th
18
The Mosaic of
Century America
1689-1771





Forces of Division
Slave Societies in the 18th c. South
Enlightenment and Awakening in
America
Anglo-American Worlds of the 18th c.
Towards the Seven Years War
Main Issues





English colonists were angry at
French empire & trade with Indians
British colonists were too divided to
create a coordinated resistance
Immigration altered colonies
Regional differences divided colonists
“Frontier” conflicts with Indians
Forces of Division






1700: 290,000 colonists
1750: 1.5 million colonists
High birth rates, low mortality
Death rate 20% lower than BR
Land, crops, trading
No large famines
Immigration & Social Tensions


Scotland/Ireland
Indentured servants
◦ Convicts and dissenters


Push-pull factors
Community culture
◦ Carolinas
The Scots-Irish

Push-pull factors
◦ Land loss
◦ Pennsylvania
◦ Farming

Convicts and dissenters
◦ Poor
◦ Disenfranchised
German Immigration








Urban diversity and stratification
Faster in South
Squatting in the “backcountry”
Chain migration
Religious differences
Regionalism
Native lands
Becoming white, and American
Immigration Patterns by 1760
“Why should the Palatinate Boors be
suffered to swarm into our settlements,
and by herding together establish their
languages and manners to the
exclusion of ours? Why should
Pennsylvania, founded by the English,
become a colony of Aliens, who will
shortly be so numerous as to
Germanize us instead of our Anglifying
them, and will never adopt our
customs, any more than they can
acquire our complexion?
(Palatinate = Southern Germany)


Immigrants and the poor moved west
for cheap land
Confrontations with Indians
◦ Penn, 1763: Irish Paxton Boys killed Indians
◦ Carolinas, 1760s: Regulators were vigilantes
acting in a legal vacuum, class tensions

Colonial boundary disputes
◦ New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, 1760s:
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys
were vigilantes settling border differences
Frontier Conflicts




By 1775 approx. 25% of people in
colonies were slaves, nearly all lived in
the South
Distinct and separate society in the
South, but more interaction in the North
Slave codes and laws, combined with
cultural differences and the demand for
labor created the idea of a black race fit
only for slavery
An “American problem” not just
Southern
Slavery in the 1700s







Cultures, languages and religious from
Africa persisted in the colonies
Families struggled to maintain sense of
normality
Extended kin and fictive kin
Families on large plantations faced
possibility of sale at auctions
Marriages were not recognized as legal
Illegal to teach them to read or write
Owners feared teaching them
Christianity
Slave Life and Survival







Natchez Revolt of
1729
Stono Rebellion 1739
South Carolina
Angola
Dozens killed
Increased fear and
oppression
Maroon communities
Slave Resistance
Late 17th century
 Science & philosophy

◦ Natural laws
◦ Rationality & reason
◦ Improve mankind
Elites & wealthy
 Impacted politics &
government
 John Locke

The Enlightenment



Religious Revivalism
Reaction to Puritanism
Whitefield
◦ Tent gatherings
◦ Mass conversions

“New Lights”
◦ Converts
◦ Anti-authoritarian


Democratic and
Populist Tendencies
Diversity
Great Awakening, 1720s-60s


Politics, Government & Economy
British Liberal Monarchy
◦ “Balanced Constitution”
◦ “Benign Neglect”

Representation
◦ Virtual vs. Actual
◦ Colonial governors



Political Contentment thru 1740s
Mercantilism, industry, urbanization
Strong and regulated control over
colonial economies
Anglo-American Worlds

Great Diversity
◦ No unified colonial identity

Immigration and regionalism
◦ Slavery, ethnicity, religion, economic
differences
Frontier conflicts over land & borders
 Imperial tensions
 Enlightenment and Great Awakening
 “Benign neglect” and Representation

British Colonies in the 1750s
Descargar

A Mosaic of 18th Century America - Index