Chapter 4
The Bonds of Empire
• 4 major questions:
– How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations
between England and its North American
– What were the most important consequences of
British mercantilism for the mainland colonies?
– What factors explain the relative strengths of the
British, French, and Spanish empires in North
Introduction (cont.)
• What were the most significant results of the
Enlightenment and Great Awakening in the
British colonies?
Rebellion and War, 1660-1713
• Introduction
– Until the restoration of the Stuart kings in 1660, England
made little effort to rule its overseas territories
– With the accession of Charles II (ruled from 1660-1685)
• England sought to expand its empire and trade
• Impose royal authority on its colonies
• Regulate their economic activities so as to benefit English
commercial interests
Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
• Stuart kings wanted to become absolute monarchs
like Louis XIV
– Rarely called parliament into session
– Ignored the colonial legislatures
• 1684=Charles II revoked Massachusetts’s charter
• Between 1686 and 1688, James II consolidated all of
the New England colonies, NY, and NJ into the
Dominion of New England
– Abolished their assemblies
– Placed full power into the hands of his arbitrary and
dictatorial royal governor (Sir Edmond Andros)
Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
• The colonists bitterly resented this denial of
their rights
• Tensions ran particularly high in
Massachusetts and NY
The Glorious Revolution, 16881689
• 1688-1689=James II’s
high-handed, pro-Catholic
actions led to the Glorious
Revolution in England
– He was forced into exile
• The throne went to
William and Mary
– Agreed to a limited
monarch and promised to
summon Parliament
annually and respect the
civil liberties of English
The Glorious Revolution, 16881689 (cont.)
• When news of the Glorious Revolution reached
America in 1689, New Englanders rebelled against
Andros and his councilors
• Massachusetts and other colonies appealed to
William and Mary for the return of their charters
– The new monarchs dissolved the Dominion of New
England and issued charters granting each colony the right
to have a representative assembly
The Glorious Revolution, 16881689 (cont.)
• Massachusetts’s new charter did not give it as
much independence as it had formerly
– Its governors would be appointed by the crown,
not elected
– It would have to tolerate and share power in the
colony with Anglicans
The Glorious Revolution, 16881689 (cont.)
• Leisler’s Rebellion in New York and John
Coode’s uprising in Maryland also were
inspired by the Glorious Revolution
A Generation of War, 1689-1713
• British and French fought against each other
in 2 wars
– King William’s War (War of the League of
– Queen Anne’s War (War of the Spanish
• Most of the fighting was done in Europe
• Some fighting happened in North America
A Generation of War, 1689-1713
• Peace returned in 1713
• France still controlled the North American
• English colonist felt a heightened sense of
British identity and dependence on their
mother country’s protection from their
powerful neighbor
Colonial Economics and Societies,
• Mercantilist Empires in America
– Mercantilism=each nation’s power was measured
by its wealth, especially in gold
– Followed by Britain, France, and Spain
– The country should produce within its own empire
as much of what it needed as possible
– Its exports to foreign competitors should exceed
its imports
Mercantilist Empires in America
• To achieve the goals of mercantilism
• British Parliament passed a series of laws known as
the Navigation Acts
– 1651 to 1733
– Required all trade to be conducted on British-owned ships
– Prohibited Americans from selling certain products
(tobacco, rice, furs, indigo, and naval stores) to foreign
countries unless they first passed through England
Mercantilist Empires in America
• Navigation Acts (cont.)
– Placed high taxes on products that Americans
bought from outside the empire (i.e. molasses
from French Caribbean)
– Forbade colonials form competing with British
clothing manufactures
Mercantilist Empires in America
• Navigation Acts (cont.)
– Parliament intended these laws to benefit only
England, the acts in practice did not unduly
hamper the colonists
– The laws cut into the profits of rice and tobacco
Mercantilist Empires in America
• Benefits of Navigation Acts
– Shipping had to be done on British vessels and this
stimulated the growth of America’s merchant
marine, shipbuilding, and ports
– Bounties paid to producers of hemp, lumber, and
other items under the Navigation Acts encouraged
the development of those industries in the
Mercantilist Empires in America
• The restrictions on large-scale manufacturing
did little harm, since only home production
and small workshops were economically
feasible in America
Mercantilist Empires in America
• French and Spanish colonies in North America did
not develop nearly as robust economies as the
• New France
– Main export was furs
– By 18th century furs did not bring much profit
– French govt. even underwrote the fur-trading with the
Indians in order to keep on good terms with their Native
American allies
Mercantilist Empires in America
• Spanish colonies
– Colonists smuggled British and French products
– Did very little manufacturing
• Mercantilist principles did not work well for France
and Spain because they did not have the large
merchant class with liquid assets to invest in the
colonies and other commercial ventures
– Great Britain could do this
Population Growth and Diversity
• French and Spanish colonies in NA lagged
behind the British in population growth as
well as economic development
• 1750
– British North America had 1.1 million
– New France had 60,000
– Spanish North America had 19,000
Population Growth and Diversity
• Religion
– British opened their colonies to all Europeans of
whatever religion
– French and Spanish barred non-Catholics and
made no effort to attract settlers from countries
other than their own
• The steady growth of the British colonies
outpaced not only their European rivals, but
also Britain itself
Population Growth and Diversity
• After 1700, British North America grew rapidly from
both natural increase and the arrival of newcomers.
• 18th century immigrants came less from England and
more from other places (pg. 97)
– Africans brought on slave ships
– Scots-Irish, Irish, and Germans
• Many of the Europeans came as indentured servants
• English colonies became more racially and ethnically
diverse (not always welcomed by all English colonist)
Population Growth and Diversity
• Most 18th century white immigrants were too
poor to buy land in the already developed
coastal areas so they pushed into the
Piedmont region
– Eastern slope of the Appalachians
– By 1750 1/3 of colonial population lived there
– Map on page 98
Population Growth and Diversity
• From 1713 to 1754, the importation of slaves
to the mainland was greatly increased
– Black colonial population rose from 11% to 20 %
• Most slaves lived in the South
• 15% were in the colonies north of MD
– African American population also multiplied
through natural increase
Rural White Men and Women
• Worked small farms
• Depended on the labor of their sons
• Supplemental production from wives and daughters
– Clothing
– Vegetables
– Poultry
• Few inherited land
• Young couples at first
– Worked for others
– Borrow $$$$ to buy own farms
Colonial Farmers and the
• Rapidly cut down the forests
• Bring more land under cultivation
• Uses of timber
– Fences
– Fuel
– Buildings
– Sold wood to townspeople
Colonial Farmers and the
Environment (cont.)
• Results of deforestation
– Drove away large game
– Greater extremes in temperature
– Less dependable water levels in streams
• Reduced amount of fish
– Dried and hardened the soil
Colonial Farmers and the
Environment (cont.)
• Farmers grew tobacco and other soil-depleting
– Did not use fertilizer
– No crop rotation or letting field lie fallow
• Land lost fertility
• Yields seriously diminished
The Urban Paradox
• 1740--4% of colonists lived in cities
• Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charles Town
(Charleston today)
– Thriving ports
– Shipped livestock, grain, and lumber that enriched the
• Escalating problems
– Urban poverty, crowding, poor sanitation, periodic
epidemics of contagious diseases
The Urban Paradox (cont.)
• Women in cities
• Middle-class women ran complex households
that included servants, slaves, and apprentices
• sewing, knitting, daily trips to public market,
family businesses, etc.
• Most had at least 1 household servant
– Help with cooking, cleaning, laundering
• The economic progress of colonial America meant
that most masters could afford to keep their slaves
• For the slaves=meant heavier workloads and longer
– Worked harder and longer and had lower standards of
living than whites
• Masters generally spent 60% more to maintain their
white indentured servants than their black slaves
Slavery (cont.)
• The number of slaves residing in cities mounted
– 20% of population in NYC
– Majority of population in Charles Town and Savannah
• urban racial tensions ran high
– 1739 Stono Rebellion in South Carolina
– 1712 and 1741 slave conspiracies in NY
• Almost all rebellions by slaves were suppressed by
frightened whites
The Rise of the Colonial Elites
• In the 18th century, class differences were becoming
more apparent in America
• Wealthy rural gentry and urban commercial elites
attempted to imitate the fashions and lifestyles of
the European upper class
Bought expensive chinaware
Learned formal dances
Studied foreign languages
Cultivated the manners of the gentry
Some even sent sons abroad to study
Growing taste for British consumer goods
Competing for a Continent, 17131750
• France and the American Heartland
– After 1713, France resumed building its empire in
North America
• 1718=founded New Orleans
• Made it the capital of Louisiana province
– Farming, hunting, fishing, trading with Indians
– Alliances with the Choctaws in LA
– Tried to win over Native American trading
partners in the Ohio Valley and Great Plains
France and the American
Heartland (cont.)
• Several French posts in the Ohio Valley
became sizable villages housing Indians,
French, and mixed-ancestry metis
• Generally more successful in getting along
with the Indians than the British, the French
also crushed tribes that stood in their way
such as the Natchez
Native Americans and British
• The Carolinians met resistance from the Indian
tribes on whose lands they were encroaching,
culminating in the Tuscarora (1711-1713) and
Yamasee (1715) wars
– Those tribes were driven from the area
• Tuscarora moved to upstate New York and joined the
Iroquois Confederacy
Native Americans and British
Expansion (cont.)
• Covenant Chain
– Series of treaties
– Aided the colonists’ fight for lands
– Solidifying Iroquois power among Native
Americans throughout the Northeast
Native Americans and British
Expansion (cont.)
• Pennsylvania coerced the Delaware Indians
into ceding their lands and moving into
territory adjacent to that of the Iroquois
• Other eastern tribes also were pushed
– they were used by the Iroquois as buffer between
themselves and the aggressive English
British Expansion in the South:
• Georgia was the last of
the original 13 colonies to
be established on the
North American mainland
• Only one to received
some financial support
from the British govt.
• James Oglethorpe
– Haven for English debtors
– Outpost protecting the
Carolinas from the Spanish
empire to the south
British Expansion in the South:
Georgia (cont.)
• 1733=Savannah was established
– 1740=2,800 settlers there
• Most were not English debtors
– 1/2 were not English
– German, Swiss, Scottish, Jewish
Society of industrious small farmers
Able to defend themselves from attack
Banned African slavery
Limited size of landholdings
British Expansion in the South:
Georgia (cont.)
• Settlers switched to rice cultivation to make a
– Needed large farms and slaves
• 1750 restrictions were dropped
• Attracted more settles and developed a
booming plantation-slave economy
Spain’s Borderlands
• Spain spread its empire throughout the
Southwest and part of the Southeast
• European population in New Mexico grew
very slowly
– Navajo and Apache raids ceased
– Those tribes made an alliance with the Spanish
against the Utes and Comanches
Spain’s Borderlands (cont.)
• Texas
– Spanish established outposts and missions
(including the Alamo)
– Indians in Texas traded more with the French
• Did not like to farm for the Spanish
– Periodic raids on the province by the French and
Comanches discouraged Hispanic settlement in
• As late as 1760, only 1,200 Spaniards lived there
Spain’s Borderlands (cont.)
• The Spanish attempted to weaken the British
Carolinas and Georgia by offering freedom to
English-owned slaves who fled to their colony
of Florida
The Return of War, 1739-1748
• War among the imperial rivals for North America
resumed in 1739
• First war was between British and Spanish over the
Florida-Georgia border
• This war merged with the larger War of the Austrian
Succession (King George’s War) (1740-1748)
• Only one battle on North American soil during King
George’s War
– Battle of Louisbourg which was on the St. Lawrence
The Return of War, 1739-1748
• New Englanders seized Louisbourg from the
• In the peace treaty (Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle)
the British returned Louisbourg for an outpost
the French had taken in India
• Many Americans felt lingering resentment
over how little England appreciated the lives
they had sacrificed to gain Louisbourg
Public Life in British America, 16891750
• Colonial Politics
– Shift from royal governors and appointed officials to the
representative colonial assemblies
• Most important political result of the Glorious Revolution and the
adoption of the English Bill of Rights in British America
– These legislative bodies exercised influence over the
governors by controlling their salaries, authorized
spending, imposed taxes, etc.
– America (at least the upper class) became more and more
self-governing (except for trade regulations, restrictions on
printing money, and declaring war)
Colonial Politics (cont.)
• Wealthy elites dominated colonial politics
– Elected to the colonial assemblies
– Appointed to the governor’s councils
– Appointed to judgeships in the courts
• Women, blacks, Indians could NOT vote or hold
• Property qualifications excluded about 40% of white
males from voting and holding office
• Proportion of men who did have the vote was higher
than in England and Ireland during the same time
The Enlightenment
• American intellectuals
were influenced by
the ideals of the 18th
• Emphasized reason,
progress, science, and
capacity for human
The Enlightenment (cont.)
• Skeptical of beliefs not founded on science or strict
• Mostly in cities
• Circulated the latest European books, investigated
nature, conducted experiments
• Some were Deists (believed in a god who created the
universe and set it in motion according to natural
laws discoverable by human intellect but who did not
intervene thereafter with miracles
The Enlightenment (cont.)
• Franklin and Jefferson were Deists
• Formally attended church and called
themselves Christians
• Enlightened intellectuals took a dim view of
the emotional excesses of the Great
The Great Awakening
• 1740’s
• “an outpouring of passionate Christian
• Across all 13 colonies
• Jonathan Edwards, William Tennent, Theodore
Frelinghuysen, George Whitefield
• Colonists repented and seek salvation
George Whitefield
The Great Awakening (cont.)
• Many new colleges were founded to educate
Princeton (Presbyterian)
Columbia (King’s College) (Anglican)
Brown (Baptist)
Dartmouth (Congregationalist)
• Insistence on the equality of all born-again Christians
in God’s eyes and the corruption of “unsaved” upperclass leaders
• By 1750, the British mainland colonies had:
– grown prosperous,
– established representative governments,
– upper-and middle class intellectuals participating
in the developing of new ideas sweeping Europe
known as the Enlightenment
• Anglo-American society was also torn by class,
race, and religious tensions
Conclusion (cont.)
• The imperial wars that Britain fought with the
aid of the colonists between 1739 and 1748
both drew Americans closer to the mother
country and spawned some resentment about
British lack of appreciation for Americans’

Chapter 4