The World 1500-1800 . Slave trade routes: Trans-Atlantic Tran-Saharan Indian Ocean SEE: http://www.history.com/shows/man kind-the-story-of-all-ofus/videos/african-slave-trade How did the Atlantic and Islamic slave trades differ? •The ____________slave trade exclusively used black slaves for agricultural labor on pl________ and as workers in ______. • It started in a very small way in 1450 and ended in the middle of the _______century. •It was the basic labor supply for the plantations in the Americas since the _________ people had been all but wiped out by a combination of imported diseases and forced labor. •Chattel slavery •Huge numbers transported (10,600,000) meant slaves became so cheap that it was more profitable to work them to death and ____ ______ ones than to try to keep your labor supply alive. Vs . . . . Islamic Slave Trade • began in the middle of the _________century • Different ________ratio in the Atlantic trade was two males to every female, in the Islamic trade, it was two females to every male. • Very large numbers of slaves were used for domestic purposes, as household _________or in harems. • Some harems could be enormous (14,000). Women slaves were a status symbol. It was not unusual for The male slaves were used for the more exacting physical jobs in homes and capturer to marry slaves palaces: porters, messengers, doorkeepers. In various places, from Islamic Spain to Egypt to Libya, slaves were used as__________ Islamic World 1500 . . II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres. A. Europeans established new trading post empires in Africa and Asia which proved profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in new global trade networks, but also affected the power of states in interior West and Central Africa. B. L_______ empires expanded dramatically in size, including the Manc_____, Mu________s, Otto________ and R____________. C. European states, including Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France and Britain, established new ________empires in the Americas. Comparisons: Islamic Empires Political Economic and Social Cultural •Sultan/shah autocratic (all) •Large bureaucracies(all) •Land grants to aristocracy usually in reward for military service (all) •Relied on gunpowder (all) •Ottomans had powerful army and navy •Safavids and Mughals no navy •1750 all in decline •Based on agriculture (all) •Trade important to all but Ottomans more favorably located •Safavids and Mughals had inland capitals; sea vessels privately owned –left control of sea ports to Europeans •Economies at a disadvantage because of inflation New World silver (all) •1750 all in economic decline •Patriarchal (all) but wives of rulers and other elite had influence •Safavids Shi’ites •Ottomans and Mughals Sunni •Cultural difference contributed to warfare between Ottomans and Safavids •Mughals ruled over Hindu majority •All encouraged the arts and unique artistic styled developed in art and architecture •Domed buildings and calligraphy •Persian calligraphy emphasized in Safavid •Significant Christian/Jewish population in Ottoman Key 15th to 16th centuries: Expansion Consequences • fear throughout Europe • impetus for overseas expansion for WE • conflict with Russia _____ powder and _____ based empire . . . Per the Defeat in Battle of _______ (1571) signals end of primacy in the Mediterranean Ottomans . . . In . .Europe The _______ __ _____in 1529, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege signaled the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empire's power Engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, 1529. Both R and O Emps are expanding Theme: STATE BUILDING How????? Ruled by Sultans who were absolute monarchs; aided by strong bureaucracy Assisted by Viziers, top official was “GrandVizier” Importance of rulers . . . .? . Suleyman the Lawgiver (r. 1520-1566), giving advice to the Crown Prince, Mehmed Khan The Suleyman mosque, named after its founder, Suleyman the Lawgiver, is one of the finest mosques in Istanbul Rulers used a variety of methods to l_______________ and consolidate their power. Visual displays of political power (such as monumental architecture, urban plans, courtly literature or visual arts) helped legitimize and support rulers. Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power. Recruitment and use of b______________ elites, as well as the development of military professionals (such as the Ottoman devshirme, Chinese e_________________ system or salaried samurai), became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources. Devşirme or devshirme system • Introduced in the 14th century • compelled non-Muslims in parts of the Ottoman Empire to hand over some of their children to be converted to Islam and work as _______ • Conquered Christian communities, especially in the B__________, had to surrender twenty percent of their male children to the state. • Some of these were trained for government service, where they were able to reach very high ranks, even that of Grand________ • Many of the others served in the elite military corps of the Ottoman Empire, called the _____________, which was almost exclusively made up of forced converts from Christianity. •The devshirme played a key role in Sultan Mehmet's conquest of Constantinople, and from then on regularly held very senior posts in the imperial administration. Young Greeks at the Mosque" (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who were converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, "recruit") Ottoman Empire: Economic characteristics Controlled overland ________ routes b/w Europe and Asia Agriculture based on mostly wh_____and rice that had flourished for centuries in lands they ruled. When Europeans find away to avoid overland trade, it hurts An Ottoman coffeehouse European engraving, 19th century Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power. States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that both utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state (such as the Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects, Manc______ policies toward Chinese or the Spanish creation of a separate “República de Indios”) The Ottoman Empire: Ethnic and religious groups The Ottoman Empire: 1600 Notice that the empire spanned “three” continents:_______ __________ and _____. Within its borders lived Turks, Arabs, Berbers, and Slavs, Most subjects of the Ottoman sultans were_________, but there were also significant numbers of ______ and __________. Means what religions there? The great church of Hagia Sophia. The four towering minarets were among the additions made by the Turkish Muslims after they conquered Constantinople in 1453 and transformed the building into a mosque . Religious minorities –communities not required to convert to Islam were allowed to keep their own civil laws and traditions and languages. Were not forced to convert, but did have to pay a tax called a ___________. Ottoman Social: The Harem & Elite Women • living quarters reserved for wives , concubines, children, female relatives and servants in a Muslim household • common only among the wealthy “Sultanate of Women” Over the centuries of Ottoman rule, the sultan became increasingly secluded within the harem and the princes, or future rulers, stayed within its confines as well. This allowed royal women a greater ability to participate in politics. Some women exercised all royal prerogatives except for leading armies into battle Hurrem Sultan (d. 1558) - Hurrem Sultan was the first especially powerful woman of the Ottoman dynasty. She rose to prominence after becoming the first concubine to legally marry a Sultan and move with her family and the harem into the Topkapi Palace in 1534 Safavid Empire: Geographic Characteristics The Safavid Empire was less ethnically diverse than the Ottoman Empire., Shah Ismail I succeeded in establishing religious unity among most of his subjects by encouraging their conversion to the ________ sect of Islam. Also ruled by absolute sultan Safavid Court Safavid: Strong army equipped with firearms; no navy Shah Esmail killing Uzbek leader Mohammad Sheybani in a battle near Merv, 1510 Consolidating authority by promoting __________ Shiite/Sunni Toady Which Muslim empire used shi’ite branch of Islam to legitimize? Agricultural, trade less important, inland capital III. Competition over trade routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean and piracy in the Caribbean), s______ rivalries (such as the Th_____ Years War or the Ottoman-S__________d conflict), and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion. VII. As merchant’s profits increased and governments collected more taxes, funding for the visual and performing arts, even for popular audiences , increased. A. Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the world. (such as Renaissance art in Europe, m__________ paintings in the Middle East and South Asia, woodblock prints in Japan or post-Conquest codices in M______________) B. Literacy expanded accompanied by the proliferation of popular authors, literary forms and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia. (such as Shakespeare, Cervantes, Sundiata, Journey to the West or ka________) Ottoman Miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition Ottoman miniature painters Portrait of a painter during the reign of Mehmet II A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa Miniature painting became a significant Persian genre in the 13th century, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol conquests, and the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th and 16th centuries. artists were exclusively male, and normally grouped in workshops, of which the royal workshop (not necessarily in a single building) was much the most prestigious, recruiting talented artists from the bazaar workshops in the major cities. Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the world . . . Japan woodblock prints Text or image first drawn onto paper, and then glued onto a plank of wood. Wood would then be cut away,. A small wooden hard object would be used to press or burnish the paper against the inked woodblock to apply the ink onto the paper. Shōki zu" (Shōki striding), by Okumura Masanobu, c. 17411751. Utagawa Toyoharu (1735–1814). View of a ________Theater, 1770. From the series Perspective Pictures. Color w_________Chazen Museum of Art, Bequest of John H. Van Vleck, 1980.3086 _________productions were rowdy social gatherings where people talked during the performance II. As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial and gender hierarchies. A. Both imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites (such as the Manchus in_________, Creole elites in Spanish _________,European g________ or urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the world). B. The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zamindars in the Mughal Empire, nobility in Europe or d_________ in Japan) fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders. C. Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred including the demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trades (as well as dependence of European men on Southeast Asian women for conducting trade in that region or the smaller s______ of European families). D. The massive demographic changes in the Americas resulted in new ethnic and racial classifications (such as m_________, mulatto or creole). The daimyo were the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings Subordinate only to the shogun, daimyo were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan • Emperor still honored as the ceremonial leader; but really just a figurehead; • real power belonged to the shogun (the hereditary, military dictator). • In this system of “centralized feudalism” the daimyos (lords) owed allegiance to the Tokugawa, but were permitted to rule their own domains. Shogun government eventually settled in Edo (modern Tokyo), and controlled the daimyos by instituting alternate attendance, (daimyos had to spend every other year at the Tokugawa shogun’s court so couldn’t build armies back home, cuz not there and had to maintain expensive second homes in Edo). Shogunate also controlled gunpowder & weaponry, limiting access to a few to keep power. Japan isolates itself: • Process: First in 1633, forbade Japanese from traveling abroad. • Then in 1649, "closed" Japan--making it illegal and punishable by death for foreigners to come in or for Japanese to go out. Only had formal relations with Korea. • Very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of N_________. In Mughal empire: Akbar relied heavily on landholding zamindars. They used their considerable local knowledge and influence to collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury, keeping a portion in return for services rendered Mehtab Chand (1820-79) (zamindar of the Burdwan Raj) as a young man, c.1840-45 A.D. Compare: Portuguese Trading Post Empire 1600s Mughals paid less attention to foreign trade (partly cuz of size and productivity of native Indian economy and partly cuz they concentrated on land empire, and did not pay much attention to maritime affairs) but did allow creation of trading stations and merchant colonies by Portuguese, English French and Dutch VI. The increase in interactions between newly connected hemispheres and intensification of connections within hemispheres expanded the spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief systems and practices. A. Muslims developed S_______, S_____ and S______ traditions. As Islam spread to new settings in Asia and Africa, believers adapted it to local cultural practices. B. The practice of Christianity continued to spread throughout the world and was increasingly diversified by the process of diffusion and the Ref________. C. B_________spread within Asia. D. Syncretic forms of religion (such as v________ in the Caribbean, the cults of saints in Latin America, or S________ in South Asia) developed. Mughal: Religion Rulers were S________ ______ but most subjects were_______. Mughal land included that of modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as the northern part of the Indian subcontinent rise of Sikhs Sikhism was founded in the 16th century in the Punjab district of what is now India and Pakistan. Guru Nanak : founder Sikhism is a monotheistic religion Sikhism stresses the importance of doing good actions rather than merely carrying out rituals The Sikh scripture is a book called the Guru Granth The Golden Temple in Amrtisar Sikhs believe that the way to lead a good life is to: Keep God in heart and mind at all times Live honestly and work hard Treat everyone equally Be generous to the less fortunate Serve others Christians in India: Portuguese Goa became a center of a Christians missions in India— Jesuits tried to convert Akbar but he did not want an exclusive religion that he thought would alienate followers. Where are the Jesuits in the picture? Russia: Key themes are __________and of __________authority Ivan establishes Russia after the Mongols Ivan III tears off the Khan's missive letter demanding the tribute in front of Khan's mission Empire is __________ based In process, see labor system become increasingly _________ Process involves selective and limited ____________ Processes involves improving military, bureaucracy, legal reforms Peter’s Selective and limited interaction with the west For both P and C--point of contact with West was ________________use Western ideas to consolidate authority and support the military to expand— Peter focused on sc_________ and technologyreforms bureaucracy, legal codes and military brings in industrial experts from Europe, German towns for foreign merchants To consolidate absolute rule, wanted to cut off R elite from tradition Meant most westernization did not touch ordinary folk. Other ways Westernization was limited? Russia is still _________ “Window to the West” with St. Petersburg In the process of expanding and centralizing authority under the Czar . . . 1600s: Increasing control over peasants: as nobles and the Czar wanted to ensure a rural labor force. . Together the state and the nobles placed the overwhelming burden of taxation on the peasants, whose rate was 100 times greater in the mid-17th century than it had been a century earlier.