From Settler Colonies to Imperialism

Settler Colony
Occurred when
European family units
moved into a region in
large numbers
 Intent is to replace native
population with a new
population of people
 Key resource (pull
factor) is the availability
of land & economic
opportunities
 Push Factors

 Overpopulation back in
Europe

Non-Settler Colony

A colony with very
few white European
settlers
SETTLER COLONIES:
Case Study 1

Originally settled by
farmers and ranchers from
the Netherlands
(Boers/Afrikaners)


Contact with native Xhosa
tribes led to near extinction
of the Africans, who didn’t
have resistance to disease
from the Dutch Europeans
British take control of the
tip of Africa in 1806

Abolition of slavery in 1833
leads to eastward
migration of Afrikaners
who would fight against
the Zulu people under their
leader, Shaka Zulu

Diamonds and Gold



Discovery of diamonds
(1867) and gold (1886)
deposits lead to British
miner migrations
Led to South African War
b/t British and Dutch
Afrikaners
Reconciliation b/t
Afrikaners and British was
reached and the Union of
South Africa was formed
which had whites control all
native black Africans.
SETTLER COLONIES:
Case Study 2

Native Aborigine
population was a
foraging/fishing society



200 free settlers
 800 convicts
Decline of Aboriginal
Population
Infectious disease
 Forced resettlement
 Removal of children
 Destruction of culture

Considered savages by
the British
1770, James Cook claims
Australia for Britain on
his voyages
Originally settled as a
penal colony



As number of white
British settlers increased,
Aboriginal population
was forced off land and
pushed into the interior
(the Outback)
SETTLER COLONIES: Case
Study 3



Coastal region was considered
an integral part of France
Natives (largely Ottoman
Muslims) pushed out as
Europeans moved in
Colonized by


peasants/working-class poor
from Italy, Spain, and France
political exiles and convicts
from France

Napoleon III


French officials disagreed



Respected natives and
tried to prevent
contact/exploitation by
limiting settlement to the
coast
Continued to grant land
to colons
Goal was to provide land
for wheat production
Tribal leaders sold land to
turn a quick profit

One country’s
domination of
political, economic,
and social life of
another country


Political  rival
European countries
(nationalism)
Economic demand
for raw materials
and markets for
goods (competition,
Industrial
Revolution)

Ideological  European
religious zeal, feelings of
racial/cultural
superiority = Europeans
wanted to impose their
cultures on others


(Social Darwinism): idea
that some races were more
“evolved” than others
“The White Man’s Burden”
– duty of Europeans to
civilize “backward” people,
spread Christianity and
Western ideals/values


Religious  desire
to spread
Christianity,
Exploratory 
scientific/medical
research, have
adventure,
investigate
unknown
land/culture
Victoria Falls
& Dr. Livingstone



Colony – directly
ruled by an imperial
power thru colonial
officials
Protectorate – has its
own govt, but
“guided” by a foreign
power
Sphere of Influence –
region where an
imperial power has
exclusive
investment/trading
rights

Africans spoke over
1000 different
languages!

Powerful African
armies had kept
Europeans out of
Africa for 400 years!
1880-1914, European countries claimed
most parts of Africa for their own
 1885 – European nations
met in Berlin, Germany
and agreed to split
(partition) Africa amongst
themselves
(Berlin Conference)
 By 1914, Europe
controlled 90% of Africa


Invaded Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco in
Northern Africa
Controlled Egypt, Sudan, South Africa
 Desired to control a
portion of Africa all the
way from North to South
(“From Cairo to
Capetown” was the motto)

Analyzing
Political
Cartoons


By 1900, Liberia was the only independent state
in West Africa.
Ethiopia was also independent (kicked out the
Italians when led by King Menelik II)
Non-settler Colony: Case Study 1



Colonized under King
Leopold II – forced local
chiefs to sign treaties giving
up power at gunpoint
Non settlement colony (in
1900, just over 1,000
Belgians lived in Congo,
whose territory was 80x
larger than all of Belgium
itself)
Based on resource/labor
exploitation

Rubber tree plantations
 Forced labor
 Cruel treatment of natives,
high taxes

As many as 4-8 million
native Congalese died as a
result
Belgian Congo




Harmed land by
mining, factories,
logging
Paid Africans low
wages, and
imposed high
taxes
Men housed in
dorms away from
families

Schools taught
that European
ways were best
By early 1900s,
elite Africans
began to
condemn
imperialism as
against European
ideals of liberty,
equality,
nationalism
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Imperialism in Africa