The World 1500-1800
Slave trade routes:
Indian Ocean
How did the Atlantic and Islamic slave trades
•The ____________slave trade exclusively used black slaves
for agricultural labor on pl________ and as workers in ______.
• It started in a very small way in 1450 and ended in the middle
of the _______century.
•It was the basic labor supply for the plantations in the Americas
since the _________ people had been all but wiped out by a
combination of imported diseases and forced labor.
•Chattel slavery
•Huge numbers transported (10,600,000) meant slaves became
so cheap that it was more profitable to work them to death and
____ ______ ones than to try to keep your labor supply alive.
Vs . . . . Islamic Slave Trade
• began in the middle of the
Different ________ratio in the
Atlantic trade was two males to every
female, in the Islamic trade, it was
two females to every male.
• Very large numbers of slaves were
used for domestic purposes, as
household _________or in harems.
• Some harems could be enormous
(14,000). Women slaves were a
status symbol. It was not unusual for The male slaves were used for the more
exacting physical jobs in homes and
capturer to marry slaves
palaces: porters, messengers,
doorkeepers. In various places, from
Islamic Spain to Egypt to Libya, slaves
were used as__________
Islamic World 1500 . .
II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons
and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.
A. Europeans established new trading post empires in Africa and Asia which
proved profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in new global trade
networks, but also affected the power of states in interior West and Central
B. L_______ empires expanded dramatically in size, including the Manc_____,
Mu________s, Otto________ and R____________.
C. European states, including Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France and
Britain, established new ________empires in the Americas.
Comparisons: Islamic Empires
Economic and Social
•Sultan/shah autocratic (all)
•Large bureaucracies(all)
•Land grants to aristocracy
usually in reward for military
service (all)
•Relied on gunpowder (all)
•Ottomans had powerful army
and navy
•Safavids and Mughals no navy
•1750 all in decline
•Based on agriculture (all)
•Trade important to all but
Ottomans more favorably
•Safavids and Mughals had
inland capitals; sea vessels
privately owned –left control of
sea ports to Europeans
•Economies at a disadvantage
because of inflation New World
silver (all)
•1750 all in economic decline
•Patriarchal (all) but wives of
rulers and other elite had
•Safavids Shi’ites
•Ottomans and Mughals Sunni
•Cultural difference contributed
to warfare between Ottomans
and Safavids
•Mughals ruled over Hindu
•All encouraged the arts and
unique artistic styled developed
in art and architecture
•Domed buildings and
•Persian calligraphy emphasized
in Safavid
•Significant Christian/Jewish
population in Ottoman
Key 15th to 16th
centuries: Expansion
• fear throughout
• impetus for overseas
expansion for WE
• conflict with Russia
_____ powder and _____ based empire . . . Per the
Defeat in
Battle of
(1571) signals
end of primacy
in the
Ottomans . . . In
. .Europe
The _______ __ _____in 1529,
led by Suleiman the Magnificent,
to capture the city of Vienna,
Austria. The siege signaled the
pinnacle of the Ottoman
Empire's power
Engraving of clashes
between the Austrians
and Ottomans outside
Vienna, 1529.
Both R and O Emps are expanding
Ruled by Sultans who were
absolute monarchs; aided by strong
Assisted by Viziers,
top official was
Importance of rulers . . . .?
Suleyman the Lawgiver (r. 1520-1566),
giving advice to the Crown Prince,
Mehmed Khan
The Suleyman mosque, named after its
founder, Suleyman the Lawgiver, is one of
the finest mosques in Istanbul
Rulers used a variety of methods to
l_______________ and consolidate their
Visual displays of political power (such as
monumental architecture, urban plans, courtly
literature or visual arts) helped legitimize and
support rulers.
Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their
Recruitment and use of b______________ elites, as well as the development
of military professionals (such as the Ottoman devshirme, Chinese
e_________________ system or salaried samurai), became more common
among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations
and resources.
Devşirme or devshirme system
• Introduced in the 14th century
• compelled non-Muslims in parts of the
Ottoman Empire to hand over some of their
children to be converted to Islam and work as
• Conquered Christian communities, especially
in the B__________, had to surrender twenty
percent of their male children to the state.
• Some of these were trained for government
service, where they were able to reach very high
ranks, even that of Grand________
• Many of the others served in the elite military
corps of the Ottoman Empire, called the
_____________, which was almost exclusively
made up of forced converts from Christianity.
•The devshirme played a key role in Sultan
Mehmet's conquest of Constantinople, and from
then on regularly held very senior posts in the
imperial administration.
Young Greeks at the Mosque" (Jean Léon
Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil
painting portrays Greek youths who were
converted to Islam to become the elite of
the army (Turkish yeniceri, "recruit")
Ottoman Empire: Economic characteristics
Controlled overland
________ routes b/w Europe
and Asia
Agriculture based on mostly
wh_____and rice that had
flourished for centuries in
lands they ruled.
When Europeans find away to avoid overland trade, it hurts
An Ottoman coffeehouse
European engraving, 19th century
Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power.
States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that both utilized
their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority
of the state (such as the Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects, Manc______
policies toward Chinese or the Spanish creation of a separate “República de
The Ottoman Empire: Ethnic and religious groups
The Ottoman Empire:
Notice that the empire spanned “three” continents:_______ __________ and _____.
Within its borders lived Turks, Arabs, Berbers, and Slavs,
Most subjects of the Ottoman sultans were_________, but there were also significant
numbers of ______ and __________.
The great church of Hagia Sophia. The four towering minarets were among
the additions made by the Turkish Muslims after they conquered
Constantinople in 1453 and transformed the building into a mosque
Religious minorities –communities not
required to convert to Islam
were allowed to keep their own civil laws
and traditions and languages.
Were not forced to convert, but did have
to pay a tax called a ___________.
Ottoman Social: The Harem & Elite
• living quarters reserved for wives ,
concubines, children, female relatives
and servants in a Muslim household
• common only among the wealthy
“Sultanate of Women”
Over the centuries of Ottoman rule, the sultan became
increasingly secluded within the harem and the
princes, or future rulers, stayed within its confines as
This allowed royal women a greater ability to
participate in politics. Some women exercised all royal
prerogatives except for leading armies into battle
Hurrem Sultan (d. 1558)
- Hurrem Sultan was the first especially
powerful woman of the Ottoman dynasty.
She rose to prominence after becoming the
first concubine to legally marry a Sultan and
move with her family and the harem into the
Topkapi Palace in 1534
Safavid Empire: Geographic Characteristics
The Safavid Empire was less ethnically diverse than the Ottoman Empire., Shah Ismail I
succeeded in establishing religious unity among most of his subjects by encouraging their
conversion to the ________ sect of Islam.
Also ruled by
absolute sultan
Safavid Court
Safavid: Strong army equipped with firearms; no
Shah Esmail killing Uzbek leader Mohammad Sheybani in a battle
near Merv, 1510
authority by
promoting __________
Shiite/Sunni Toady
Which Muslim empire used shi’ite branch of Islam to legitimize?
Agricultural, trade less important, inland capital
III. Competition over trade routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian
Ocean and piracy in the Caribbean), s______ rivalries (such as the Th_____ Years
War or the Ottoman-S__________d conflict), and local resistance (such as bread riots)
all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
VII. As merchant’s profits increased and governments collected more taxes,
funding for the visual and performing arts, even for popular audiences ,
A. Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the world.
(such as Renaissance art in Europe, m__________ paintings in the Middle East
and South Asia, woodblock prints in Japan or post-Conquest codices in
B. Literacy expanded accompanied by the proliferation of popular authors,
literary forms and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia. (such as Shakespeare,
Cervantes, Sundiata, Journey to the West or ka________)
Ottoman Miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the
Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition
Ottoman miniature painters
Portrait of a painter during the reign of
Mehmet II
A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or
a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a
Miniature painting became a
significant Persian genre in the 13th
century, receiving Chinese influence
after the Mongol conquests, and the
highest point in the tradition was
reached in the 15th and 16th
artists were exclusively male, and
normally grouped in workshops, of
which the royal workshop (not
necessarily in a single building) was
much the most prestigious, recruiting
talented artists from the bazaar
workshops in the major cities.
Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the
world . . . Japan woodblock prints
Text or image first drawn onto paper, and then glued onto a plank of
wood. Wood would then be cut away,. A small wooden hard object
would be used to press or burnish the paper against the inked
woodblock to apply the ink onto the paper.
Shōki zu" (Shōki striding), by Okumura Masanobu, c. 17411751.
Utagawa Toyoharu
(1735–1814). View of a
________Theater, 1770.
From the series
Perspective Pictures.
Museum of Art, Bequest
of John H. Van Vleck,
_________productions were rowdy social gatherings where people talked during the
II. As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new
ethnic, racial and gender hierarchies.
A. Both imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities
contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites (such as the
Manchus in_________, Creole elites in Spanish _________,European
g________ or urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the
B. The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zamindars in
the Mughal Empire, nobility in Europe or d_________ in Japan) fluctuated as
they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the
increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.
C. Some notable gender and family restructuring
occurred including the demographic changes in
Africa that resulted from the slave trades
(as well as dependence of European men on
Southeast Asian women for conducting trade in
that region or the smaller s______ of European
D. The massive demographic changes in the
Americas resulted in new ethnic and racial
classifications (such as m_________, mulatto
or creole).
The daimyo were the powerful
territorial lords in pre-modern Japan
who ruled most of the country from
their vast, hereditary land holdings
Subordinate only to the shogun,
daimyo were the most powerful
feudal rulers from the 10th century to
the middle 19th century in Japan
• Emperor still honored as the ceremonial leader; but really just a figurehead;
• real power belonged to the shogun (the hereditary, military dictator).
• In this system of “centralized feudalism” the daimyos (lords) owed allegiance to
the Tokugawa, but were permitted to rule their own domains.
Shogun government eventually settled in Edo (modern Tokyo), and controlled the
daimyos by instituting alternate attendance, (daimyos had to spend every other
year at the Tokugawa shogun’s court so couldn’t build armies back home, cuz not
there and had to maintain expensive second homes in Edo).
Shogunate also controlled gunpowder & weaponry, limiting access to a few to
keep power.
Japan isolates itself:
• Process: First in 1633, forbade Japanese from traveling abroad.
• Then in 1649, "closed" Japan--making it illegal and punishable by death for
foreigners to come in or for Japanese to go out. Only had formal relations with
• Very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of
In Mughal empire: Akbar relied heavily on landholding zamindars. They used their
considerable local knowledge and influence to
collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury,
keeping a portion in return for services
Mehtab Chand (1820-79) (zamindar of the
Burdwan Raj) as a young man, c.1840-45
Portuguese Trading Post Empire 1600s
Mughals paid less attention to foreign trade (partly cuz of size and productivity of
native Indian economy and partly cuz they concentrated on land empire, and did not
pay much attention to maritime affairs) but did allow creation of trading stations and
merchant colonies by Portuguese, English French and Dutch
VI. The increase in interactions between newly connected hemispheres
and intensification of connections within hemispheres expanded the
spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief
systems and practices.
A. Muslims developed S_______, S_____ and S______ traditions. As Islam
spread to new settings in Asia and Africa, believers adapted it to local cultural
B. The practice of Christianity continued to spread throughout the world and
was increasingly diversified by the process of diffusion and the Ref________.
C. B_________spread within Asia.
D. Syncretic forms of religion (such as v________ in the Caribbean, the cults of
saints in Latin America, or S________ in South Asia) developed.
Mughal: Religion
Rulers were
S________ ______
but most subjects
Mughal land included that of modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as the
northern part of the Indian subcontinent
rise of Sikhs
Sikhism was founded in the 16th century in the
Punjab district of what is now India and
Guru Nanak : founder
Sikhism is a
monotheistic religion
Sikhism stresses the
importance of doing
good actions rather
than merely carrying
out rituals
The Sikh scripture is a
book called the Guru
The Golden Temple in Amrtisar
Sikhs believe that the way to lead a good life
is to:
Keep God in heart and mind at all times
Live honestly and work hard
Treat everyone equally
Be generous to the less fortunate
Serve others
Christians in India:
Portuguese Goa became a center of
a Christians missions in India—
Jesuits tried to convert Akbar but he
did not want an exclusive religion that
he thought would alienate followers.
Where are the Jesuits in the picture?
Russia: Key themes are __________and of
Ivan establishes Russia
after the Mongols
Ivan III tears off the Khan's missive letter
demanding the tribute in front of Khan's mission
Empire is __________ based
In process, see labor system become increasingly
Process involves selective and limited
Processes involves improving military,
bureaucracy, legal reforms
Peter’s Selective and limited interaction with the west
For both P and C--point of contact with West was
________________use Western ideas to consolidate authority
and support the military to expand—
Peter focused on sc_________ and
technologyreforms bureaucracy, legal codes and military
brings in industrial experts from Europe,
German towns for foreign merchants
To consolidate absolute rule, wanted
to cut off R elite from tradition
Meant most westernization did not
touch ordinary folk.
Other ways Westernization was limited? Russia is still _________
“Window to the West” with St. Petersburg
In the process of expanding and centralizing authority
under the Czar . . .
1600s: Increasing control over peasants: as nobles and the
Czar wanted to ensure a rural labor force.
Together the state and the nobles
placed the overwhelming burden of
taxation on the peasants, whose
rate was 100 times greater in the
mid-17th century than it had been
a century earlier.

Comparisons: Islamic Empires