working long
hours in unsafe
factories known
as sweatshops.
Anti-Immigration Movements
• Immigrants who spoke
unfamiliar languages and
worshipped differently were
feared and reviled .
• Workers feared that cheap
immigrant labor would drive
down wages.
• Anti-immigrant groups such
as the Know-Nothings
and the Nativists were
active in the 1840s and
1850s. They particularly
despised Catholics and
Racism and xenophobia were reflected in
popular cartoons of the day.
• Ralph Waldo
Emerson and Henry
David Thoreau
opposed the
Mexican War and
slavery and
advocated selfreliance and civil
• American authors
such as Edgar Allan
Poe, Emily Dickinson,
and Herman Melville
influenced future
authors in America
and abroad.
• Mark Twain was the
greatest humorist and
satirist of the age.
Edgar Allan Poe
Second Great Awakening
• Charles Grandison Finney
(top) preached that sinners
could save their souls
through good works
(helping the poor and the
needy etc.)
• His teachings were spread
in raucous outdoor
meetings known as
• Traditional protestant
ministers such as Lyman
Beecher (right) fretted that
Finney’s personal approach
to salvation would erode the
power and influence of
established Protestant
Reformers make the world a better Place
Carry Nation crusaded for
temperance (alcohol abuse
Horace Mann was an
advocate for free public
Dorothea Dix fought for
humane and sanitary prisons
and mental institutions.
Catherine Beecher was
outspoken on behalf of higher
education for women.
Thomas Gallaudet was a
pioneer in the field of education
for the hearing impaired.
• William Lloyd Garrison, a
pacifist, founded the American
Anti-Slavery Society and
published an abolitionist
newspaper, The Liberator.
The Grimke sisters tried to
persuade white southern women
to oppose slavery
Escaped slave, Frederick
Douglass, published several
autobiographies and a newspaper,
the North Star.
Sojourner Truth used her stirring
voice and quick wit to preach
against slavery.
•Harriet Tubman led more than 300 slaves
to freedom on the Underground Railroad.
•Elijah Lovejoy was killed for his antislavery views.
Abolitionists like Sojourner Truth,
Frederick Douglass, Harriet
Beecher Stowe, and the Grimke
sisters also fought for equal rights
for women.
• Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth
Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott,
and Lucy Stone used civil
disobedience, non-violent
protests, mass
demonstrations, and
impassioned appeals to help
win the right to vote for
women. The suffragettes finally
succeeded with the passage of
the Nineteenth Amendment.
Bring Your Pennies!
• Don’t these girls
deserve a school?
• Shouldn’t you help?
• Isn’t Mr. Scalo’s
class the best place
to give?
• What are you
waiting for?

Slide 1