The Rise of Islamic Empires in the Middle East, Europe, and India Readings: Spodek, pp. 476-477, 500-502, 502-505, 505-506 The Rise of The Ottoman Empire The Rise of the Ottoman Turks Under Osman Bey the Ottomans begin to expand broadly from 1290-1326 by organizing Steppe Peoples in Central Asia In 15th Century they moved broadly against Europe, Persia, and Egypt. April 6-May 29 1453 They besieged and conquered Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, under Sultan Mehmed II, which ended the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople becomes Instanbul Churches like Haghia Sophia were transformed into mosques, though many Christian features remain. Turks Turks faced hostile populations of Jews, Catholics, Orthodox Christians, some Muslims. The Turks allowed everyone to practice whatever religion they wanted as long as they paid taxes. Managed vast, culturally diverse empire through the Janissary Army and Civil Service. The Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II Janissaries - Took Christian boys and made them slaves Under Mehmet II - By 16th century they had control of Mediterranean and Black Seas—fought with Portugal over control of Indian OceanMehmet aimed to recreate Byzantine Empire as an Islamic state – attempted to rely heavily on Italian culture and fashion Suleiman the Magnificent Joined royal and religious law. He had many challenges Mostly from Eastern Turkey, the Safavid Empire (the Persians) How Did Ottomans Exercise Power? Center of Power – in Istanbul— the Topkapi Saray A fortress, sanctuary, and shrine Laid out by Mehmed II Outer walls and inner walls with Inner palace in deep interior— palace housed treasury, a library, and the sultan’s pavillion Inner court closed to all but state officials – visitors confined to outer court Around the edges, secret hideaway spots for the Sultan’s harem Ottoman Power Topkapi Palace housed 10 mosques, 14 bathhouses, 2 hospitals, 2,000 women and 4,000 horses Sultan housed in sacred spaces with relics of the prophet Muhammad – controlled the institutions and sacred places related to Sunni Islam Externally—law code, tolerance, military power, still profited from spice trade, tribute from Europeans Internally—palace often ruled by eunichs and concubines, as well as sultan’s mother, but more rational than many Europeans believed Safavid Empire Shaped by Persians (15011773), more a state than an empire, but had imperial ambitions Like Ottomans, benefitted from trade across Eurasia Ruled through a hereditary class of fighters – the Qizilbash Shah Abbas Expanded the Safavid Empire from 1588-1629 Created capital at Isfahan Won gains in the caucuses and central Asia, expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz Insisted that everyone practice Shi’ite version of Islam – left no room for religious pluralism – even though most people they governed not originally Shi’ites The Mughal Empire Babur started to conquer India in 1523 and took Delhi in 1526. Mughal was the Indian word for Mongols Babur and his followers didn’t like India because of the caste system and religion Humayun Early Mughal Rulers – Babur (1483-1530) Early Mughal Rulers – Humayun – Babur’s Son Legacy of Humayun (1508-1556) Faced many obstaclesmostly from brothers Consolidated Rule Interested in Science and Astrology Died falling down stairs from library carrying books Picture—Humayun with Babur Akbar – Humayun’s Son (1556-1605) Was one of the great leaders of India. He couldn’t read; there is a chance he was dyslexic He had others read to him so he could learn. Married daughters of Rajputs (800 wives) He encouraged art and architecture. Good fighter but believed in diplomacy – picture with Jesuits at court Tolerated and encouraged toleration of Hindus Akbar’s Palace – Fatehpur Sikri Jahangir (1569-1627 Ruled from 1605-1627 after father-Akbar-died Very well educated, spoke 4 languages He had little interest in India Emphasized Sunni Islam He married a Persian – Nur Jahan and let her run the country – she had been a widow in his court More interested in drinking and smoking opium than ruling Nur Jahan – Power Behind the Throne Persian – gave positions in government to all her male relatives Tough ruler Good businesswoman– encouraged trade and industry-manufactured perfume, cosemitcs Owned ships she used for commerical endeavors Wrote poetry under the name Makhifi Shah Jahan Jahangir’s son Basically imprisoned Nur Jahan until she died (she had backed his brother) He ruled from 16281657. Built the Peacock throne and the Taj Majal. Built the Taj Majal as a monument to his wife when she died in childbirth in 1631. Peacock Throne Taj Majal Rebellion of Aurangzeb Defeats Father - Shah Jahan in 1658 and becomes emperor. Ruled until 1707. He actively tries to conquer all of India and got most of it except the South. Rule of Aurangzib Aurangzib was an ardent Muslim and he prohibited the Hindu religion and destroyed the Hindu temples. In 1679 he imposed a special tax on non-Muslims and created an Islamic moral police that tried to enforce orthodoxy. He also required all women to marry By his death there was much turmoil. A summary of these empires Though these were powerful empires why did they decline? One reason was they spent a lot of money fighting wars Spent enormous sums on monumental architecture to display power Power – Superficially external visible – Real power Hidden in inner quarters Worked well when tolerant – mostly not Resisted new developments in western technology and science Saw trade very differently from Europeans.