Benjamin Franklin’s
World 1702-1763
The British colonies come of age and
the seeds of future development are
sown.
Essay 1
 “The
British colonies were so
antagonistic to each other that they
were unable to unite to face the attack
of common enemies.”
 Assess
the validity of this statement.
Essay 2
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How did economic, geographic, and
social factors encourage the growth
of slavery as an important part of the
economy of southern colonies
between 1607 and 1775?
The Colonies 1700
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Colonial Government
Regionalism Develops
Domestic Manufacturing
Religious Revival and The Great Awakening
Population Growth
Slavery Expands
French and Indian War
Similarities of Colonies
Colonial Government
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Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750
Salutary Neglect: Lax enforcement of laws, loose control
Royal Governor represented the King’s Government (could veto
colonial legislatures)
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Could dissolve assemblies
Judges were appointed by Governors
Were appointed by the King’s government
Elected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two house
legislatures)
(White male, land owners- 50 acres of land minimum, Self
Government)
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House of Burgesses (Virginia) and Assemblies
Provided Governor's Salary
Make laws for the colonies
The Colonies
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Mostly English
Self-government (though not all democratic)
Religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony)
Educational opportunity
Provided unusual opportunities for economic and social self-development
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Differences among the three colonial regions.
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-- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New
Hampshire
Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on
civic participation, more industry, less available farm land
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Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
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Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to
human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur
trapping
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Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
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Georgia
Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population,
expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant)
Regionalism Develops
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North develops distinct culture of religious
ideals, trade, industry and no slavery
The South develops into large agriculture
enterprises, slavery is important and cheap (no
taxes) import economy is desired
Who is the subject?
“Few of their children in the country learn
English... The signs in our streets have
inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the
stream of their importation could be turned
they will soon so outnumber us that all the
advantages we have will not be able to
preserve our language, and even our
government will become precarious.”
Population Growth by 1750s
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Immigration (See Map Page 120)
Population Growth
Healthy Colonists- Married young,
Immigration Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots, ScotchIrish 200,000,
 German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue
Franklin)
Some Irish Catholics
New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly
Puritan
Population Growth by 1750s
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Push Factors:
Religious Oppression
 Economic Misfortune
 War
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Pull Factors:
Economic Opportunity
 Religious Freedom
 Land and Liberty
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Population Growth
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1700 = 300,000 people;
1775= 2,500,000 by 1775 (20% black)
1790= 4,000,000
Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn.,
NC, and Maryland
Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY,
Boston, Charleston
90% lived in rural areas.
Cities
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Population growth supports the growth of cities
Philadelphia Largest city (1770’s) 22,000
Boston (1760) 15,000
New York (1700) 5000 to 21,000 (1770s)
Charleston
Slavery Expands
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Late 1600s and 1700s Large population of African
Slaves begin to arrive
Earlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean- excess
Slaves from Sugar Plantations
Chattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary, perpetual,
racially defined
South held 90% of slaves
Slavery becomes a fundamental part of southern
Colonial society
1740, 40 % of all Virginians were slaves
1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South
Carolina 2-1.
Brutality of Slavery
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African Slaves not accustomed to English work hours
and ethics are brutalized
Horrors of the Middle Passage:
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Two months on board ship
Cramped, 10-20% slaves died
Slaves resisted by running away
Northern colonies also used some slave labor
Both Northern and Southern colonies created slave
codes to regulate the slave behavior and actions (land
ownership…)
During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave trade about
11 million Africans were transported to the Americas
Industry and Trade Expand
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Triangular Trade: one example of the trade
relationship between colonies and other
countries. Map
Slave trade considerations
Founding of Georgia
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Why:
The Great Awakening
1730s-1740s
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The Great Awakening of the 1700s came in response to a decline in religious
piety
During the Great Awakening, or “Awakening” to religion
Stated man is not helpless in achieving regeneration; his will can be an effective
force in his being saved
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Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
a. Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in
Northampton in 1734
-- Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement.
b. Blasted the idea of salvation through good works and dependence
on God's grace is paramount
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George Whitefield (1714-1770)
a. Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and
traveled extensively
b. His basic appeal was to the Bible
c. Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded
Methodism
Results of The Great Awakening
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Brought religion to many who had lost touch
with it
c. Undermined the older clergy
Brought a number of religious groups to
popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread throughout
the middle and southern colonies
Led to general acceptance of religious differences
Domestic Manufactures
French and Indian War 1754-1763
AKA: Seven Years War
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The British and French rivalry and antagonism
manifest itself in the American colonies.
A Series of limited wars:
Precursor of King William’s War 1689-1697
 Queen Anne’s War 1701-1713
 King George’s War 1744-48
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The Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to
settle land and causes French to assert claims
and build forts. Map
French and Indian War
1754-1763
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The Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build
fort and are expelled by French
French build Fort Duquesne
Washington-commanded a small force, attacks and
must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later surrenders.
Full scale war erupts and British send troops but want
colonial cooperation
At first colonials don’t support the war until the British
promise to reimburse colonies for efforts.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin, Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9,
1754
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This cartoon shows a snake cut into
eight pieces, each labeled with the
name of one of the colonies. The
position of each colony in the snake
corresponds to the geographic position
of the colonies along the American
coast, with the snake's tail pointing
south and the head pointing north.
The colonies, from tail to head (south
to north), are: South Carolina, North
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York,
and New England (New England
refered to the colonies of
Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, and New Hampshire).
The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE."
The cartoon appeared along with
Franklin's editorial about the "disunited
state" of the colonies, and helped make
his point about the importance of colonial
unity. At the time, there was a superstition
that a snake which had been cut into
pieces would come back to life if the
pieces were put together before sunset.
French and Indian War
1754-1763
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French were allied with most Indian tribes except
Iroquois
British invade under Braddock and are beaten back
Later the British, under new leadership, are able to
gradually divide the French powers and end up invading
Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal.
Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French
presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi
including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain).
Effects of the French and Indian
War
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British now control most of North America
British change their policy and relationship with the
Colonies
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More taxes will be charged in order to pay for war expenses
No more movement West for colonists, Proclamation line of
1763 Speculator, buy land and sell it to immigrants for profit.
These changes will mark an end to Salutary Neglect and bring
a more direct control of colonies by England and lead to the
Revolution.
Colonists begin to develop a sense of common identity,
proud to be part of the British family, but perceiving
clear distinctions.
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Benjamin Franklin’s World 1702-1763