TRANSITION
Europe in the
th14 15th Centuries
The 14th Century
Cataclysm
Events of the 14th Century
 The transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the
Little Ice Age
 Beginning of the Ottoman Empire, early expansion
into the early Balkans : Osman I, 1st Sultan of
the Ottoman Empire
 The Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes
from Italy to France
 The Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions of people
in Europe
 The death of the Ilkhan Abu Said in 1335, causes the
disintegration of the Mongol rule in Persia.
 The Hundred Years' War begins when Edward
III of England lays claim to the French throne in 1337.
 Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans 1431
 Black Death kills around a third of the population of
Europe. (1347–1351).
Pieter Breughel, The Triumph of Death
Black Death: Bubonic Plague
 One of the deadliest pandemics in human history,
peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350.
 Started in Central Asia, it reached the Crimea by
1346
 From there, it spread throughout
the Mediterranean and Europe -- probably from
black rats on merchant ships,
 Estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's
population
 World population fell from about 450 million to
between 350 and 375 million in 1400.
 It took 150 years for Europe's population to
recover.
 The plague returned at various times, resulting in
a larger number of deaths, until it left Europe in
the 19th century.
The Dance of Death
The Bubonic Plague
Boccaccio’s Decameron
Collection of 100 novelle
with a frame tale
Frame tale realistically
details the Black Death
in Italy
Novelle: short tales
based set in realistic
settings with a variety of
characters from all social
classes
Economic Effects of the Plague
 Labor shortage
 Demand for workers
 End of feudal system
 Serfs left manors to which they had been
bound – often for the cities
 Villeins (free peasants) became tenant
farmers or landowners
 Workers’ riots
 France 1358: The Jacquerie
 England 1380: Peasants’ Revolt led by
Wat Tyler
A Counting House 14th c. ms.
Medieval Towns
Rise of the Middle Class – merchants,
artisans, professionals – dependant on
commercial exchanges
Guilds – trade “unions” – protected buyers
and sellers
Charters of self-government – city-states
with elected officials
Bourgeois vernacular literature
Fabliaux: humorous narratives
Novelle: realistic, contemporary stories
Dits: urban poetry
Chaucer’s The
Canterbury Tales,
c. 1390
 Chaucer’s masterpiece
 Frame: Pilgrimage
from London to
Canterbury
 Brilliant portraits of
English characters
 Tales include many
genres: romance, sermon,
fabilaux, lai, etc.
Christine de Pisan
1364-ca. 1430
 First European
professional female
author
 Prominent in the
“Debate about Women”
 Works include
courtesy books, military
treatises, dream visions
and The Book of the
City of Women
From Christine de Pisan, 'Works'.
Copyright ©, The British Library
Book of the City of Ladies, 1405
The
Hundred
Years War
1337-1453
100 Years' War Battle of
Nogent-sur-Seine
The Hundred Years War 1337-1453
 Struggle between the English and French over territories
in France and the French crown claimed by England – result
of Norman Conquest in 1066
 Importance:
 the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and
English nationality: nation states
 the introduction of new weapons and tactics, which
eroded the older system of feudal armies dominated by
heavy cavalry:
the longbow
 gunpowder – introduced by Muslims from China
 foot soldiers (infantry) – peasant military
 the first standing armies in Western Europe since
the Roman Empire
Territories in dispute
Jeanne d’Arc
1412-1431
 May 1429: Led French army
to victory at Orleans
 July 1429: French army under
her command captured Rheims
and the Dauphin was crowned
Charles VII
 1430: Captured by Burgundians
and sold to the English
 1431: Tried and convicted of
heresy
A miniature of Joan of Arc, painted
some time between 1450 and 1500.
Notice the three saints sitting above her
shoulder.
 1431:
Burnt at the
stake
 1456: Retrial
called by Pope
Callixtus III: Joan
was declared a
martyr. The court
declared her
innocence on 7 July
1456.
 1909: Joan of Arc
was beatified
 1920: JOAN OF
ARC was
CANONIZED by
Pope Benedict XV
Classical Humanists
Classical Humanism
 All- embracing appreciation for Greco-Roman
culture in all its aspects.
 Rebirth of classical culture: art, architecture,
philosophy, literature
 Emphasis on the individual – a rational guide to
self-fulfillment
 Check out Petrarch, Alberti, Pico della
Mirandola, Castiglione, Machiavelli, and
Lucretia Marinelli on the aspects of the
Renaissance individual.
The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire 14th-20th C.
 Oghuz tribes settled in Turkey in the 11th
C.
 By 1400, the Ottomans had managed to
extend their influence over much of
Turkey and into eastern Europe:
Macedonia and Bulgaria.
 1453: Sultan Mehmed (1451-1481), called
"The Conqueror," finally took
Constantinople, the one last remnant of
Christian Byzantium and renamed it,
Istanbul.
 Under Sultan Suleyman (1520-1566), called
"The Lawmaker" in Islamic history and
"The Magnificent" in Europe, the empire
reached its greatest expansion over Asia
and Europe.
Suleyman
Ottoman
Empire
REFORMATIONS
Challenges to the Hegemony
of the Roman Catholic Church
 12th C: Cathar Heresy – countered by Crusade against
Cathars
 13th C: Establishment of the Inquisition (1233): court
established to stamp out heresy
 14th C:
John Wyclif (1328-84): first English Bible: Lollard
Movement
Jan Hus (1369-1415): launched religious movement
in Bohemia based on Wyclif’s ideas: Hussites.
Excommunicated and burned at the stake.
Challenges to the Hegemony
of the Roman Catholic Church
15th C:
William Tyndale (1484-1536):
first printed English Bible
Rise of nation-states –
breakdown of medieval
centralization under Church and
Pope
16th C: Humanist reaction against
Church corruption
Weaknesses in Roman Catholic Church
Administrative divisions: competing Popes
Proliferation of questionable rituals
Pilgrimages
Saint worship
Endowment of masses
Corruption
Sale of Indulgences – certificates of remission from
Purgatory
Simony – sale of Church offices
Northern Renaissance
Rise of Middle Class that patronized the
arts and valued education
Christian Humanism
Interest in classical humanism
Renewal of spiritual values and
teachings of early Church Fathers
 Criticism of Church corruption and
materialism
The Printing
Press
 Although printing with
movable type had existed in
East Asia since at least the
700's, the invention had not
spread to Europe.
 About 1440, the German
goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg
developed movable type.
 Printing soon became the first
means of mass communication.
 It put more knowledge in the
hands of more people faster
and more cheaply than ever
before.
 Reading and writing spread
widely and rapidly.
Erasmus by Hans Holbein
Northern Renaissance:
Christian Humanism
Grew out of German
Universities
Renaissance classical
studies: Greek and Latin
Focused on study and
translation of early
Christian manuscripts
Revival of Church life
and doctrine based on
early Christian literature
Sir Thomas More by
Hans Holbein
Rabelais
Lutheran Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Augustinian monk and
Biblical scholar
1517: Nailed 95 Theses on
Church door at
Wittenberg: particularly
incensed by selling of
indulgences
German translation of
Bible
“Justification by faith
alone” and “The
Priesthood of all
believers”
Lutheran Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Two sacraments: Baptism
and Holy Communion
Consubstantiation rather than
Transubstantiation
Advocated universal
education
Wrote hymns: “A Mighty
Fortress Is Our God”
Supported by bourgeoisie,
merchants, German princes
Countered Peasants’ Revolt
Lutheran Reformation: Music
Luther saw music as a form of religious
instruction
Hymnals: collections of religious songs
Professional and congregational singing
in vernacular languages
Chorale: congregational hymn –
communal expression of devotion
“Ein feste Burg is unser Gott” : “A
Mighty Fortress is Our God”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiRpUtVByxU
Albrecht Dürer
1471-1528
Portraits, landscapes,
naturalistic studies,
religious meditations
Woodcut engravings
Mass produced
images
Illustrated books
Available to wide
population
Albrecht Dürer
Praying Hands
woodcut print
Albrecht Dürer
Four Horsemen of the
Apocalypse
woodcut print
Book of Revelation (6:1–8): "And I saw, and
behold, a white horse, and its rider had a bow; and
a crown was given to him, and he went out
conquering and to conquer. When he opened the
second seal, I heard the second living creature say,
'Come!' And out came another horse, bright red;
its rider was permitted to take peace from the
earth, so that men should slay one another; and he
was given a great sword. When he opened the
third seal, I heard the third living creature say,
'Come!' And I saw, and behold, a black horse, and
its rider had a balance in his hand; … When he
opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the
fourth living creature say, 'Come!' And I saw, and
behold, a pale horse, and its rider's name was
Death, and Hades followed him; and they were
given great power over a fourth of the earth; to
kill with sword and with famine and with
pestilence and by wild beasts of the earth."
Political
Reformation
Henry VIII
and the
Anglican
Church
Political Reformation
Henry VIII (1491-1547)
Proclaimed “Defender of the Faith” by Pope
Clement VII when he countered Luther’s
arguments
Sought divorce from Catherine of Aragon to marry
Anne Boleyn: refused by Pope
1534: Act of Supremacy: declared the king as head
of Church of England – Anglican Church
Ordered dissolution of monasteries: transfer of
property to crown; iconoclasm
The Tudor
Monarchs
Henry VIII
1509-1547
Edward VI
1547-1553
Lady Jane Grey
1553-1553
Mary I
1553-1558
Elizabeth I
1558-1603
Reformed Churches
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Swiss Humanist
scholar
Salvation by grace
and works
Baptism as a
covenant/contract
Reformed Churches: Calvinism
 John Calvin (1509-64)
French Doctor of Law
Refuted RC opposition to
usury: capitalism
Predestination
Established theocratic state in
Geneva, Switzerland
 Church governance:
presbyterian, synodal,
congregationalist
 Huguenots, Puritans,
Presbyterians
John Knox
(1505-72)
Scottish
Presbyterianism
Originally ordained a
Roman Catholic priest,
Knox became a Protestant
and studied with Calvin in
Switzerland.
On his return to Scotland,
he became the leader of the
Scottish Reformed Church
Knox and his supporters
began to reshape the
Scottish church-theologically and politically.
Radical Reformation: Anabaptists
 Rejected all sacraments as sources of God’s grace: total
emphasis on Christian conscience and voluntary
acceptance of Christ
 Adult baptism: rebaptism – considered heretical by other
Protestants
 The Mass is not a sacrifice but a memorial – restricted to
baptized believers
 Pacifist
 Anti-secular: religious separation from secular world
 Shunning of sinners
Radical Reformation: Anabaptists
 Appealed to lower classes and peasants: Peasants
Wars 1525-35
 Persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants –
often burned at stake
 Freedom of religion: priesthood of all believers,
Bible as sole authority, ordinances rather than
sacraments, separation of church and state
 Genealogy: Baptism and Confirmation Registries
 Amish, Hutterites, Waldensians, Mennonites,
Quakers, Baptists, 7th Day Adventists, Jehovah’s
Witnesses
Anglican
Catholic
CounterReformation
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556)
founder of the
Jesuits
Catholic Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent (1545-63)
Called for moral reform of clergy
Strengthened Church structures and institutions
Proclamation of dogmas
Affirmation of both Faith and
Works
Transubstantiation
Establishment of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
under Ignatius Loyola
Vigorous missionary work in Americas and
Asia
Revitalization of religious art: Baroque
Reformation Repercussions
Rivalry between Spain and England
1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Religious wars in France (1560-98)
The Thirty Years War (1618-48)
Revival of the Inquisition’s persecution of heretics
“The Burning Times” -- Witch-hunts (1550-1750)
Religious Persecution
Migration to the New World for religious freedom
French Huguenots to Florida – driven out by
Spanish
Puritans to New England
Quakers and Amish to Pennsylvania
Roman Catholics to Maryland
Descargar

Transition Europe in the 14th Century