Chapter 3 The American Colonies Take Shape Immigration and Slavery Push – Pull factors – Push – negative, causing you to leave – Pull – positive, drawing you to one area Immigrants – Germany, Scotland, Ireland Indentured Servants – passage paid in return for work contract Portugal - African slave trade – – – – Middle Passage – journey from Africa Different languages and cultures MOST went to West Indies Strong immune system http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/the-valueof-tobacco Slavery cont. Triangular Trade North – smallest number; farmhands, dockworkers, house servants Middle & South – tobacco, sugar, indigo, rice Phillis Wheatley – Af. American poet Government English tradition of democracy Magna Carta – 1215 – Reduced power of king – Needed consent of nobles to pass laws – Parliament – bicameral legislature (2 houses) Self rule in colonies – local govts., town meetings, etc. 1689 – Glorious Revolution – William and Mary signed English Bill of Rights – Guarantees freedoms from Magna Carta – Habeas Corpus – cannot hold someone w/out charge – Jury Trial Economic Relationship Salutary Neglect – England trades with colonies and allows self-rule (ignores) Mercantilism – System of trade – mother country exports goods in exchange for gold and silver – Both sides benefit – England benefits the most – sells more than they purchase Navigation Acts – only English ships could trade with colonies, specified certain products could only go to England, had to use an English port and pay duties (taxes) New Ideas Enlightenment – European ideas that all problems could be solved by human reason Scientific Revolution – used observation & experimentation Challenged thinking about religion, science, government; apply natural laws & reason to gov. Challenged ideas of unlimited government, proposed “natural” rights of people, basic human (inalienable) rights, govt. by the consent of the governed (the people) Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau Benjamin Franklin inspired by Enlightenment – scientist, inventor, writer, “Renaissance Man” http://www.history.com/videos/the-eventful-lifeof-benjamin-franklin New Ideas cont. Great Awakening – Revival of religious fervor; power of individual Evangelical preachers traveled preaching Rejected Enlightenment/Secular ideas Jonathon Edwards, George Whitefield Led to formation of new churches, independent thinking Wars of Empire Worldwide struggle for empires N. America – France vs. England French & Indian War (1754) – Indians allied with French (some w/English) – Washington – young British soldier Treaty of Paris 1763 ends war – British win control of N. America (& Canada) Flood of British settlers into Indian lands Pontiac’s Rebellion – uprising against settlers; ran out of ammunition, defeated Made peace in exchange for Proclamation of 1763 (no settlers west of Appalachian mountains) Aftermath Revealed split between British & colonists British wanted greater control Wanted colonists to pay for war Albany Plan of Union (Benjamin Franklin) – – – – First attempt to unite colonies Failed – colonies didn’t want to give up authority Timeline – Jamestown 1607 – Georgia 1733 British first supported then changed - didn’t like idea of united colonies This war is the beginning of the trouble between the British and the colonists – will lead to REVOLUTION!