English Settlements
Several factors led to England’s growth
in colonization: defeat of Spanish
Armada, population growth (economic
growth), joint stock companies
Jamestown
King James I chartered
Virginia Co. (joint-stock) that
est. first permanent English
colony in N. America in 1607
Great hardships: Indian
attacks, famine and disease
Many settlers wanted gold!
And refused to farm/hunt
Captain John Smith’s
leadership helped the
struggling colony
John Rolfe est. tobacco
industry
Jamestown
John Rolfe
John Rolfe develops a sweeter
strain of tobacco to sell in
Europe
Marries Pocahontas
This brings financial prosperity
to the colony
This required a large labor
force: indentured servants
In 1619 African slaves arrive
for the first time
Both are used for labor
Jamestown
The Virginia Company fell
heavily into debt and went
bankrupt
The company’s charter was
revoked in 1624 and Virginia
came under the direct control
of King James I
Virginia became the first royal
colony
Puritan Colonies
Religious Motivation (Plymouth and Mass. Bay)
Settled by English Protestants who were influenced by John Calvin’s
teachings, including predestination
In the early 1600s many people in England wanted to change the
Church of England
They wanted to “purify” their church of Catholic influences
James I viewed these Protestants as a threat and had them arrested
and jailed
The Plymouth Colony
Separatists: wanted to
organize a completely
separate church, independent
of royal control
These Pilgrims first migrated to
Holland and then to America
Set sail for VA in 1620
After 65 days the Mayflower
landed off MA coast
Rather than go to VA they est.
Plymouth Colony
The Plymouth Colony
After a harsh winter the settlers
at Plymouth befriend the
Native Americans and adapt to
the land
First Thanksgiving: 1621
Strong leadership of Capt.
Miles Standish and Gov.
William Bradford
Fish, furs and lumber help the
economy grow
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Charles I continued to
persecute Puritans, so another
group set out for religious
freedom (not Separatists)
They gained a royal charter
and in 1630 about one
thousand set sail, led by John
Winthrop
They landed in MA and
founded Boston
The English civil war drove
thousands out of England
(Great Migration), many to MA
Bay Colony
Early Political Institutions
Plymouth: Aboard the
Mayflower the Pilgrims drew
up and signed the Mayflower
Compact
Pledged to make decisions by
the will of the majority
Represented early form of
colonial self-govt. and early
form of written constitution
Early Political Institutions
The VA Company sought to
encourage settlement in
Jamestown by guaranteeing
colonists the same right they
had had in England
This included the right to be
represented in the lawmaking
process
IN 1619, 12 years after the
founding of Jamestown, VA’s
colonists organized the first
representative assembly in
America: Virginia House of
Burgesses
Early Political Institutions
In the MA Bay Colony there
were limited democratic
actions
All free men – male members
of the Puritan Church-had the
right to participate in yearly
elections of the colony’s
governor and his assistants
Early Political Institutions
Only male property owners
could vote in the colonies
Women and those who did not
own land had few rights
Indentured servants and
slaves had practically no rights
Many colonial governors ruled
with autocratic powers,
answering only to the king
Therefore, democracy in the
Americas developed slowly
The 13 Colonies
Chesapeake Colonies: MD
and VA
MD: Act of Toleration
VA: House of Burgesses,
Bacon’s Rebellion, headright
system
New England Colonies: RI, CT,
NH, MA
RI: Roger Williams, Anne
Hutchinson
CT: The Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut
NH: royal colony
The 13 Colonies
Restoration Colonies: NC, SC,
NY, NJ, PA, DE
NC & SC: agriculture and
slavery
NY: New Amsterdam to NY
PA: William Penn, Quakers,
“Holy Experiment”
Last Colony: GA
GA: defensive buffer, debtor
destination
Slavery
Slave population grew rapidly
in late 1600s and early 1700s
By 1750 half of VA’s and 2/3s
of SC’s population were slaves
Increased demand for slaves:
1.) reduced migration
2.) Dependable work force
(indentured servants=Bacon’s
Rebellion)
3.) Cheap Labor
Slavery
Detailed Drawing of a Slave Ship
Slavery
White colonists enacted laws
to ensure Africans remained in
bondage
Whites regarded blacks
(whether slave or free) as
inferior
Racism and slavery became
an integral part of American
colonial society
African Slave Trade
Slavery
Triangular Trade: many
colonial merchants entered the
profitable slave trade
Rum from New England to W.
Africa to be traded for slaves
Middle Passage to West
Indies, where slave were
traded for sugarcane
Return to New England to
trade sugar for rum
Triangle Trade
Africans in America
Slave life in the South was
very tough, as rice growing
was much harder than tobacco
Many blacks in America
evolved their own languages,
blending their native tongues
with English. Gullah
Blacks also contributed to
music with instruments like the
banjo and bongo drum
A few of the slaves became
skilled artisans( carpenter,
bricklayer)
Africans in America
Africans in America
Revolts did occur
In 1712, a slave revolt in NYC
cost the lives of a dozen whites
and 21 blacks were executed
N 1739, SC blacks along the
Stono R. revolted and tried to
march to Spanish Florida, but
failed
Slave Rebellions
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English Settlements