Brinkley Chapter 3
Society and Culture in
Provincial America
“The British colonies come of age.”
2008-09
McElhaney
Essay 1
 “The
British colonies were so
antagonistic to each other that they
were unable to unite to face the attack
of common enemies.”
 Assess
the validity of this statement.
Essay 2
1.
Though there where many differences in the
development of the New England, Middle,
and Southern colonies, they had much in
common. What conditions and experiences
were common to American colonists
regardless of their colony or region?
Essay 3
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How did economic, geographic, and
social factors encourage the growth
of slavery as an important part of the
economy of southern colonies
between 1607 and 1775?
Essay 4
Although many Northerners and Southerners
came later to think of themselves as having
separate civilizations, the Northern and
Southern colonies in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries were in fact more similar
than different. Assess the validity of this
statement.
The Colonies 1700
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Population Growth
Women in the Colonies North and South
Colonial Economy North and South
Triangular Trade
Colonial Society North and South
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Religious Revival and The Great Awakening
Colonial Government
Regionalism Develops
Slavery Expands
French and Indian War
Similarities of Colonies
Who is the subject?
“Few of their children in the country learn
English... The signs in our streets have
inscriptions in both languages ... Unless the
stream of their importation could be turned
they will soon so outnumber us that all the
advantages we have will not be able to
preserve our language, and even our
government will become precarious.”
Population Growth by 1750s
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Immigration (See Map Page 120)
Population Growth
Healthy Colonists- Married young,
Immigration Criminals, Huguenots, Some Jews, Scots, ScotchIrish 200,000,
 German 125,000 Pennsylvania (Language issue
Franklin)
Some Irish Catholics
New England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly
Puritan
Population Growth by 1750s
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Push Factors:
Religious Oppression
 Economic Misfortune
 War
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Pull Factors:
Economic Opportunity
 Religious Freedom
 Land and Liberty
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Cities
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Population growth supports the growth of cities
Philadelphia Largest city (1770’s) 22,000
Boston (1760) 15,000
New York (1700) 5,000 to 21,000 (1770s)
Charleston- (1775) 12,000
Population Growth
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1700 = 251,000 non Indians
1770= 2,148,000
1775= 2,500,000 by 1775 (50,000 black)
1790= 4,000,000
Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn.,
NC, and Maryland
Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY,
Boston, Charleston
90% lived in rural areas.
Women North or South? Mid/late
colonial period 1740s
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Family structure more stable
Sex ratio balanced
Lower infant mortality rate
Strict parental supervision
Less premarital pregnancy
Status defined by religious
belief
Women expected to be
modest, submissive, serving,
and working for the
household
Women moved from families
when married
South
 Greater independence (early)
 Lots of Widows (early)
 Had stronger social power
when population was lower
 Premarital pregnancy
 Were in demand due to low
numbers thus more influence
 Still child rearing
Common Aspect Colonial Economy
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Commercial oriented
Trade
With Indians
 Local French and Spanish when they could
 Agriculture dominated
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Domestic and export
Extraction economies
Colonial Economy North and South
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North
Diverse Agriculture
Low scale
Small local trade
Home industries
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Cobblers, blacksmiths, rifle
makers, cabinet makers,
silversmiths, printers,
Mills run on water power
Wheat, Cloth, lumber
Ship building
Iron works (Iron act 1750)
Merchant Class growes
strong Boston, New York,
Philadelphia
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The South
Large and small agriculture
Tobacco dominant
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Boom and bust pattern
Rice in South Carolina
Indigo
Slavery
Lopsided Development
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Low Merchant class emerges
Low Industry
Industry and Trade Expand
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Industry in the colonies
was restricted
English wanted to limit
manufactures in colonies
so they would not
compete with English
companies.
Iron Act 1750= limit
colonial iron mills
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Triangular Trade: one
example of the trade
relationship between
colonies and other
countries. Map
Slave trade
considerations
Extraction economies
Triangular Trade
The Colonies
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Mostly English
Self-government (though not all democratic)
Religious toleration (to at least some degree in each colony)
Educational opportunity (New England better)
Provided unusual opportunities for economic and social self-development
Farming in all colonies
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Differences among the three colonial regions.
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-- New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New
Hampshire
Puritan dominated in many areas, less religiously tolerant, more restrictions on
civic participation, more industry, less available farm land
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Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
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Ethnically diverse, religiously tolerant, democratic, Quakers contributed to
human freedom, farming, lumbering, ship building, shipping, trade, fur
trapping
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Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
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Georgia
Plantation economy, aristocratic, slavery, cash crops, scattered population,
expansionary, some religious toleration (Church of England dominant)
Slavery Expands
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Late 1600s and 1700s Large population of African
Slaves begin to arrive
Earlier Slaves from West Indies, Caribbean- excess
Slaves from Sugar Plantations
Chattel Slavery- ownership, hereditary, perpetual,
racially defined
South held 90% of slaves
Slavery becomes a fundamental part of southern
Colonial society
1740, 40 % of all Virginians were slaves
1720, African slaves outnumbered whites in South
Carolina 2-1.
Brutality of Slavery
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African Slaves not accustomed to English work hours and ethics
are brutalized
Horrors of the Middle Passage:
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Two months on board ship
Cramped, 10-20% slaves died
Slaves resisted 1. is by passive Resistance and 2.
2. by running away
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Northern colonies also used some slave labor
Both Northern and Southern colonies created slave codes to
regulate the slave behavior and actions (land ownership…)
During the entire time of the Atlantic Slave trade about 11
million Africans were transported to the Americas
1739- Stono Rebellion slave uprising South Carolina = 100 slaves
Society South
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Plantation
Mostly Self contained
Planter class emerges
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Dominated politics
Majority of small
farmers had no slaves
Society North
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Puritan
Town focus of community
Covenants bind members together “religious
and social commitment to unity”
Village around a “Common” Pasture
Social Hierarchy the “Elect” chosen by god
“Town Meetings”
Adult males, close family ties due to lack of land
Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692)
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Accusations of witchcraft come to a small
village in Massachusetts- (Adolescent)
Bad things were happening to Mass: and the
very religious Puritans believed the devil was
responsible.
Names remain: Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne,
Tituba…
Salem Witches
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19 people executed 2 die in jail, one is tortured
to death
Prominent people are accused and the court is
disbanded
Classic Witch Hunt:
“Accused could save their lives only by
confessing and implicating others…”
“Vivid example of people’s capacity to turn
against fellow humans, however innocent, in an
effort to save themselves.”
Witch Trials Associated Correlations
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Mostly women
Middle aged widows
Few or no children
Low social position
Involved in conflicts in
the area
Accused of other crimes
Abrasive
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Women who had
inherited land
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Women who challenged
Gender norms
The Great Awakening
1730s-1740s
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Great Awakening=
“Awakening” to religion
The Great Awakening of the
1700s came in response to a
decline in religious piety
Western movement = less
organized religion
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Stated man is not helpless in
achieving (Salvation)
regeneration; his will can be
an effective force in his being
saved
Characteristics:
Evangelism = strong,
energetic preachers
Jeremiads = sermons
complaining about decline of
piety
Appealed to women
Sermons emphasized starting
new relationship with GOD.
Great Awakening
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Congregations divided into New Light
Revivalists and Old Lights
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
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Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734
Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement.
Salvation depended on God's grace is
Graphic Depictions of hell
George Whitefield (1714-1770)
Huge crowds went to see him
Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled
extensively
b. His basic appeal was to the Bible
Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism
Results of The Great Awakening
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Brought religion to many who had lost touch
with it
c. Undermined the older clergy (Old Lights)
Brought a number of religious groups to
popularity i.e., Baptists- which spread throughout
the middle and southern colonies
Led to general acceptance of religious differences
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
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the one preached to the congregation of Enfield,
Massachusetts (later Connecticut) in July 1741.
Anthologized in high school and college textbooks,
Sinners represents in many persons’ minds the bleak,
cruel, and hell-bent outlook of Edwards and his Puritan
predecessors.
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As a specially crafted awakening sermon, Sinners was
aimed at a particularly hard-hearted congregation. But,
at the same time, the awakening sermon and all it
expressed—the awful weight of sin, the wrath of an
infinitely holy God, and the unexpectedness of the
moment when God will execute justice—were integral to
Edwards’s theology.
Colonial Government
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Colonies had large degree of Autonomy 1600-1750
Salutary Neglect: Lax enforcement of laws, loose control
Royal Governor represented the King’s Government (could veto
colonial legislatures)
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Could dissolve assemblies
Judges were appointed by Governors
Were appointed by the King’s government
Elected representative bodies- Bicameral (Two house
legislatures)
(White male, land owners- 50 acres of land minimum, Self
Government)
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House of Burgesses (Virginia) and Assemblies
Budgeted Governor's Salary
Make laws for the colonies
Essays for Ch 4 Brinkley
“The British colonies were so antagonistic to each other that
they were unable to unite to face the attack of common
enemies.”
1.

Assess the validity of this statement.
2.
How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage
the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of
southern colonies between 1607 and 1775?
3.
Between 1754 to 1774 a profound alteration of relationship
occurred between the American colonists and their mother
country, Great Britain. This changing relationship became
painfully obvious to both parties with the opening of the
American Revolution and active hostilities.
Identify and explain the key factors which brought about this
changing relationship using your own knowledge and the
documents provided.
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French and Indian War 1754-1763
AKA: Seven Years War
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The British and French rivalry and antagonism
manifest itself in the American colonies.
A Series of limited wars preceded the FI War:
King William’s War 1689-1697
 Queen Anne’s War 1701-1713
 King George’s War 1744-48
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The Ohio Company of Virginia gain charter to
settle land and causes French to assert claims
and build forts. Map
French and Indian War
1754-1763
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The Ohio Company of Virginia send troops to build
fort and are expelled by French
French build Fort Duquesne
Washington-commanded a small force, attacks and
must retreat to Ft. Necessity and later surrenders.
Full scale war erupts and British send troops but want
colonial cooperation
At first colonials don’t support the war until the British
promise to reimburse colonies for efforts.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin, Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9,
1754
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This cartoon shows a snake cut into
eight pieces, each labeled with the
name of one of the colonies. The
position of each colony in the snake
corresponds to the geographic position
of the colonies along the American
coast, with the snake's tail pointing
south and the head pointing north.
The colonies, from tail to head (south
to north), are: South Carolina, North
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York,
and New England (New England
refered to the colonies of
Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, and New Hampshire).
The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE."
The cartoon appeared along with
Franklin's editorial about the "disunited
state" of the colonies, and helped make
his point about the importance of colonial
unity. At the time, there was a superstition
that a snake which had been cut into
pieces would come back to life if the
pieces were put together before sunset.
French and Indian War
1754-1763
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French were allied with most Indian tribes except
Iroquois
British invade under Braddock and are beaten back
Later the British, under new leadership, are able to
gradually divide the French powers and end up invading
Canada, taking Quebec and Montreal.
Peace of Paris, 1763 effectively remove French
presence in Canada and East of the Mississippi
including New Orleans (Was ceded to Spain).
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Effects of the French and Indian
War
British now control most of North America
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British change their policy and relationship with the Colonies
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British War Debt= 1763- L122, 603, 336 (7Million lbs each 6 month)
More taxes will be charged in order to pay for war expenses
No more movement West for colonists, Proclamation line of 1763 Speculator,
buy land and sell it to immigrants for profit.
British left troops in colonies- Standing Army (Colonists Resented)
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British government expected- colonist to pay for portion of the Troops.
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These changes will mark an end to Salutary Neglect and bring a more direct
control of colonies by England and lead to the Revolution.
Colonists begin to develop a sense of common identity, proud to be part
of the British family, but perceiving clear distinctions.
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Benjamin Franklin’s World 1702-1763