The Muslim World Expands Ottoman Safavid Mughal Dynasties 1300-1700 The Ottomans named for Osman transform from nomads to an Empire They win battles because they use gunpowder, muskets, cannons They rule fairly over conquered people Empire of Faith - Mehmet and Suleiman Constantinople is conquered in 1453 Controlled travel between Asia and Europe Mehmet II opened it to many religions - Jews, Muslims, Turks, non-Turks Suleiman the Lawgiver rules from 1520-1566 The greatest of the Ottoman Sultans Expands empire through conquest (Belgrade and Rhodes) Inside the empire he creates an efficient, complex military state to rule over many diverse groups Suleiman creates a law code, reduces bureaucracy and simplifies taxation Suleiman the Lawgiver Janissaries - trained and educated soldiers from conquered lands with merit based promotion Devshirme- policy of taking boys from non-Islamic families to be trained as Janissaries Freedom of worship – Jews and Christians allowed to practice own religion - pay a tax to do so Why didn’t the Sultan want Muslims to be Janissaries? Suleiman the Lawgiver Cultural Achievements Studied a variety of subjects including: poetry, history, mathematics etc Mosque of Suleiman - architectural achievement with four schools, a college, a library, a hospital, and a bath Mosque of Suleiman The Fall of the Ottomans Ottoman emperors would kill their ablest sons and heirs or keep them uneducated, leading to incompetent rulers When an heir assumed power his brothers were eliminated The Ottoman Empire lasted until WWI but by then was in slow decline from the 1600’s - almost 300 years The Ottoman Empire 1300-1923 GeaCron The Ottomans and Cultural Diffusion Where did the Ottomans learn about gunpowder? How did the Ottomans treat conquered peoples? How did cultural diffusion affect Ottoman architecture and the arts? The Safavid Empire Safavids Iranian origin and claimed to be descendants from Muhammad Shi’ite Muslims - persecuted by Sunni Ottomans Developed strong military to protect self from neighboring empires Is there still conflict today between Shi'ite and Sunni Muslims? Isma’il Brilliant warrior who seized large tracts of land in 1499 Became religious tyrant killed any non Shi’ite citizen Shah Abbas – Abbas the Great Takes throne in 1587 Created a culture that drew from Arab, Persian, and Ottoman cultures Reformed armies - One Persian army, one foreign – used modern weapons Punished corruption and promoted merit Welcomed European and Chinese artisans Leads to Rise of Persian Carpets – a national industry The Safavid Dynasty Declines Quickly Shah Abbas kills and blinds his ablest sons Abbas’s Incompetent grandson leads to the empire’s decline By 1722 the empire is losing land to the Ottomans and Afghans The Empire Falls apart in 1747 The Safavids and Cultural Blending How does Isma’il differ from Shah Abbas? Is succession to the throne a problem for the Safavids? The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire: Akbar “Great One” - Ruled India from 1556-1605 Muslim but defended religious freedom Married non Muslims Abolished taxes on non-Muslims Christian tutor Mughal Empire: Akbar Effective Government Merit based bureaucracy Tax policy - based on earnings Military Conqueror Strong military with modern weapons Put possible enemies (Rajputs) in power to keep control Unified land of 100 million people Mughal Empire: Akbar Culture Languages : Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Urdu combines to make modern Pakistani language Promoted the arts, literature and architecture drew from western influence in painting (i.e. halos like western saints) Taj Mahal – Shah Jahan builds a tomb for his wife 1631-1651 Aurangzeb – Shah Jahan’s Imprisons his father and takes over oppressive policies People are suffering paying for wars and monuments Rules from 1658 and 1707 Expands Mughal Empire to its largest size But… rd 3 Son Aurangzeb – Shah Jahan’s rd 3 Son Ultimately lost power due to oppressive policies Forced rigid Islamic laws (no drinking, gambling etc) Taxed non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu monuments Led to Rajput/Hindu rebellions European Traders arrive and gain control of key ports Muslim Dynasties – Had In Common Empire Building - three of the greatest empires in history between 14th and 16th centuries Power and Authority – based their power on Islam, strong armies and technology Cultural Diffusion – as powerful societies expand different cultures are blended and new ideas diffused How does cultural diffusion impact societies?