American History—Chapter 3 Mercantilism • Countries ultimate goal was to establish self-sufficiency—trying to get as much gold and silver as possible. • Colonies—favorable balance of trade • England wanted raw materials from the colonies (not always the case…people were selling good to other countries) Navigation Acts • Laws that restricted the colonists trading abilities. (English Parliament) • Results: England benefited more from being more involved in the trading process, colonists did not. (Illegal Trading) Anger • People didn’t follow the Navigation Acts and traded with whomever they wanted (especially Massachusetts) • King Charles got mad at Mass., he took away their charter (happened a lot) • Eventually King James picked one guy to rule all of New England Taste of Independence • England started to focus more on France (war) • Salutary Neglect—England would loosen some of its Navigation Act policies if the colonies would promise to trade with England only. • Each colony appointed its own governor • Governors were loyal to the colonist (salaries) • Colonies began to practice self government (liked it a lot) Glorious Revolution • GB got rid of King James (Catholic) • Replaced him with William and Mary • Results in America • Puritans got rid of their governor (James’ pick) • Compromise: New governor for area if the Pilgrims would be more tolerant. The Agricultural South • Cash Crop—single crop that is grown for sale; not personal use. • Tobacco, Rice, Indigo, Cotton • South relied heavily on Cash Crops Southern Lifestyle • Many different groups settled in the South, Germans, Scots, Irish. • Few wealthy people owned most of the land and made the decisions • Women in the South/North were looked upon as inferior (chores, lack of education) Southern Plantations • Big farms located on waterways developed instead of small towns like in the North. • Major cities were located on the coast. • Charlestown, etc Slaves • People that were property of others • Slaves in America usually came originally from Africa (not enough indentured servants, Indians ran away) • Europeans saw Africans as being “inferior” because of their dark skin. • Africans were also better suited to meet the demands of slavery (climate, work load) • By 1750, over 200,000 Africans worked in the Southern Colonies Slave Trade • Triangular Trade— Trade between Africa, West Indies and America. • Way in which goods and people were shipped throughout the world. Middle Passage • Trips that African’s took from Africa to the West Indies and/or America. • More than 20% of Africans died on the trip. Slavery in the South • Most slaves worked in the fields—most difficult. (80-90 %) • Other 10-20 % slaves worked in the house as servants. Not as difficult of work. • Most slaves worked from 12 to death. Often subjected to terrible beatings/harsh treatments. Africans Coping in the New World • Africans came to America from a variety of different cultures (different areas/languages) • Africans tended to bond together by doing things that they had in common (making things, pottery, etc) • Slavery was difficult on families, especially when slaves were sold. • Music and dance were ways in which Africans could communicate while keeping old African customs alive. Revolts • Not all Africans accepted the conditions of slavery…some would do such things as fake illness, break tools and slow down working. • Stono Rebellion—Sept. of 1739, 20 slaves gathered guns/other things killed plantation owners. Rebellion was put down and tighter restrictions were placed. • Many slaves escaped North on the Underground Railroad…popular route to take to the North The Commercial North • Northern economy was driven by trade while the Southern economy was driven by agriculture. • Differences led to a complete opposite way of life. • Farms in the North: • Small, produce a variety of crops • Livestock The Commercial North • Industry: Lumber, fishing, ship building • Expansion of trade caused many cities to grow • New York, Boston, Philadelphia • Philadelphia became one of the leading cities city in the world…extremely modern for the time. (police, parks, street lights) Northern Society is Diverse • Germans, Irish, Mennonites, Quakers, Dutch, Scandinavians and Jews all lived within the North. • People moved to the North because of job opportunities in cities. • Slavery did exist in the North, but it was on a much smaller scale than the South (household servants). • The further South, the more slavery was NEEDED! Women’s Rights • Women had few rights in the North, religion and law kept women inferior to men. • Salem Witch Trials (Salem, Massachusetts) • Several girls accused a Native America of practicing witchcraft…started to spread, more and more girls began being accused of being witches (if they were different than the norm) • 19 girls were hanged, 150 others were jailed. • Showed how uptight people were about any differences in religion or customs Enlightenment • Enlightenment • Scientist started to look beyond religion to answer the questions of the world. • Used Reason to explain what is going on in the world • New ideas spread fast in the North because people could read new thing coming from Europe. • Ben Franklin—Scientist that used Enlightenment to explain things (electricity) • Colonists used Enlightenment to question the authority of the British Great Awakening • As time went on, Puritans that were living in the North became wealthy and began to turn away from religion. • John Edwards—Clergyman who decided that the people of New England needed to be more active in the Puritan Church. • Great Awakening—when people like Edwards went from town to town to try to create a spiritual uprising (making religion number one again) Great Awakening • Results • People became more interested in church (even African Americans and Natives) • It also caused people to examine exactly what the church was saying….this led to numerous other denominations appearing (Baptist, Methodists) • Increased importance in Education..churches started to establish colleges (Princeton, Brown) Great Awakening and Enlightenment • Both caused people to focus on themselves and in turn led them to question the authority that England had on them. • Caused further separation between the two! France vs. England • Both trying to build a world empire…one are they both wanted to claim was the Ohio River Valley in America. • Colonists favored England • Colonists wanted to move west, felt that if England was in control it would be easier New France • French claimed most of Eastern Canada, the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi River. • Area in which the French had explored • New France—the area that France controlled • Major population difference between French areas and English colonies. • French were more concerned with trade than colonizing • French had friendly relations with a wide variety of Indian groups (Huron, Ottawa’s) b/c of trade. Tensions start to increase • Ft. Duquesne—French fort that was built in the area that is now Pittsburgh • Problem: England had already claimed the land • Virginia sent the state militia (army) to see what the French were doing. • Leader of the Virginia militia was George Washington George Washington • Leader of Virginia Militia • Set up Ft. Necessity (located close to Ft. Duquesne) to watch the French • French attacked and forced Washington to surrender. • This was the start of the French and Indian War French and Indian War • French/Indians vs. England/Colonies • Early times did not go well for the GB/Colonist • Washington and Braddock (English General) were ambushed by French and Indian Troops • British were not able to figure out how to handle the guerilla style of fighting used by the French/Indians • Washington and other colonist were surprised by how the “tough” British army was easily defeated. • Many began to questions how strong GB was. GB/Colonists turn the tide • William Pitt—became the new leader of the British troops. • Able to start to get the British to win some battles • Also able to talk the Iroquois to turn against the French • James Wolfe—British General • Led a daring surprise attack on the French city of Quebec • Short and bloody battle, British won and took control of the war. End of the War • Treaty of Paris of 1763—ended the French and Indian War. • Terms: GB would get all of the lands east of the Mississippi River, including New Orleans. British Problems with Indians • The Native Americans were upset that the French lost because they did not want to give up their land. • The British got upset with the Native Americans for resisting British attempts to set up colonies in the new areas. • British did nice things like send blankets full of small pox virus to different tribes. Strained Relationships between the Colonist and GB • Proclamation of 1763 • British govt. banned all colonist from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. • Did this to prevent the colonists from having problems with the Indians. • British could not enforce this act. • Colonists were upset because it appeared that the British did not care about them • GB was also getting mad at Massachusetts Massachusetts Problems • GB was mad because Massachusetts kept illegally trading and smuggling goods (against Navigation Acts) • The people of Massachusetts became more and more upset at GB • British also left 10,000 troops in the colonies to protect them from the Natives More Problems • Colonists were upset about the troops—felt threatened by their presence. Colonists also had to pay for the British troops to be there. • Sugar Act—Laws that were passed by GB in hopes of ending the smuggling of sugar that the colonies were doing. • GB took more and more control of the jurisdiction of the Sugar Act. • By the end of 1764, most colonists were really mad at GB.