North and South Chapter 13 The North’s Economy 13-1 Southern Cotton Kingdom 13-3 The North’s People 13-2 The South’s People 13-4 The North’s Economy Chapter 13 Section 1 Pages 386-390 Technology and Industry • Industrialization changed the way Americans worked, traveled, and communicated. In the North, manufacturers made products by dividing task among workers. They built factories to bring specialized workers together. Products could be made more quickly. The factory workers used machinery to some of the work faster and more efficiently. Technology and Industry • Mass production of cotton textiles began in New England after Elias Howe invented the sewing machine in 1846. • By 1860 factories in the Northeast produced about two-thirds of the country’s manufactured goods. Technology and Industry • Advances in transportation sparked the success of many new industries. • Robert Fulton’s steamboat, developed in 1807, enabled goods and passengers to move along inland waterways more cheaply and quickly. Technology and Industry • Thousands of miles of roads and canals were built between 1800 and 1850. • Canal builders widened and deepened the canals in the 1840’s so steamboats could pass through. • Steamboats created the growth of cities such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Buffalo. Technology and Industry • Clipper, or sailing ships were built in the 1840’s to go faster, almost as fast as steamships. They could travel an average of 300 miles per day. Technology and Industry • Railroad growth in the 1840’s and 1850’s connected places that were far apart. Early railroads connected mines with nearby rivers. Horses, not locomotives, powered the early railroads. • The first steam powered locomotive, the Rocket, began operating in Britain in 1829. • Peter Cooper designed and built the first American steam locomotive, Tom Thumb, in 1830. Technology and Industry • A railway network in 1860 of nearly 31,000 miles of track linked cities in the North and Midwest. Railway builders tied the eastern lines to lines built farther west so that by 1860, a network united the East and the Midwest. Technology and Industry • Railways transformed trade and settlement in the nation’s interior. With the Eric Canal and railway network between the East and West, grain, livestock, and diary products moved directly from the Midwest to the East. • Prices were lower because goods traveled faster and more cheaply. • People settled into Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and as the population of the states grew, new towns and industry developed in the Midwest. Technology and Industry • People needed to communicate faster to jeep up with the industrial growth and faster travel methods. • Samuel Morse developed the telegraph in 1844. It used electric signals to send messages along wires. • To transmit messages, Morse developed the Morse code, using a series of dots and dashes to represent the letters of the alphabet. By 1860 the United States had constructed more than 50,000 miles of telegraph lines. Technology and Industry • Discussion Question How did railroads transform trade and settlement in the country? Answer: Railroads enabled goods and people to move from place to place faster and cheaper. Railroads connected the East to the Midwest, so people settled in places in the Midwest and industry also developed there as well. Agriculture • Farmers were able to sell their products in new markets as a result of the railroads and canals. Agriculture • New inventions changed farming methods and also encouraged settlers to develop larger areas in the West thought to be too difficult to farm. Agriculture • John Deere invented the steel-tipped plow in 1837. It’s steel-tipped blade cut trough hard soil more easily than previous plows, which used wood blades. Agriculture • The mechanical reaper sped up harvesting wheat. Cyrus McCormick designed and constructed it and made a fortune manufacturing and selling it. The mechanical reaper harvested grain much faster than a hand operated sickle. Farmers began planting more wheat because they could harvest it faster. Growing wheat became profitable. Agriculture • The thresher separated the grain from the stalk. Agriculture • Midwest farmers grew large quantities of wheat and shipped it east. Farmers in the Northeast and Middle Atlantic states increased production of fruits and vegetables because they grew well in Eastern soil. Agriculture • Agriculture was not a mainstay of the North. Farming the rocky soil was difficult. Instead, the North continued to grow industrially. More and more people worked in factories, and problems connected with factory labor also grew. Agriculture • Discussion Question How did improvements in agriculture help farmers? Answer: The steep-tipped plow made cutting through soil easier. The mechanical reaper sped up harvesting wheat. More wheat was planted because it could be harvested faster, making it more profitable. The thresher sped up the harvesting process. Railroads also helped farmers by moving their goods faster, farther and cheaper. Did You Know? • Although Elias Howe patented the sewing machine in 1846, there were several earlier versions. A sewing machine was introduced by a French tailor named Barthelemy Thimonnier in 1830. Other French tailors were frightened that the machine would put them out of business, so they destroyed his 80- machine shop. The North’s People Chapter 13 Section 2 Pages 391-396 Northern Factories • Factories produced items such as shoes, watches, guns, sewing machines, and agricultural machinery in addition to textiles and clothing. • Working conditions worsened as factories grew. • Employees worked an average of 11.4 hour day, often under dangerous and unpleasant conditions. No laws existed to regulate working conditions to protect workers. Northern Factories • By the 1830’s the workers began to organize to improve working conditions. • Trade unions, or organizations of workers with the same trade or skill developed. • Unskilled workers also organized due to poor working conditions. Northern Factories • Skilled workers in New York City went on strike or refused to work in the mid-1830’s. They hoped for higher wages and a 10 hour workday. • They formed the General Trades Union of New York. Northern Factories • Striking was illegal and workers could be punished by law or fired from their jobs. • A Massachusetts court ruled in favor of worker’s right to strike in 1842, but this was just the beginning of workers receiving legal rights. Northern Factories • Although the North did not have slavery in the 1820’s, racial prejudice and discrimination did exist. • In 1820, although New York stopped requiring white men to own property in order to vote, few African Americans could vote. • Rhode Island and Pennsylvania passed laws prohibiting free African American from voting. Northern Factories • Free African Americans were not allowed to attend public schools and were banned from public facilities. • They were forced into segregated schools and hospitals in most communities. • A few African Americans were successful in business. While most lived in poverty. Northern Factories • Women were discriminated against in the mills and factories even though they played a major role in the development of industry. • They worked for less pay, were excluded from unions and were kept out of the workplace to provide jobs for men. Northern Factories • The Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization in Massachusetts petitioned the state legislature for a 10- hour work day in 1845. • The legislature did not consider the petition as it was signed only be women. Northern Factories • Most early efforts in the workplace failed but did set the stage for later women’s movements. Northern Factories • Discussion Question Why did working conditions deteriorate in the Northern factories? Answer: Working conditions deteriorated in the Northern factories because factory owners turned a deaf ear to the concerns and needs of the workers that provided the labor that ran their factories. Profit was the main goal of many factory owners. Northern Factories • The conditions that existed in the factories of the North differed as the products they produced. Using the work sheet located in the document section of Miss Brooks website compare and contrast the working conditions of two factories. Click on the links below to visit these two factories. Northern Factories • Inquiry Activity Conduct a web search and report to the class how workers today are protected by law in today’s workplace. Include the following: A bibliography of your source sites The Rise of Cities • The many jobs in factories brought many people to the cities in the North. • In 1860 the population of New York city, the nation’s largest city, passed 800,000 people. Philadelphia had more than 500,000 people. City life was often difficult and dangerous die to overcrowding, rundown buildings and the threat of disease and fire. The Rise of Cities • Immigration to the United States greatly increased between 1840 and 1860. Many of these people were willing to work for low pay and long hours. • The largest group came from Ireland, more than 1.5 million, settling mainly in the Northeast. A potato famine, or an extreme shortage, caused by a potato disease destroyed Ireland’s crops, and starvation followed. Potatoes were the main staple food of the Irish diet. The Rise of Cities • The men from Ireland worked in factories or did manual labor such as working on the railroads and digging ditches. Women became domestic servants and factory workers. The Rise of Cities • The second largest group of immigrants came from Germany. They settled in New York, Pennsylvania, the Midwest, and the Western territories. Some came for the new opportunities that the cities had to offer, while others came as the result of the failure of the democratic revolution in 1848. The Rise of Cities • More than one million people came, many in family groups. Many had money, so they prospered, founding their own communities and organizations and buying farms or settling up businesses. The Rise of Cities • Immigration changed the character of the country. People brought their language, customs, religion, and ways of life. • Most of the Irish immigrants and about one-half of German immigrants were Roman Catholics. They settled in northeastern cities. The church gave them a source of spiritual guidance and also provided a center of community life. The Rise of Cities • Inquiry Activity: Conduct a web search or interview those who grew up in Baltimore city and report to the class how different ethic groups were reflected and found refuge in the neighborhood Catholic Churches of Baltimore City. Include the following: A bibliography of your source sites or a digital copy of your interview questions and responses. The Rise of Cities • Immigrants faced prejudice and discrimination in the United States. Anti-immigrant feeling arose and those who opposed immigration were called nativists. • Nativists felt that immigration threatened the future of “native” born citizens. • Some nativists thought that immigrants took jobs away from “real” Americans. Others thought they brought crime and disease. The Rise of Cities • The American Party was a group of nativists who joined together to form a new political party in the 1850’s. • They formed secret anti-Catholic societies. • The party came to be known as the Know Nothing Party, because when questioned their response was “ I know nothing.” The Rise of Cities • The Know Nothing Party wanted stricter citizenship laws and wanted to ban foreign-born citizens from holding office. • In the mid-1850’s, the movement split over slavery. • A Northern branch and a Southern branch formed. • Slavery also divided the Northern and Southern states. The Rise of Cities • Discussion Question Despite the problems of city life, the population in cities prospered. Why did cities attract so many people? Answer: Cities offered many types of jobs and housing. Immigrants were attracted to cities because they provide the opportunity to work and “affordable” housing. Although ant-immigrant feelings grew, many immigrants lived in ethnic communities that provided support and a feeling of security. The Rise of Cities • Inquiry Activity: Conduct a web search and report to the class what are the greatest problems facing our cities today. You may focus your response to American cities in general or Baltimore City in particular. • Challenge: Include in your answer what you believe are solutions to some of the problems you discovered. Include the following: A bibliography of your source sites Did You Know? • President James Buchanan was the only president who never married. Engaged in 1819 to be wed, his finance's family disapproved and eventually she broke the engagement. When he became President in 1857, his niece Harriet Lane served as mistress of the White House. Southern Cotton Kingdom Chapter 13 Section 3 Pages 397-400 Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • The economy of the South thrived by 1850 because of cotton. • It became the leading cash crop. • Tobacco and rice had been profitable in colonial times, but tobacco depended on foreign markets and the price fluctuated. • Rice could not be grown in the dry inland areas. • In the Deep South- Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, cotton helped the economy prosper, and slavery grew stronger. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized cotton production. The machine removed seeds from cotton fibers. • A worker could clean only 1 pound of cotton per day by hand, but with the cotton gin, a worker could clean 50 pounds. • The cotton gin led to the need for more workers. • Southern planters relied on enslaved laborers to plant and to pick cotton. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • The British textile industry created a huge demand for cotton and kept the price high. • The Deep South was committed to cotton, with some areas also growing rice and sugarcane. • The Upper South, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, also depended on agriculture as the basis of their economy. These areas produced tobacco, hemp, wheat and vegetables. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • The value of enslaved people increased due to the reliance on them for producing cotton and sugar. • The Upper South became the center for the sale and transportation of enslaved people in the region. Rise of the Cotton Kingdom • Discussion Question Why did the economics of the Upper South and the Deep South develop differently? Answer: Although the economy of both regions were based on agriculture, the Seep South produced mainly cotton and sugar. Its economy was dependent on enslaved people to plant and harvest cotton. The Upper South produced a variety of products that did not require the huge number of people that was needed to produce cotton. Industry in the South • • The South remained rural and agricultural, while the North was urban and industrial. There were several barriers that kept industry from developing in the South. 1. Cash crops such as cotton kept farming as the main industry in the South. 2. Capital, or money to invest in business, was lacking in the South. 3. The market for manufactured goods was small in the South. 4. Some Southerners did not want industry in their area. Industry in the South • However, some Southern leaders wanted to develop industry so that the South would not be dependent on the North for manufactured goods. • They also wanted the economy of the South to develop and continue to grow. Industry in the South • William Gregg opened a textile factory in South Carolina in 1844. • In Richmond, Virginia, Joseph Reid Anderson took over the Tredegar Iron Works in the 1840’s and made it one of the leading producers of iron in the nation. Industry in the South • Goods were transported via natural waterways. Most towns were along rivers or on the coast. • Roads were poor and there were few canals. • Railroad lines were mostly local and did not connect parts of a region. • By 1860 only about one-third of the rail lines were in the South. Industry in the South • Discussion Question Compare and Contrast the effects of the lack of industry had on the economy of the South. Did You Know? Cotton is still an important industry in the United States. Today 98 percent of cotton is grown in 14 states, with Texas producing the largest share. Each year, over 14.5 million acres of cotton are harvested on 35,000 family farms, producing 16.9 million bales. Each bales weighs about 500 pounds. The South’s People Chapter 13 Section 4 Pages 401-407 Small Farms • Most Southerners were small farmers without enslaved people or were planters with a few enslaved laborers. • Only a very few planters could afford the large plantations and numerous enslaved people to work it. • Southerners were of four types: 1. Yeomen 2. Tenant farmers 3. Rural poor 4. Plantation owners Small Farms • Yeomen were farmers without enslaved people. • They made up the largest group of whites in the South. • Most owned land and lived in the Upper South and hilly rural areas in the Deep South. • Their farms were from 50 to 200 acres. • They grew crops for themselves or to sell or trade. Small Farms • Tenant farmers rented land and worked on landlords’ estates. • The rural poor lived in crude cabins in wooded areas, planted corn, and fished and hunted for food. • They were self-sufficient and refused any work that resembled enslaved labor. Small Farms • Discussion Question Living in the South around 1860, do you think it would be best to be a yeoman, tenant farmers or rural poor? Support your answer. Plantations • Plantation owners wanted to earn profits, and they did this by selling cotton. • Plantations had fixed cost, such as feeding and housing workers and maintaining equipment. • These did not vary greatly. However, owners could not know how much their cotton would bring in because prices varied from season to season and market to market. Plantations • Planters sold their cotton to agents from cotton exchanges in large cities such as Charleston, New Orleans, Mobile, and Savannah. • These agents held the cotton until the price rose and then sold it. • Planters did not get any money until the agents sold the cotton, so they were always in debt. • The agents did extend credit, or a loan, to the planters for the time they held their cotton. Plantations • Most plantations’ wealth was measured by possessions, including enslaved people. • Only about 4 percent of the South’s farms and plantations held 20 or more enslaved people by 1860. • A majority of the planters held fewer than 10 enslaved people. Plantations • Plantation wives were responsible for the enslaved people and supervising the plantation buildings and other gardens. • They also kept the financial records. • Life was lonely, especially when planters traveled to make new deals with agents. Plantations • Plantation work involved many chores. • Some enslaved African Americans worked in the house, cleaning, cooking, sewing and doing laundry. • Other enslaved African Americans were skilled workers trained as carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers or weavers. • Some worked in the pastures, but most were field hands, supervised by an overseer, working from sunrise to sunset. Plantations • Discussion Question Why did plantation owners sell their cotton to agents? Answer: The agents bought the cotton with the promise of a return, but the planters would have to wait for their money. Rather than trying to find buyers on their own and being unsure of whether or not another buyer would give them a better price, the planters sold their cotton to agents. At least they knew the agents would sell the cotton and the planters would get money. Agents did give the planters credit, although this put the planters into debt. Life Under Slavery • Life was full of hardships and misery. Enslaved African Americans worked long hours, earned no money, and had little hope of freedom. • Many were separated from their families when sold to different plantations owners. Life Under Slavery • Slaves had the bare necessities in their slave cabins. Each cabin was shared by dozens of people living together in a single room. • Family life was uncertain. Law did not recognize marriages, but many enslaved people did marry. Families were separated when wives or children were sold. The extended family provided some stability and was an important aspect of the culture. Life Under Slavery • Although enduring many difficulties, they kept their African culture alive and mixed it with American ways. • Even though slavery was legal in the South, the slave trade was outlawed in 1808. • As no new enslaved Africans entered the United States, almost all the enslaved people by 1860 were born in the United States. Life Under Slavery • Many enslaved people accepted Christianity, and it became a religion of hope for them. • The spiritual, or African American religious folk song, provided a way to secretly communicate with one another. Life Under Slavery • Slave codes made life more difficult. • These were laws that controlled the enslaved people, such as prohibiting them from gathering in large groups, leaving their master’s property without a pass, and making it a crime to teach them how to read or write. Life Under Slavery • Resistance to slavery took the form of working slowly, pretending to be sick, or sometimes setting fire or breaking tools. • Armed rebellions were rare. • Nat Turner, who taught himself to read and write, led a group on a short violent rampage in Southampton County, Virginia in 1831. • They killed at least 55 whites before being captured and punished. • Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, both born into slavery, fled north. The became African American heroes for their efforts to help free more enslaved people. Life Under Slavery • Discussion Question What helped the enslaved people endure their lack of freedom? Answer: Their belief in Christianity, their cultural ways and their hope, perhaps to escape to freedom. Some also helped to reunite with their families, and some hoped to be lucky enough to be taught a skill or work in the main house. Life in the Cities • By 1860 several large cities existed, such as Baltimore and New Orleans. • Others were on the rise such as Charleston, Richmond, and Memphis. • Baltimore’s population was 212,000. • New Orleans had 168,000 people. • The population of the cities included whites, some enslaved people and free African Americans. Life in the Cities • Free African American became barbers, carpenters, and traders. • They founded churches and institutions. • In New Orleans they formed an opera company. • Not all prospered though, and many were not given an equal share in economic and political life. Life in the Cities • Between 1830 and 1860, Southern states passed laws that limited the rights of free African Americans. • Most states would not allow freedmen to migrate from other states. • In 1859, Arkansas order all African Americans to leave the state, Life in the Cities • Discussion Question Why would states have passed laws that limited the rights of free African Americans? Answer: Some states passed laws that limited the rights of free African Americans because although they were free many state legislatures did not recognize free African Americans as equal to whites under the law. Did You Know? Nat Turner, who led the famous slave rebellion of 1831, also inspired a provocative novel, The Confessions of Nat Turner. Written by William Styron in 1966, it won the Pulitzer Prize two years later.