The Muslim World Expands
Ottoman Safavid Mughal Dynasties
1300-1700
The Ottomans named for Osman
transform from nomads to an Empire
They win battles because they use gunpowder,
muskets, cannons
They rule fairly over conquered people
Empire of Faith - Mehmet and Suleiman
Constantinople is conquered in 1453
Controlled travel between Asia and Europe
Mehmet II opened it to many religions - Jews,
Muslims, Turks, non-Turks
Suleiman the Lawgiver rules from 1520-1566
The greatest of the Ottoman Sultans
Expands empire through conquest
(Belgrade and Rhodes)
Inside the empire he creates an efficient,
complex military state to rule over many
diverse groups
Suleiman creates a law code, reduces
bureaucracy and simplifies taxation
Suleiman the Lawgiver
Janissaries - trained and educated soldiers from conquered
lands with merit based promotion
Devshirme- policy of taking boys from non-Islamic families
to be trained as Janissaries
Freedom of worship – Jews and Christians allowed to
practice own religion - pay a tax to do so
Why didn’t the Sultan want Muslims to be Janissaries?
Suleiman the Lawgiver
Cultural Achievements
Studied a variety of subjects including: poetry,
history, mathematics etc
Mosque of Suleiman - architectural
achievement with four schools, a college, a
library, a hospital, and a bath
Mosque of Suleiman
The Fall of the Ottomans
Ottoman emperors would kill their ablest sons and heirs or
keep them uneducated, leading to incompetent rulers
When an heir assumed power his brothers were eliminated
The Ottoman Empire lasted until WWI but by then was in slow
decline from the 1600’s - almost 300 years
The Ottoman Empire 1300-1923 GeaCron
The Ottomans and Cultural Diffusion
Where did the Ottomans learn about
gunpowder?
How did the Ottomans treat conquered peoples?
How did cultural diffusion affect Ottoman
architecture and the arts?
The Safavid Empire
Safavids
Iranian origin and claimed to be descendants
from Muhammad
Shi’ite Muslims - persecuted by Sunni Ottomans
Developed strong military to protect self from
neighboring empires
Is there still conflict today between Shi'ite and
Sunni Muslims?
Isma’il
Brilliant warrior who seized
large tracts of land in 1499
Became religious tyrant killed any non Shi’ite citizen
Shah Abbas – Abbas the Great
Takes throne in 1587
Created a culture that drew from Arab, Persian, and
Ottoman cultures
Reformed armies - One Persian army, one foreign –
used modern weapons
Punished corruption and promoted merit
Welcomed European and Chinese artisans
Leads to Rise of Persian Carpets – a national
industry
The Safavid Dynasty Declines
Quickly
Shah Abbas kills and blinds his ablest sons
Abbas’s Incompetent grandson leads to the empire’s decline
By 1722 the empire is losing land to the Ottomans and
Afghans
The Empire Falls apart in 1747
The Safavids and Cultural Blending
How does Isma’il differ from Shah Abbas?
Is succession to the throne a problem for the
Safavids?
The Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire: Akbar
“Great One” - Ruled India from 1556-1605
Muslim but defended religious freedom
Married non Muslims
Abolished taxes on non-Muslims
Christian tutor
Mughal Empire: Akbar
Effective Government
Merit based bureaucracy
Tax policy - based on earnings
Military Conqueror
Strong military with modern weapons
Put possible enemies (Rajputs) in power to keep
control
Unified land of 100 million people
Mughal Empire: Akbar
Culture
Languages : Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Urdu combines to make modern Pakistani language
Promoted the arts, literature and architecture drew from western influence in painting (i.e.
halos like western saints)
Taj Mahal – Shah Jahan builds a tomb for his wife 1631-1651
Aurangzeb – Shah Jahan’s
Imprisons his father and takes over
oppressive policies
People are suffering paying for wars and
monuments
Rules from 1658 and 1707
Expands Mughal Empire to its largest size
But…
rd
3
Son
Aurangzeb – Shah Jahan’s
rd
3
Son
Ultimately lost power due to oppressive policies
Forced rigid Islamic laws (no drinking, gambling
etc)
Taxed non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu
monuments
Led to Rajput/Hindu rebellions
European Traders arrive and gain control of key
ports
Muslim Dynasties – Had In Common
Empire Building - three of the greatest empires
in history between 14th and 16th centuries
Power and Authority – based their power on
Islam, strong armies and technology
Cultural Diffusion – as powerful societies expand
different cultures are blended and new ideas
diffused
How does cultural diffusion impact societies?
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The Ottomans - Livingston Public Schools