Brinkley Chapter 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America “The British colonies come of age.” 2008-09 McElhaney Essay 1 “The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that they were unable to unite to face the attack of common enemies.” Assess the validity of this statement. Essay 2 1. Though there where many differences in the development of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies, they had much in common. What conditions and experiences were common to American colonists regardless of their colony or region? Essay 3 How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? Essay 4 Although many Northerners and Southerners came later to think of themselves as having separate civilizations, the Northern and Southern colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar than different. Assess the validity of this statement. The Colonies 1700 Population Growth Women in the Colonies North and South Colonial Economy North and South Triangular Trade Colonial Society North and South Salem Witchcraft Trials Religious Revival and The Great Awakening Colonial Government Regionalism Develops Slavery Expands French and Indian War Similarities of Colonies Who is the subject? “Few of their children in the country learn English... The signs in our streets have inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the stream of their importation could be turned they will soon so outnumber us that all the advantages we have will not be able to preserve our language, and even our government will become precarious.” Population Growth by 1750s Immigration (See Map Page 120) Population Growth Healthy Colonists- Married young, Immigration Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots, ScotchIrish 200,000, German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue Franklin) Some Irish Catholics New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly Puritan Population Growth by 1750s Push Factors: Religious Oppression Economic Misfortune War Pull Factors: Economic Opportunity Religious Freedom Land and Liberty Cities Population growth supports the growth of cities Philadelphia Largest city (1770’s) 22,000 Boston (1760) 15,000 New York (1700) 5,000 to 21,000 (1770s) Charleston- (1775) 12,000 Population Growth 1700 = 251,000 non Indians 1770= 2,148,000 1775= 2,500,000 by 1775 (50,000 black) 1790= 4,000,000 Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC, and Maryland Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 90% lived in rural areas. Women North or South? Mid/late colonial period 1740s Family structure more stable Sex ratio balanced Lower infant mortality rate Strict parental supervision Less premarital pregnancy Status defined by religious belief Women expected to be modest, submissive, serving, and working for the household Women moved from families when married South Greater independence (early) Lots of Widows (early) Had stronger social power when population was lower Premarital pregnancy Were in demand due to low numbers thus more influence Still child rearing Common Aspect Colonial Economy Commercial oriented Trade With Indians Local French and Spanish when they could Agriculture dominated Domestic and export Extraction economies Colonial Economy North and South North Diverse Agriculture Low scale Small local trade Home industries Cobblers, blacksmiths, rifle makers, cabinet makers, silversmiths, printers, Mills run on water power Wheat, Cloth, lumber Ship building Iron works (Iron act 1750) Merchant Class growes strong Boston, New York, Philadelphia The South Large and small agriculture Tobacco dominant Boom and bust pattern Rice in South Carolina Indigo Slavery Lopsided Development Low Merchant class emerges Low Industry Industry and Trade Expand Industry in the colonies was restricted English wanted to limit manufactures in colonies so they would not compete with English companies. Iron Act 1750= limit colonial iron mills Triangular Trade: one example of the trade relationship between colonies and other countries. Map Slave trade considerations Extraction economies Triangular Trade The Colonies Mostly English Self-government (though not all democratic) Religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony) Educational opportunity (New England better) Provided unusual opportunities for economic and social self-development Farming in all colonies Differences among the three colonial regions. -- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on civic participation, more industry, less available farm land Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur trapping Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population, expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant) Slavery Expands Late 1600s and 1700s Large population of African Slaves begin to arrive Earlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean- excess Slaves from Sugar Plantations Chattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary, perpetual, racially defined South held 90% of slaves Slavery becomes a fundamental part of southern Colonial society 1740, 40 % of all Virginians were slaves 1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South Carolina 2-1. Brutality of Slavery African Slaves not accustomed to English work hours and ethics are brutalized Horrors of the Middle Passage: Two months on board ship Cramped, 10-20% slaves died Slaves resisted 1. is by passive Resistance and 2. 2. by running away Northern colonies also used some slave labor Both Northern and Southern colonies created slave codes to regulate the slave behavior and actions (land ownership…) During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave trade about 11 million Africans were transported to the Americas 1739- Stono Rebellion slave uprising South Carolina = 100 slaves Society South Plantation Mostly Self contained Planter class emerges Dominated politics Majority of small farmers had no slaves Society North Puritan Town focus of community Covenants bind members together “religious and social commitment to unity” Village around a “Common” Pasture Social Hierarchy the “Elect” chosen by god “Town Meetings” Adult males, close family ties due to lack of land Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692) Accusations of witchcraft come to a small village in Massachusetts- (Adolescent) Bad things were happening to Mass: and the very religious Puritans believed the devil was responsible. Names remain: Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, Tituba… Salem Witches 19 people executed 2 die in jail, one is tortured to death Prominent people are accused and the court is disbanded Classic Witch Hunt: “Accused could save their lives only by confessing and implicating others…” “Vivid example of people’s capacity to turn against fellow humans, however innocent, in an effort to save themselves.” Witch Trials Associated Correlations Mostly women Middle aged widows Few or no children Low social position Involved in conflicts in the area Accused of other crimes Abrasive Women who had inherited land Women who challenged Gender norms The Great Awakening 1730s-1740s Great Awakening= “Awakening” to religion The Great Awakening of the 1700s came in response to a decline in religious piety Western movement = less organized religion Stated man is not helpless in achieving (Salvation) regeneration; his will can be an effective force in his being saved Characteristics: Evangelism = strong, energetic preachers Jeremiads = sermons complaining about decline of piety Appealed to women Sermons emphasized starting new relationship with GOD. Great Awakening Congregations divided into New Light Revivalists and Old Lights Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734 Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement. Salvation depended on God's grace is Graphic Depictions of hell George Whitefield (1714-1770) Huge crowds went to see him Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled extensively b. His basic appeal was to the Bible Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism Results of The Great Awakening Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it c. Undermined the older clergy (Old Lights) Brought a number of religious groups to popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread throughout the middle and southern colonies Led to general acceptance of religious differences Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God the one preached to the congregation of Enfield, Massachusetts (later Connecticut) in July 1741. Anthologized in high school and college textbooks, Sinners represents in many persons’ minds the bleak, cruel, and hell-bent outlook of Edwards and his Puritan predecessors. As a specially crafted awakening sermon, Sinners was aimed at a particularly hard-hearted congregation. But, at the same time, the awakening sermon and all it expressed—the awful weight of sin, the wrath of an infinitely holy God, and the unexpectedness of the moment when God will execute justice—were integral to Edwards’s theology. Colonial Government Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750 Salutary Neglect: Lax enforcement of laws, loose control Royal Governor represented the King’s Government (could veto colonial legislatures) Could dissolve assemblies Judges were appointed by Governors Were appointed by the King’s government Elected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two house legislatures) (White male, land owners- 50 acres of land minimum, Self Government) House of Burgesses (Virginia) and Assemblies Budgeted Governor's Salary Make laws for the colonies Essays for Ch 4 Brinkley “The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that they were unable to unite to face the attack of common enemies.” 1. Assess the validity of this statement. 2. How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? 3. Between 1754 to 1774 a profound alteration of relationship occurred between the American colonists and their mother country, Great Britain. This changing relationship became painfully obvious to both parties with the opening of the American Revolution and active hostilities. Identify and explain the key factors which brought about this changing relationship using your own knowledge and the documents provided. French and Indian War 1754-1763 AKA: Seven Years War The British and French rivalry and antagonism manifest itself in the American colonies. A Series of limited wars preceded the FI War: King William’s War 1689-1697 Queen Anne’s War 1701-1713 King George’s War 1744-48 The Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to settle land and causes French to assert claims and build forts. Map French and Indian War 1754-1763 The Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build fort and are expelled by French French build Fort Duquesne Washington-commanded a small force, attacks and must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later surrenders. Full scale war erupts and British send troops but want colonial cooperation At first colonials don’t support the war until the British promise to reimburse colonies for efforts. Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin, Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754 This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the colonies. The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to the geographic position of the colonies along the American coast, with the snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing north. The colonies, from tail to head (south to north), are: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England (New England refered to the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE." The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. At the time, there was a superstition that a snake which had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset. French and Indian War 1754-1763 French were allied with most Indian tribes except Iroquois British invade under Braddock and are beaten back Later the British, under new leadership, are able to gradually divide the French powers and end up invading Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal. Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain). Effects of the French and Indian War British now control most of North America British change their policy and relationship with the Colonies British War Debt= 1763- L122, 603, 336 (7Million lbs each 6 month) More taxes will be charged in order to pay for war expenses No more movement West for colonists, Proclamation line of 1763 Speculator, buy land and sell it to immigrants for profit. British left troops in colonies- Standing Army (Colonists Resented) British government expected- colonist to pay for portion of the Troops. These changes will mark an end to Salutary Neglect and bring a more direct control of colonies by England and lead to the Revolution. Colonists begin to develop a sense of common identity, proud to be part of the British family, but perceiving clear distinctions.