Chapter 13 North and South
(1820-1860)
Section 2 The North’s People
What do you think is the most important
reason people came to the United States
from Europe?
A. To find freedom and liberty
0%
0%
0%
D
D. To find adventure
A
0%
A
B
C
D
C
C. To escape religious
persecution
A.
B.
C.
D.
B
B. To find more abundant jobs
How did immigration have an impact
on cities, industry, and culture in the
North?
Northern Factories
• Many immigrants came to
America for freedom and
liberty
• Immigrants settled in cities
found jobs in mills and
factories
• Between 1820 and 1860,
America’s manufacturing
increasingly shifted to mills
and factories
• Machines took over more
production tasks
• The tasks were brought under
one roof creating the factory
system
• Textiles and clothing
• Also shoes, watches, guns,
sewing machines, and
agricultural machinery
Working Conditions in Northern Factories
• As the factory system
developed, working
conditions worsened
• Average 11.4 hours per day
(8 today)
• Dangerous conditions, and
longer workdays caused onthe-job accidents
• Leather belts connected the
factory’s water powered
driveshaft
• The belts had no protective
shield
• Workers, especially children,
suffered injuries from the
spinning belts
• Lost fingers and broke bones
Working Conditions Continued
• Factories were
miserably hot in the
summer
• The machines gave off
heat and there was no
air conditioning
• In the winter there was
no heat, so workers
were cold
• Factory owners were
often more concerned
about profits than safety
• No laws existed to
regulate working
conditions or to protect
workers
Workers’ Attempt to Organize
• Fearing the growth of the
factory system, skilled
workers formed trade
unions
• Worsening conditions also
led unskilled workers to
organize trade unions
• Mid 1830’s- skilled workers
in NY City staged a series of
strikes
• They refused to work in order
to put pressure on employers
• Workers wanted higher
wages and a 10 hour work
day
• They formed the General
Trades Union of New York
What prompted workers to organize trade
unions?
A. Steadily worsening conditions
and poor pay
D. The rise of the Know-Nothing Party
0%
0%
D
0%
C
0%
A
B
C
D
B
C. Discrimination against
women and African Americans
in the workforce
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B. Too many immigrants
taking factory jobs
Strike
• In the early 1800’s it
was illegal to strike
• Striking workers could
be punished for
breaking the law, or
fired from their jobs
• 1842- A
Massachusetts court
ruled that workers had
the right to strike
• Other rights would not
happen for years
African American Workers
• In the North, slavery largely
disappeared by the 1830s
• Racial prejudice and
discrimination remained
• Few African Americans were
allowed to vote
• Rhode Island and
Pennsylvania passed laws to
keep free African Americans
from voting
• Most communities would not
allow free African Americans
to attend public schools
• African Americans were
forced into segregated
schools and hospitals
African American Workers Continued
• A few African Americans rose
in the business world
• Henry Boyd owned a
furniture manufacturing
company in Cincinnati
• 1827- Samuel Cornish and
John B. Russwurm founded
Freedom’s Journal, the first
African American newspaper,
in NYC
• 1845- Macon B. Allen
became the first African
American licensed to practice
law in the US
• Most African Americans were
extremely poor
Women Workers
• Paid ½ as much as men
• Some women workers tried to
organize in the 1830s and
1840s
• Sarah G. Bagley founded the
Lowell Female Labor Reform
Organization
• They wanted a 10 hour work
day
• Because most of the petitioners
were women, the legislature
did not consider the petition
• Women like Sarah Bagley
paved the way for later
movement to correct injustices
against female workers
The Rise of Cities
• Growth of factories and
immigration led to the growth
of Northern cities
• Natural born citizens and
immigrants flocked to the
cities (factories)
• American manufacturers
welcomed immigrants, many
whom were willing to work for
low pay
• Many river villages grew into
large cities
• St. Louis, Pittsburgh,
Cincinnati, and Louisville
• They became centers of trade
linking the Midwest with the
Northeast
• Larger cities became larger
(NYC- 800,000 Philadelphia500,000 in 1860)
Irish Immigrants
• Immigration increased
greatly between 1840 and
1860
• Between 1846 and 1860
more than 1.5 million Irish
immigrants arrived
• They came to the US
because of a potato famine
in Ireland
• More than a million people
died during the famine
• Most Irish were farmers and
were too poor to buy land
so they settled in the
Northeast and took low
paying factory jobs in the
cities
• Also worked on the
railroads
• Irish women worked as
servants and in factories
German Immigrants
• The 2nd largest group of
immigrants from 1820 to
1860 were German
• Many Germans arrived
with enough money to
buy farms or open their
own business
• They prospered and
founded their own
communities
• Some Germans settled
in NY and Pennsylvania
• Many moved to the
Midwest and the
western territories
The Impact of Immigration
• Immigrants brought their
way of life with them to the
US
• There were few Catholics in
the US in the early 1800s
• Most Irish immigrants and
about ½ of German
immigrants were Roman
Catholic
• Many Catholic immigrants
settled in cities in the
Northeast
• The Church provided
spiritual guidance and
served as a center of
community life for the
newcomers
Immigrants Face Prejudice
• 1830s and 1840s- Antiimmigrant feelings rose
• Some Americans feared that
immigrants were changing the
character of the US too much
• People who opposed
immigration were known as
nativists
• Nativists believed immigration
threatened the future of “native”
citizens
• Some accused immigrants of
taking jobs from “real”
Americans and would work for
lower wages
• Others accused immigrants of
bringing crime and disease to
American cities
• Immigrants who lived in city
slums were likely targets of
prejudice
The Know-Nothing Party
• Nativists formed secret anti-Catholic
societies
• Formed a new political party- The
American Party
• When asked about their political party they
would answer “I know nothing.” So they
became known as…
• The Know-Nothing Party
• The Know-Nothings called for stricter
citizenship laws
• Waiting period for citizenship from 5 to 21
years and to ban foreign-born citizens from
holding office
• Mid 1850s- The party split into Northern
and Southern branches because of…
• Slavery
The American Party was sometimes called the KnowNothing Party because
A. Its opponents believed party
members knew nothing
about the important issues.
B. Party members did not
support education.
D.
0%
D
0%
C
0%
B
0%
A
C.
A. A
Party members responded
B. B
to questions about the group
by saying “I know nothing.”
C. C
Party members were mainly Catholics who knew
D. D
nothing about Protestantism.
How did immigration have an impact
on cities, industry, and culture in the
North?
-The cheap labor provided by
immigrants spurred factory and city
growth.
-Their languages, customs, religions,
(especially Roman Catholicism), and
ways of life spread into US culture
Factory conditions were
pleasant for workers.
ls
e
50%
Fa
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Factory owners could easily
replace unhappy workers.
ls
e
50%
Fa
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Free African Americans could
attend all public schools.
ls
e
50%
Fa
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Women's early efforts to achieve equal pay
did not help other movements in later years.
ls
e
50%
Fa
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
Immigrants quickly forgot their
customs and language.
ls
e
50%
Fa
50%
Tr
ue
A. True
B. False
To improve their working conditions,
workers formed organizations called
factories.
strikes.
trade unions.
famines.
s.
m
in
e
un
io
e
tr
ad
fa
ns
.
s.
rik
e
st
ct
or
ie
s
.
25% 25% 25% 25%
fa
A.
B.
C.
D.
To get higher wages and a
shorter workday, workers used
factories.
strikes.
trade unions.
famines.
s.
m
in
e
un
io
e
tr
ad
fa
ns
.
s.
rik
e
st
ct
or
ie
s
.
25% 25% 25% 25%
fa
A.
B.
C.
D.
What caused the Irish migration
to the United States?
famine
free land
labor unions
prejudice
e
ud
ic
ni
o
bo
ru
la
pr
ej
ns
nd
la
fr
ee
m
in
e
25% 25% 25% 25%
fa
A.
B.
C.
D.
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ex
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rit
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.
in
.
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an
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Ire
la
n
d.
The second largest group of immigrants to
arrive in the United States between 1820
and 1860 came from
A. Ireland.
25% 25% 25% 25%
B. Germany.
C. Great Britain.
D. Mexico.
People opposed to immigration
were known as
foreigners.
anti-aliens.
nativists.
aliens.
na
s.
ie
n
al
lie
tia
an
tiv
ns
.
.
er
s
re
ig
n
is
ts
.
25% 25% 25% 25%
fo
A.
B.
C.
D.
Participant Scores
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Participant 1
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Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
Team Scores
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0
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Team 3
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Team 5
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Chapter 13 North and South (1820