Benjamin Franklin’s World 1702-1763 The British colonies come of age and the seeds of future development are sown. Essay 1 “The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that they were unable to unite to face the attack of common enemies.” Assess the validity of this statement. Essay 2 How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? The Colonies 1700 Colonial Government Regionalism Develops Domestic Manufacturing Religious Revival and The Great Awakening Population Growth Slavery Expands French and Indian War Similarities of Colonies Colonial Government Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750 Salutary Neglect: Lax enforcement of laws, loose control Royal Governor represented the King’s Government (could veto colonial legislatures) Could dissolve assemblies Judges were appointed by Governors Were appointed by the King’s government Elected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two house legislatures) (White male, land owners- 50 acres of land minimum, Self Government) House of Burgesses (Virginia) and Assemblies Provided Governor's Salary Make laws for the colonies The Colonies Mostly English Self-government (though not all democratic) Religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony) Educational opportunity Provided unusual opportunities for economic and social self-development Differences among the three colonial regions. -- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on civic participation, more industry, less available farm land Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur trapping Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population, expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant) Regionalism Develops North develops distinct culture of religious ideals, trade, industry and no slavery The South develops into large agriculture enterprises, slavery is important and cheap (no taxes) import economy is desired Who is the subject? “Few of their children in the country learn English... The signs in our streets have inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the stream of their importation could be turned they will soon so outnumber us that all the advantages we have will not be able to preserve our language, and even our government will become precarious.” Population Growth by 1750s Immigration (See Map Page 120) Population Growth Healthy Colonists- Married young, Immigration Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots, ScotchIrish 200,000, German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue Franklin) Some Irish Catholics New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly Puritan Population Growth by 1750s Push Factors: Religious Oppression Economic Misfortune War Pull Factors: Economic Opportunity Religious Freedom Land and Liberty Population Growth 1700 = 300,000 people; 1775= 2,500,000 by 1775 (20% black) 1790= 4,000,000 Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC, and Maryland Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 90% lived in rural areas. Cities Population growth supports the growth of cities Philadelphia Largest city (1770’s) 22,000 Boston (1760) 15,000 New York (1700) 5000 to 21,000 (1770s) Charleston Slavery Expands Late 1600s and 1700s Large population of African Slaves begin to arrive Earlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean- excess Slaves from Sugar Plantations Chattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary, perpetual, racially defined South held 90% of slaves Slavery becomes a fundamental part of southern Colonial society 1740, 40 % of all Virginians were slaves 1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South Carolina 2-1. Brutality of Slavery African Slaves not accustomed to English work hours and ethics are brutalized Horrors of the Middle Passage: Two months on board ship Cramped, 10-20% slaves died Slaves resisted by running away Northern colonies also used some slave labor Both Northern and Southern colonies created slave codes to regulate the slave behavior and actions (land ownership…) During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave trade about 11 million Africans were transported to the Americas Industry and Trade Expand Triangular Trade: one example of the trade relationship between colonies and other countries. Map Slave trade considerations Founding of Georgia Why: The Great Awakening 1730s-1740s The Great Awakening of the 1700s came in response to a decline in religious piety During the Great Awakening, or “Awakening” to religion Stated man is not helpless in achieving regeneration; his will can be an effective force in his being saved Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) a. Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734 -- Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement. b. Blasted the idea of salvation through good works and dependence on God's grace is paramount George Whitefield (1714-1770) a. Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled extensively b. His basic appeal was to the Bible c. Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism Results of The Great Awakening Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it c. Undermined the older clergy Brought a number of religious groups to popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread throughout the middle and southern colonies Led to general acceptance of religious differences Domestic Manufactures French and Indian War 1754-1763 AKA: Seven Years War The British and French rivalry and antagonism manifest itself in the American colonies. A Series of limited wars: Precursor of King William’s War 1689-1697 Queen Anne’s War 1701-1713 King George’s War 1744-48 The Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to settle land and causes French to assert claims and build forts. Map French and Indian War 1754-1763 The Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build fort and are expelled by French French build Fort Duquesne Washington-commanded a small force, attacks and must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later surrenders. Full scale war erupts and British send troops but want colonial cooperation At first colonials don’t support the war until the British promise to reimburse colonies for efforts. Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin, Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754 This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the colonies. The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to the geographic position of the colonies along the American coast, with the snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing north. The colonies, from tail to head (south to north), are: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England (New England refered to the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE." The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. At the time, there was a superstition that a snake which had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset. French and Indian War 1754-1763 French were allied with most Indian tribes except Iroquois British invade under Braddock and are beaten back Later the British, under new leadership, are able to gradually divide the French powers and end up invading Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal. Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain). Effects of the French and Indian War British now control most of North America British change their policy and relationship with the Colonies More taxes will be charged in order to pay for war expenses No more movement West for colonists, Proclamation line of 1763 Speculator, buy land and sell it to immigrants for profit. These changes will mark an end to Salutary Neglect and bring a more direct control of colonies by England and lead to the Revolution. Colonists begin to develop a sense of common identity, proud to be part of the British family, but perceiving clear distinctions.