North and South
Chapter 13
The North’s Economy
Southern Cotton Kingdom
The North’s People
The South’s People
The North’s Economy
Chapter 13 Section 1
Pages 386-390
Technology and Industry
• Industrialization changed the way
Americans worked, traveled, and
communicated. In the North,
manufacturers made products by dividing
task among workers. They built factories
to bring specialized workers together.
Products could be made more quickly. The
factory workers used machinery to some
of the work faster and more efficiently.
Technology and Industry
• Mass production of cotton textiles began in
New England after Elias Howe invented
the sewing machine in 1846.
• By 1860 factories in the Northeast
produced about two-thirds of the country’s
manufactured goods.
Technology and Industry
• Advances in transportation sparked the
success of many new industries.
• Robert Fulton’s steamboat, developed in
1807, enabled goods and passengers to
move along inland waterways more
cheaply and quickly.
Technology and Industry
• Thousands of miles of roads and canals
were built between 1800 and 1850.
• Canal builders widened and deepened the
canals in the 1840’s so steamboats could
pass through.
• Steamboats created the growth of cities
such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Buffalo.
Technology and Industry
• Clipper, or sailing ships were built in the
1840’s to go faster, almost as fast as
steamships. They could travel an average
of 300 miles per day.
Technology and Industry
• Railroad growth in the 1840’s and 1850’s
connected places that were far apart. Early
railroads connected mines with nearby rivers.
Horses, not locomotives, powered the early
• The first steam powered locomotive, the Rocket,
began operating in Britain in 1829.
• Peter Cooper designed and built the first
American steam locomotive, Tom Thumb, in
Technology and Industry
• A railway network in 1860 of nearly 31,000
miles of track linked cities in the North and
Midwest. Railway builders tied the eastern
lines to lines built farther west so that by
1860, a network united the East and the
Technology and Industry
• Railways transformed trade and settlement in
the nation’s interior. With the Eric Canal and
railway network between the East and West,
grain, livestock, and diary products moved
directly from the Midwest to the East.
• Prices were lower because goods traveled faster
and more cheaply.
• People settled into Ohio, Indiana and Illinois,
and as the population of the states grew, new
towns and industry developed in the Midwest.
Technology and Industry
• People needed to communicate faster to jeep up
with the industrial growth and faster travel
• Samuel Morse developed the telegraph in 1844.
It used electric signals to send messages along
• To transmit messages, Morse developed the
Morse code, using a series of dots and dashes
to represent the letters of the alphabet. By 1860
the United States had constructed more than
50,000 miles of telegraph lines.
Technology and Industry
• Discussion Question
How did railroads transform trade and
settlement in the country?
Answer: Railroads enabled goods and people to move from
place to place faster and cheaper. Railroads connected the
East to the Midwest, so people settled in places in the Midwest
and industry also developed there as well.
• Farmers were able to sell their products in
new markets as a result of the railroads
and canals.
• New inventions changed farming methods
and also encouraged settlers to develop
larger areas in the West thought to be too
difficult to farm.
• John Deere invented the steel-tipped plow
in 1837. It’s steel-tipped blade cut trough
hard soil more easily than previous plows,
which used wood blades.
• The mechanical reaper sped up harvesting
wheat. Cyrus McCormick designed and
constructed it and made a fortune
manufacturing and selling it. The
mechanical reaper harvested grain much
faster than a hand operated sickle.
Farmers began planting more wheat
because they could harvest it faster.
Growing wheat became profitable.
• The thresher separated the grain from the
• Midwest farmers grew large quantities of
wheat and shipped it east. Farmers in the
Northeast and Middle Atlantic states
increased production of fruits and
vegetables because they grew well in
Eastern soil.
• Agriculture was not a mainstay of the
North. Farming the rocky soil was difficult.
Instead, the North continued to grow
industrially. More and more people worked
in factories, and problems connected with
factory labor also grew.
• Discussion Question
How did improvements in agriculture help
Answer: The steep-tipped plow made cutting through soil easier. The
mechanical reaper sped up harvesting wheat. More wheat was planted
because it could be harvested faster, making it more profitable. The
thresher sped up the harvesting process. Railroads also helped farmers
by moving their goods faster, farther and cheaper.
Did You Know?
• Although Elias Howe patented the sewing
machine in 1846, there were several
earlier versions. A sewing machine was
introduced by a French tailor named
Barthelemy Thimonnier in 1830. Other
French tailors were frightened that the
machine would put them out of business,
so they destroyed his 80- machine shop.
The North’s People
Chapter 13 Section 2
Pages 391-396
Northern Factories
• Factories produced items such as shoes,
watches, guns, sewing machines, and
agricultural machinery in addition to textiles and
• Working conditions worsened as factories grew.
• Employees worked an average of 11.4 hour day,
often under dangerous and unpleasant
conditions. No laws existed to regulate working
conditions to protect workers.
Northern Factories
• By the 1830’s the workers began to
organize to improve working conditions.
• Trade unions, or organizations of workers
with the same trade or skill developed.
• Unskilled workers also organized due to
poor working conditions.
Northern Factories
• Skilled workers in New York City went on
strike or refused to work in the mid-1830’s.
They hoped for higher wages and a 10
hour workday.
• They formed the General Trades Union of
New York.
Northern Factories
• Striking was illegal and workers could be
punished by law or fired from their jobs.
• A Massachusetts court ruled in favor of
worker’s right to strike in 1842, but this
was just the beginning of workers
receiving legal rights.
Northern Factories
• Although the North did not have slavery in the
1820’s, racial prejudice and discrimination did
• In 1820, although New York stopped requiring
white men to own property in order to vote, few
African Americans could vote.
• Rhode Island and Pennsylvania passed laws
prohibiting free African American from voting.
Northern Factories
• Free African Americans were not allowed
to attend public schools and were banned
from public facilities.
• They were forced into segregated schools
and hospitals in most communities.
• A few African Americans were successful
in business. While most lived in poverty.
Northern Factories
• Women were discriminated against in the
mills and factories even though they
played a major role in the development of
• They worked for less pay, were excluded
from unions and were kept out of the
workplace to provide jobs for men.
Northern Factories
• The Lowell Female Labor Reform
Organization in Massachusetts petitioned
the state legislature for a 10- hour work
day in 1845.
• The legislature did not consider the
petition as it was signed only be women.
Northern Factories
• Most early efforts in the workplace failed
but did set the stage for later women’s
Northern Factories
• Discussion Question
Why did working conditions deteriorate in
the Northern factories?
Answer: Working conditions deteriorated in the Northern factories
because factory owners turned a deaf ear to the concerns and needs of
the workers that provided the labor that ran their factories. Profit was the
main goal of many factory owners.
Northern Factories
• The conditions that existed in the factories
of the North differed as the products they
produced. Using the work sheet located in
the document section of Miss Brooks
website compare and contrast the working
conditions of two factories. Click on the
links below to visit these two factories.
Northern Factories
• Inquiry Activity
Conduct a web search and report to the
class how workers today are protected by
law in today’s workplace.
Include the following:
A bibliography of your source sites
The Rise of Cities
• The many jobs in factories brought many
people to the cities in the North.
• In 1860 the population of New York city,
the nation’s largest city, passed 800,000
people. Philadelphia had more than
500,000 people. City life was often difficult
and dangerous die to overcrowding, rundown buildings and the threat of disease
and fire.
The Rise of Cities
• Immigration to the United States greatly
increased between 1840 and 1860. Many of
these people were willing to work for low pay
and long hours.
• The largest group came from Ireland, more than
1.5 million, settling mainly in the Northeast. A
potato famine, or an extreme shortage, caused
by a potato disease destroyed Ireland’s crops,
and starvation followed. Potatoes were the main
staple food of the Irish diet.
The Rise of Cities
• The men from Ireland worked in factories
or did manual labor such as working on
the railroads and digging ditches. Women
became domestic servants and factory
The Rise of Cities
• The second largest group of immigrants
came from Germany. They settled in New
York, Pennsylvania, the Midwest, and the
Western territories. Some came for the
new opportunities that the cities had to
offer, while others came as the result of
the failure of the democratic revolution in
The Rise of Cities
• More than one million people came, many
in family groups. Many had money, so they
prospered, founding their own
communities and organizations and buying
farms or settling up businesses.
The Rise of Cities
• Immigration changed the character of the
country. People brought their language,
customs, religion, and ways of life.
• Most of the Irish immigrants and about
one-half of German immigrants were
Roman Catholics. They settled in
northeastern cities. The church gave them
a source of spiritual guidance and also
provided a center of community life.
The Rise of Cities
• Inquiry Activity:
Conduct a web search or interview those who
grew up in Baltimore city and report to the class
how different ethic groups were reflected and
found refuge in the neighborhood Catholic
Churches of Baltimore City.
Include the following:
A bibliography of your source sites or a digital
copy of your interview questions and responses.
The Rise of Cities
• Immigrants faced prejudice and discrimination in
the United States. Anti-immigrant feeling arose
and those who opposed immigration were called
• Nativists felt that immigration threatened the
future of “native” born citizens.
• Some nativists thought that immigrants took jobs
away from “real” Americans. Others thought they
brought crime and disease.
The Rise of Cities
• The American Party was a group of
nativists who joined together to form a new
political party in the 1850’s.
• They formed secret anti-Catholic societies.
• The party came to be known as the Know
Nothing Party, because when questioned
their response was “ I know nothing.”
The Rise of Cities
• The Know Nothing Party wanted stricter
citizenship laws and wanted to ban
foreign-born citizens from holding office.
• In the mid-1850’s, the movement split over
• A Northern branch and a Southern branch
• Slavery also divided the Northern and
Southern states.
The Rise of Cities
• Discussion Question
Despite the problems of city life, the
population in cities prospered. Why did
cities attract so many people?
Answer: Cities offered many types of jobs and housing. Immigrants were
attracted to cities because they provide the opportunity to work and
“affordable” housing. Although ant-immigrant feelings grew, many
immigrants lived in ethnic communities that provided support and a
feeling of security.
The Rise of Cities
• Inquiry Activity:
Conduct a web search and report to the class what are
the greatest problems facing our cities today. You may
focus your response to American cities in general or
Baltimore City in particular.
• Challenge:
Include in your answer what you believe are solutions to
some of the problems you discovered.
Include the following:
A bibliography of your source sites
Did You Know?
• President James Buchanan was the only
president who never married. Engaged in
1819 to be wed, his finance's family
disapproved and eventually she broke the
engagement. When he became President
in 1857, his niece Harriet Lane served as
mistress of the White House.
Southern Cotton Kingdom
Chapter 13 Section 3
Pages 397-400
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
• The economy of the South thrived by 1850
because of cotton.
• It became the leading cash crop.
• Tobacco and rice had been profitable in colonial
times, but tobacco depended on foreign markets
and the price fluctuated.
• Rice could not be grown in the dry inland areas.
• In the Deep South- Georgia, South Carolina,
Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas,
cotton helped the economy prosper, and slavery
grew stronger.
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
• Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized cotton
production. The machine removed seeds from
cotton fibers.
• A worker could clean only 1 pound of cotton per
day by hand, but with the cotton gin, a worker
could clean 50 pounds.
• The cotton gin led to the need for more workers.
• Southern planters relied on enslaved laborers to
plant and to pick cotton.
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
• The British textile industry created a huge
demand for cotton and kept the price high.
• The Deep South was committed to cotton, with
some areas also growing rice and sugarcane.
• The Upper South, Maryland, Virginia, and North
Carolina, also depended on agriculture as the
basis of their economy. These areas produced
tobacco, hemp, wheat and vegetables.
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
• The value of enslaved people increased
due to the reliance on them for producing
cotton and sugar.
• The Upper South became the center for
the sale and transportation of enslaved
people in the region.
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
• Discussion Question
Why did the economics of the Upper
South and the Deep South develop
Answer: Although the economy of both regions were based on agriculture,
the Seep South produced mainly cotton and sugar. Its economy was
dependent on enslaved people to plant and harvest cotton. The Upper
South produced a variety of products that did not require the huge number
of people that was needed to produce cotton.
Industry in the South
The South remained rural and agricultural, while the
North was urban and industrial.
There were several barriers that kept industry from
developing in the South.
1. Cash crops such as cotton kept farming as the
main industry in the South.
2. Capital, or money to invest in business, was
lacking in the South.
3. The market for manufactured goods was small in
the South.
4. Some Southerners did not want industry in their
Industry in the South
• However, some Southern leaders wanted
to develop industry so that the South
would not be dependent on the North for
manufactured goods.
• They also wanted the economy of the
South to develop and continue to grow.
Industry in the South
• William Gregg opened a textile factory in
South Carolina in 1844.
• In Richmond, Virginia, Joseph Reid
Anderson took over the Tredegar Iron
Works in the 1840’s and made it one of the
leading producers of iron in the nation.
Industry in the South
• Goods were transported via natural
waterways. Most towns were along rivers
or on the coast.
• Roads were poor and there were few
• Railroad lines were mostly local and did
not connect parts of a region.
• By 1860 only about one-third of the rail
lines were in the South.
Industry in the South
• Discussion Question
Compare and Contrast the effects of the
lack of industry had on the economy of the
Did You Know?
Cotton is still an important industry in the
United States. Today 98 percent of cotton
is grown in 14 states, with Texas
producing the largest share. Each year,
over 14.5 million acres of cotton are
harvested on 35,000 family farms,
producing 16.9 million bales. Each bales
weighs about 500 pounds.
The South’s People
Chapter 13 Section 4
Pages 401-407
Small Farms
• Most Southerners were small farmers without
enslaved people or were planters with a few
enslaved laborers.
• Only a very few planters could afford the large
plantations and numerous enslaved people to
work it.
• Southerners were of four types:
1. Yeomen
2. Tenant farmers
3. Rural poor
4. Plantation owners
Small Farms
• Yeomen were farmers without enslaved people.
• They made up the largest group of whites in the
• Most owned land and lived in the Upper South
and hilly rural areas in the Deep South.
• Their farms were from 50 to 200 acres.
• They grew crops for themselves or to sell or
Small Farms
• Tenant farmers rented land and worked on
landlords’ estates.
• The rural poor lived in crude cabins in
wooded areas, planted corn, and fished
and hunted for food.
• They were self-sufficient and refused any
work that resembled enslaved labor.
Small Farms
• Discussion Question
Living in the South around 1860, do you
think it would be best to be a yeoman,
tenant farmers or rural poor? Support your
• Plantation owners wanted to earn profits, and
they did this by selling cotton.
• Plantations had fixed cost, such as feeding and
housing workers and maintaining equipment.
• These did not vary greatly. However, owners
could not know how much their cotton would
bring in because prices varied from season to
season and market to market.
• Planters sold their cotton to agents from cotton
exchanges in large cities such as Charleston,
New Orleans, Mobile, and Savannah.
• These agents held the cotton until the price rose
and then sold it.
• Planters did not get any money until the agents
sold the cotton, so they were always in debt.
• The agents did extend credit, or a loan, to the
planters for the time they held their cotton.
• Most plantations’ wealth was measured by
possessions, including enslaved people.
• Only about 4 percent of the South’s farms
and plantations held 20 or more enslaved
people by 1860.
• A majority of the planters held fewer than
10 enslaved people.
• Plantation wives were responsible for the
enslaved people and supervising the
plantation buildings and other gardens.
• They also kept the financial records.
• Life was lonely, especially when planters
traveled to make new deals with agents.
• Plantation work involved many chores.
• Some enslaved African Americans worked in the
house, cleaning, cooking, sewing and doing
• Other enslaved African Americans were skilled
workers trained as carpenters, blacksmiths,
shoemakers or weavers.
• Some worked in the pastures, but most were
field hands, supervised by an overseer, working
from sunrise to sunset.
• Discussion Question
Why did plantation owners sell their cotton
to agents?
Answer: The agents bought the cotton with the promise of a
return, but the planters would have to wait for their money.
Rather than trying to find buyers on their own and being
unsure of whether or not another buyer would give them a
better price, the planters sold their cotton to agents. At least
they knew the agents would sell the cotton and the planters
would get money. Agents did give the planters credit, although
this put the planters into debt.
Life Under Slavery
• Life was full of hardships and misery.
Enslaved African Americans worked long
hours, earned no money, and had little
hope of freedom.
• Many were separated from their families
when sold to different plantations owners.
Life Under Slavery
• Slaves had the bare necessities in their slave
cabins. Each cabin was shared by dozens of
people living together in a single room.
• Family life was uncertain. Law did not recognize
marriages, but many enslaved people did marry.
Families were separated when wives or children
were sold. The extended family provided some
stability and was an important aspect of the
Life Under Slavery
• Although enduring many difficulties, they kept
their African culture alive and mixed it with
American ways.
• Even though slavery was legal in the South, the
slave trade was outlawed in 1808.
• As no new enslaved Africans entered the United
States, almost all the enslaved people by 1860
were born in the United States.
Life Under Slavery
• Many enslaved people accepted
Christianity, and it became a religion of
hope for them.
• The spiritual, or African American religious
folk song, provided a way to secretly
communicate with one another.
Life Under Slavery
• Slave codes made life more difficult.
• These were laws that controlled the
enslaved people, such as prohibiting them
from gathering in large groups, leaving
their master’s property without a pass, and
making it a crime to teach them how to
read or write.
Life Under Slavery
• Resistance to slavery took the form of working slowly,
pretending to be sick, or sometimes setting fire or
breaking tools.
• Armed rebellions were rare.
• Nat Turner, who taught himself to read and write, led a
group on a short violent rampage in Southampton
County, Virginia in 1831.
• They killed at least 55 whites before being captured and
• Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, both born into
slavery, fled north. The became African American heroes
for their efforts to help free more enslaved people.
Life Under Slavery
• Discussion Question
What helped the enslaved people endure
their lack of freedom?
Answer: Their belief in Christianity, their cultural ways and
their hope, perhaps to escape to freedom. Some also helped
to reunite with their families, and some hoped to be lucky
enough to be taught a skill or work in the main house.
Life in the Cities
• By 1860 several large cities existed, such
as Baltimore and New Orleans.
• Others were on the rise such as
Charleston, Richmond, and Memphis.
• Baltimore’s population was 212,000.
• New Orleans had 168,000 people.
• The population of the cities included
whites, some enslaved people and free
African Americans.
Life in the Cities
• Free African American became barbers,
carpenters, and traders.
• They founded churches and institutions.
• In New Orleans they formed an opera
• Not all prospered though, and many were
not given an equal share in economic and
political life.
Life in the Cities
• Between 1830 and 1860, Southern states
passed laws that limited the rights of free
African Americans.
• Most states would not allow freedmen to
migrate from other states.
• In 1859, Arkansas order all African
Americans to leave the state,
Life in the Cities
• Discussion Question
Why would states have passed laws that
limited the rights of free African
Answer: Some states passed laws that limited the rights of
free African Americans because although they were free many
state legislatures did not recognize free African Americans as
equal to whites under the law.
Did You Know?
Nat Turner, who led the famous slave
rebellion of 1831, also inspired a
provocative novel, The Confessions of Nat
Turner. Written by William Styron in 1966,
it won the Pulitzer Prize two years later.

North and South