1450- 1750 Review
REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT AND
EXPRESSION
Revolutions to Thought and Expression
• Crusades opened Christians to Islamic
civilizations and trade
– Europeans exposed to new developments and
history
– Leads to four main movements: the Renaissance,
the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific
Revolution and the Enlightenment
The Renaissance (Rebirth)
• After black Death, demand for goods and services
increased
• Urbanization
• Middle class (bankers merchants, and traders emerged)
• Influx of money
• Use money to study the past
Humanism
• Medieval Europe- thoughts of salvation and
afterlife; earth to be suffered through on the way
to heaven
• Humanism- person accomplishment and personal
happiness. Participation on the “here and now”
• Fascination with Greek and Roman concepts of
beauty and citizenship
• Shift focus to life on Earth and celebration of
human achievements
Art
• The Medici Family: turned Italy into a showcase
of architecture and beauty
• Michelangelo-painter; Sistine Chapel
• Brunelleschi- The dome of the Florence
Cathederal
• Leonardo da Vinci-painter/ sculptor
• Donatello-painter/ sculptor
• Van Eyck brothers-Dutch artists
• Albrecht Durer- German painter
New Techniques
• Application of humanistic ideas
• Use of light and shadow made figures appear full
and real
• Autopsies to understand the structure of the
human body
• Linear perspective
– Developed by Tommaso Masaccio and Fillipo
Brunelleschi
– Gives art three-dimensional quality
• Architects get Greek and Roman influence to
build domes on cathedrals
Art
Medieval Times
• Humans flat, stiff, and out
of proportion
• Almost entirely religious
• Mostly in cathedrals
• Did not try to be “worldly”
Renaissance
• Used realism to make
humans look softer
• Religious and secular
• Commissioned by religious
and secular leaders
• Seen in cathedrals, plazas,
and public homes
• Very worldly
Western Writers
• [1400s] Johannes Gutenberg invents printing
press
– Books easy to produce
– More affordable
– Written in different vernaculars (native languages)
– More literate and educated people
Books!
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Most were practical or political
Machiavelli [1517 C.E.] The Prince
Erasmus [late 1500s] In Praise of Folly
Sir Thomas More [late 1500s] Utopia
William Shakespeare [late 1500s] Venus and
Adonis, Julius Caesar, etc
Protestant Reformation
• Catholic church was a unifying force and
intermediary between man and God
• Finance projects funded by indulgences
– Paper faithful could purchase to reduce time in
purgatory
– Church maintained power over masses
– Angered people; seen as corrupt
Martin Luther
• [1517] 95 Theses
– Frustrations with church practices
– Church services should be conducted in local
languages (not Latin)
• Translated the Bible into German
• Believed salvation given by God through grace,
not the authorization of the church
• Believed the Bible taught self salvation (no need
for pope)
• Pope Leo X outraged and excommunicated Luther
• Followers- Lutherans
John Calvin
• Calvinism
• Predestination- God predetermined ultimate
destiny for all people
– Those saved known as “Elect”
• [1530s]Protestant theocracy in Geneva in
Switzerland
King Henry VIII
• Church of England (Anglican Church)
• King did not have authority of pope to annul
marriage of Catherine of Aragon
• King Henry VIII declared himself head of
religious affairs in England
– [1534] Act of Supremacy
The Counter-Reformation
• Catholic Reformation [16th Century]
• Led by Spain
• Banned the sale of indulgences, consulted
more frequently with bishops, trained priests
to live the Catholic life, weekly mass
mandatory
– Regained some lost credibility
– “Clarifying the Catholic Church’s position”
The Jesuits
• Ignatius Loyola
• Restoring faith in teachings of Jesus
interpreted by the Catholic Church
• Self control and moderation
• Prayer + good works = salvation
• Oratorical and political skills; many appointed
by kings to high palace positions
The Council of Trent
• [1545-1563]
• Dictated and defined Catholic interpretation
of doctrine
• Re-established Latin as language used in
worship
The Scientific Revolution
• Nicolaus Copernicus [1543] On the
Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere
– Earth and other celestial bodies revolve around
sun: “Heliocentric”
– Earth rotates on axis
• Galileo [1632] Dialogue Concerning the Two
Chief Systems of the World
– Showed how Earth revolved on axis and stars
distance
– Put on trial before Inquisition in Rome
– Book put on “The Index”, a list of banned works
The Scientific Method
• Replaced scholastic method based off of
“reasoning”
• One had to prove an idea, document it, repeat it,
and publish it
• Tycho Brahe [1546-1601] built observatory
• Francis Bacon [1561-1626]
• Johannes Kepler [1571-1630] laws of planetary
motion
• Sir Isaac Newton [1642-1727] Law of gravity
Scientific Revolution
• Scientific inquires conducted with practical
goals in mind
• Produced a larger number of people rejected
church’s rigid pronouncements that conflicted
with scientific findings
– Atheists: No God exists
– Deists: God exists, but plays passive role. “God as
watchmaker”
The Enlightenment
• Focused on mankind in relation to
government
• Social contract: governments formed to meet
social and economic needs of people
Enlightenment Thinkers
• Thomas Hobbes [1588-1679] Leviathan
– people greedy and prone to violence; government
should preserve peace and stability “at all costs”
• John Locke [1632-1704] Two Treatises on
Government
– Man had unalienable rights (life, liberty, and
property), up to government to secure and grant
them; people were justified in replacing government if
these rights weren’t met
• Jean Jacques Rousseau [1712-1778]
– All men equal; majority rule; essence of freedom to
obey laws that people prescribe for themselves
Enlightenment Writers
• Voltaire
– Religious toleration
• Montesquieu
– Separation of powers among branches of
government
Enlightened Monarchs
• Ruled absolutely but made attempts to
tolerate diversity, increase opportunities for
serfs, take on responsibility of rule
• Joseph II of Austria
• Frederick II of Prussia
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND
EXPANSION: EMPIRES OF THE WIND
Portuguese Exploration
• Cut out the Muslim middlemen
• Advances in ship-building, navigation, and
gunpowder allowed for increased sea travel
Portuguese Success
• Royal family supported exploration
• [1488] Bartholomew Dias rounded tip of
Africa (Cape of Good Hope)
• [1497] Vasco de Gama rounded Cape of Good
Hope, east African kingdoms, and established
trade relations in India
Spain vs Portugal
• [1492] Christopher Columbus went west and
found the Americas
• [1494] Portugal and Spain fighting over
Americas
– Treaty of Tordesillas
Explorers
• Amerigo Vespucci [1500s]- many explorations of
South America; America named after him
• Ponce de Leon [1513]- explored Florida for Spain
to find fountain of youth
• Vasco de Balboa [1513]- laid sight on Pacific
Ocean
• Ferdinand Magellan [1519]- crew circumnavigated
the globe
More Explorers
• Giovanni da Verrazzano [1524]- explored
North American coast for France
• Sir Francis Drake [1578] first Englishman to
circumnavigate the globe
• John Cabot [1597] explored coast of North
America for England
• Henry Hudson [1609] sailed for Dutch looking
for Northwest Passage; made claims around
Hudson River
Technology that made Exploration
Possible
• The Sternpost Rudder- better navigation and
control of ships
• Lateen Sails- sails allowed ships to sail in any
direction, regardless of wind
• The Astrolabe- measured distance of sun and
stars to determine latitude
• The Magnetic Compass- determine direction
• Three-Masted Caravels- large ships could hold
provisions for longer journeys
Cortes and the Aztecs
• [1519] Hernan Cortes landed on coast of
Mexico with 600 men
• Hooked up with neighboring people of Aztecs
who were willing to help Cortes defeat Aztecs
• Montezuma (Aztec Ruler) thought Cortes was
a god & brought Cortes gold
• Spaniards seized Montezuma and began siege
of Tenochtitlan
• Control by [1525]
Francisco Pizarro
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Went for Incan Empire in [1531]
200 men with him
Disease + Weapons = success
Control of Inca in [1535]
Disease
• Weapon of mass destruction
– Smallpox
– Infections new to Americas, no natural resistance
to them
The Ecomienda System
Peninsulares- Spanish officials
to govern the colonies
Crillos or Creoles- People born in
the colonies to Spanish parents
Mestizos- European and Native
ancestry
Mulattos- European and African
Native Americans- little or
no freedom
The Ecomienda System
• Viceroys provided peninsulares with land and
number of native laborers
• Peninsulares protect natives and convert them
to Christianity
• Reform needed: switch to African slavery
The African Slave Trade
• Europeans traded guns and goods to African
leaders in exchange for slaves
• [mid 15th century] Portuguese captured
Africans
• Demand increased; Europeans kidnapped
Africans or pitted groups against each other to
control weapons trade
The Middle Passage
• Middle Passage: sea route from Africa to the
Americas
– Approx. 13 million Africans took journey
– 60% to South America
– 35% to Caribbean
– 5% to North America
• Death rates ~20% on Middle Passage
The Columbian Exchange
• Transatlantic transfer of animals, plants,
diseases, people, technology, and ideas
among Europe, the Americas and Africa
• Two key products: sugar and silver
The Commercial Revolution
• Joint- Stock Company- organization created to
pool the resources of merchants, distributing the
costs and risks and reducing danger for individual
investors
• Monopolies
– The Muscovy Company of England: trade routes to
Russia
– The Dutch East India Company: trade routes to the
spice islands
• Mercantilism- country tried not to import more
than it exported
Asian Trade
• Portuguese set up trading post in Goa (west
coast of India) and Spice Islands
• Dutch formed Dutch East India Company and
had raids on Portuguese ships and trading
posts.
– 1600s, Dutch became biggest power in spice
trades
• England and France: trading posts in India
• China and Japan limited trade with Europeans
SPAIN AND PORTUGAL
Spain
• [1469] King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella get
Spanish authority under one house
– Supported exploration
– Survival and expansion of the Spanish language
and culture
– Built naval fleet
Portuguese
• Domination of costal Africa, the Indian Ocean,
and Spice Islands
• Limited manpower; could not control colonies
• Lost colonies to Dutch and British
– Faster ships, heavier guns
Charles V
• [1519] Charles elected Holy Roman Emperor
• Held land in France, the Netherlands, Austria,
and Germany, plus Spain
• Fought for control of Italy and Ottoman Turks for
control of eastern Europe
– Led to expansion of Ottoman rule
• Defended Catholicism against Protestantism
• [1556] gave control of Austria and Holy Roman
Empire to brother, Ferdinand I
• Gave control of Spain, Sicily, the Netherlands to
son, Philip II
Philip II
• Spanish expansion in New World
• Continuation of Spanish Inquisition
– Led to Catholic Reformation against Protestants
– Increase in missionary work in New World
• [1581] Dutch (mostly Protestant) revolted and
gained independence from Spain
ENGLAND
England: the Elizabethan Age
• King Henry VIII’s daughter, Elizabeth I “Golden
Age”
• [1558-1603] commercial expansion,
exploration, and colonization
• Muscovy Company & British East India Company, Drake,
first English colonists in Roanoke colony, Shakespeare
James I
• Elizabeth dies; [1607] James I comes to power
• Attempted to institute reforms for Catholics
and Puritans
• Puritans did not want to accept James I as
divine right
– Cross the Atlantic… Pilgrims to Plymouth colony
Charles I
• Son of James I; rose to power in [1625]
• Petition of Right: document limiting taxes and
forbidding unlawful imprisonment
– Charles ignored petition after securing funds he
needed; ruled without calling another meeting of
parliament for 11 years.
Charles I
• [1640] Parliament called when Scotland
invades England
– Know as Long Parliament: limited absolute powers
of monarchy
– [1641] denied Charles's request for money to fight
Irish rebellion
Charles I
• Charles led troops into House of Commons to
arrest some members civil war
• Roundheads under Oliver Cromwell to fight
king
– Defeat armies of Charles I (Cavaliers)
– King tried and executed
Oliver Cromwell
• Rose to power as leader of “English
Commonwealth”
– Then Lord Protector
– Religious intolerance and violence against
Catholics.
Charles II
• Restore a limited monarchy
• Stuart Restoration [1660-1688]
• Acknowledged rights of the people (esp.
religion)
– Habeas Corpus Act: protects people from arrests
without due process
James II
• After Charles II
• Open Catholic and unpopular; believed in
divine right of lings
• Glorious Revolution
– James II driven from power by Parliament
– James II flees to France
William and Mary
• [1688] replace James II
• Protestant rulers of the Netherlands
• English Bill of Rights [1689]
– Ensured England’s future monarch would be
Anglican
– Powers would be limited
FRANCE
France
• Began to unify after Hundred Years’ War with
strong monarchy
• French Protestants (Huguenots) develop
during Protestant reformation
• Huguenots vs French Catholics
• [1598] Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes
– toleration
France
• Henry IV was the first Bourbon king
• Cardinal Richelieu: chief advisor to Bourbons
– Compromise with Protestants
– New bureaucratic class: the noblesse de la robe
Louis XIV
• 4 years old when he inherited the crown
• Cardinal Mazarin(his mom) ruled until he was an
adult
• Louis XIV nicknamed “Sun king” and “The Most
Christian King”
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Absolute monarch
Ruled under divine right
“I am the State”
Versailles
Never called Estates-General
Revoked Edict of Nantes (many Huguenots left)
War and Succession
• Jean Baptise Colbert appointed by Louis XIV to
manage royal funds
• Wanted to increase size of French empire for
business transactions and taxes (French
mostly at war)
• War of Spanish Succession [1701-1714]
– Philip V, Louis XIV’s grandson could rule Spain
– Spain couldn’t combine with France
– France had to give up territories to England
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Holy Roman Empire
• Located in present day Austria
• Geographically dominated but feudal
– Local lords
– Weakened the empire
Holy Roman Empire
• Lost parts of Hungary to the Ottoman Turks in
the early [16th century]
• The Thirty Years’ War [1618-1648] devastated
the region; weakened role of Holy Roman
emperors
• [18th century] northern German city-states
(esp Prussia) gaining momentum & power
• [1555] Peace of Augsburg: bring end to
constant conflict between Catholics and
Protestants
• Thirty Years’ War [1618]Protestant territories
challenged authority of emperor  religious
and political war
• [1648] Peace of Westphalia: independence of
small German states
RUSSIA
Russia
• [1480]Ivan III refused to pay tribute to
Mongols; declared Russia free of Mongol Rule
• Established absolute rule in Russia (uniting
and expanding it)
• Cossacks: peasants promised freedom from
feudal lords if they conquered and settle lands
east of Russia
Time of Troubles
• Ivan IV dies in [1584]
• [1604-1613] Feudal lords battled over who
should rule
• [1613] Michael Romanov elected czar
– Romanov Dynasty
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Added stability
Ruled until [1917]
Serfs almost slaves
Expansion
Peter the Great
• In power from [1682-1725]
• Westernize Russia
– First navy
– St. Petersburg as new capital “window to the
west”
– Recruited western Europeans to westernize Russia
– Women wore western fashions
– Men shaved their beards
Catherine the Great
• Ruled from [1762-1796]
• Continued westernization
– Education
– Western culture
– Western expansion (Poland, the Black Sea)
The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
• Mongol Empire fell, Muslim Ottoman Empire
rose in Anatolia
– Founded by Osman Bey
– Unify and challenge the Byzantine Empire
– “Turks”
• [1453] invaded Constantinople and ended
Byzantine Empire
Changes in the Ottoman Empire
• Conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul
• Hagia Sophia and cathedrals converted into
mosques
• Empire more tolerant to religion, but changed
with expansion
• Within 100yrs, Ottomans conquered much of
Roman empire region
Selim I
• [1512] came to power
• Claimed he was the rightful heir to Islamic
tradition under Arab caliphs
• Istanbul= center of Islamic civilization
• Christian subjects and children captured and
turned into fighting warriors (Janissaires)
Suleiman I
• [1520] came to power (aka Suleiman the
Magnificent)
• Built up Ottoman military
• “golden age” [1520-1566]
– Tried to push into Europe
Ottoman Empire
• Lasted until [1922]
• Expanded Islam
• Pressure on Eastern Europe allowed Western
Europe to dominate the world
The Safavids
• Based on military conquest
• Shia Islam
• In between Ottomans and Mughals
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire
• [1526] Babur- leader claimed to be descended
from Genghis Khan
• Dominated Indian subcontinent for 300 years
• United most of subcontinent
Akbar
• Grandson of Babur
• Ruled [1556-1605] unified much of India by
practicing religious toleration
– Open practice
– Elimination of jizya (head tax on Hindus)
– Attempted to eliminate sati
• Established golden age of art, architecture, and
art
– Taj Mahal built under Akbar’s grandson, Shah Jahan
Post-Akbar era
• Religious toleration ended
– Muslims reinstated jizya
– Hindu temples destroyed
– Muslims persecuted Hindus; Hindus organizing
against Muslims
• Arrival of Europeans
– British and Portuguese scrambled for trade in
India
Africa
Songhai
• Islamic state
• Economic ties to Muslim world
• Sunni Ali built Songhai by conquest and
military force
– navy
– Central administration
– Timbuktu as major Islamic center
• Fell to Moroccans (they had muskets)
Kongo
• Close economic and political relationships
with Europe (esp. Portugal)
• Kings of Kongo (ex. King Alfonso I) converted
to Roman Catholicism
– Kingdom converted
• State declined as Portuguese desired slaves
Angola
• Trading post in Portugal [1575]
– Expanding trade
– When Portugal tried to exert authority, Queen
Nzinga resisted
• 40 years resisted Portuguese control, allied with Dutch
• Could not unify rival or overcome Portuguese
China & the Ming Dynasty
• [1368] Ming Dynasty restored power to native
Chinese
– ruled until 1644
• Strong centralized government
• Civil service exams
• Built large fleets
– Zheng He: naval voyages
Ming Government
• “single-whip” system- silver currency
– Silver obtained first through Japan, then Spanish
through the Philippines
• [16th century] Ming in decline
– Europeans and pirates
• [17th century]
– Famines and peasant revolts
• [1644] Qing warrior from Manchuria to quell
peasant uprising
– Take over; Qing (Manchu) Dynasty ruled until [1912]
Qing Dynasty
• Not ethnically Chinese; tried to remain “elite”
– Forbade Chinese to learn Manchu language or
marry Manchus
• Opened up civil service exams to lower classes
Kangxi
•Ruled [1661-1722]
•Confucian scholar
•Supported arts
•Conquered Taiwan,
extended empire to
Mongolia, central Asia,
and Tibet
Qianlong
•Ruled [1735-1796]
•Confucian scholar
•Supported arts
•Conquered Vietnam,
Burma, and Nepal
Manchu trade
• Rights to Portuguese, Dutch, and British
• When Manchu felt threatened, they would
expel certain groups
– [1724] Christianity banned
– [1757] trade only in Canton
• Europeans brought tea, silk, and porcelain for
sliver
Japan
• [16th century] shoguns stilled ruled, emperor
figurehead
• Centralized power began to emerge when
power of feudal lords reduced
• Westernization
– Christian missionaries
– Jesuits take over Nagasaki and trade flourished
Tokugawa Shogunate
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Established by Tokugawa Ieyasu
Strict, rigid government that ruled until [1868]
Power away from emperor
Ieyasu claimed ownership to all lands
Rigid social class model
Warrior
Farmer
Artisan
Merchant
Tokugawa period
• “Edo period”- capital moved to Edo
• Christians persecuted
• [1635] National Seclusion Policy
– Prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad
– Prohibited foreigners to visit
• Executed group of Portuguese diplomats and
traders that tried to negotiate an open trade
[1640]
Culture
• Absence of other cultures= Japanese cultures
to thrive
• Buddhism and Shinto
• Kabuki theatre
• Haiku poetry
The Big Picture
• Technology helped Europe become a powerful
force
• Expanded knowledge of the world (by
exploration by the Europeans)
• Increased contact= spread of new ideas and
technology
• Powerful women took charge of powerful
empires
– Elizabeth I (England), Isabella (Spain), Nur Jahan
(Mughal, India)
• Status and freedoms of women changed little
– Legally considered property of husbands
– Few rights in legal or political spheres
• Biggest change: mixing cultures (mestizo)
• Exception: matrilineal societies in Africa (men
engaged in slave trade)
Global Economy
• Sailing: diminished need for Asian land routes,
connected the world
• Mercantilism: economic and political
developments
• Private Sector: larger number of people had
direct stake in trade and conquest
– Governments began to lose their grip on
controlling economies
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1450- 1750 Review