Indus River Valley
Civilizations
Located in India
•
• Physical features
of India
• 1) Himalayas
• 2) Deccan
Plateau
• 3) Desert
• 4) Ganges
River
Characteristics of
Civilization
• Written Language: similar to hieroglyphics
and cuneiformSanskrit
• Role of Religion: Theocracy
Early signs of Hinduism
• Connection with other cultures:
••-
Trade through seas or rivers
Trade mostly west
Monsoons
• Monsoons: Seasonal Winds
• 1)
• 2)
Half of the year is dry
Half of the year is wet
Orographic Lifting
The Wet Monsoon
Arrives
* May to October
*Blows over the
Indian Ocean
*Picks up moisture and brings
rain to the Indian
subcontinent
SUMMARY
BANGLADESH IS A DELTA: one third of
it goes underwater during the wet
season
Problems faced:
•
•
•
•
1)
2)
3)
4)
Flooding during Summer Monsoons
Crop failure due to flooding
Flooding could make rivers change course
Unpredictable monsoons
How do we fix these problems?
•
• 1)
Create walls to prevent access water from
entering village
– a. Made out of mud bricks
• 2)
Planned Cities URBAN PLANNING
– a. Sort of like block system in NYC grid system
» i.Good straight road paths from place to place in
city
• 3)
Plumbing and sewage systems
– a. Why is this important?
» i. Water and sewage will not roam into streets
and out of cities keeping them clean and spread
of disease down
Indus River Valley Cities:
• 1)
• 2)
• 3)
Kalibangan
Mohenjo- Daro
Harappa
What is the Caste
System?
Indian Empires
• 1) Maurya
• 2) Gupta
• 3) Mughal
Chandragupta Maurya –
321 BC
• Battled with local leaders to unite all of
northern India through war
• Large army –waged war to spread
empire
•o
Well organized bureaucracy
• Roads, taxes, postal system, courts
Asoka – 274 BC
• o
•
•
•
•
•
Grandson of Chandragupta
• War at first then..
· Converted to Buddhism
spread of Buddhism
o
Spread through empire as well
as throughout Asia
o
Peace and prosperity
– Hospitals, houses, laws in local
languages
Empire declines in 232 BC
Became disunited
Gupta Empire
“Golden Age”
•o
310 AD
• What is a golden age?
• united by Chandragupta I
– Creates a patriarchal society
Accomplishments
•o



•
•

•
•
§
§
§
·
o
§
·
·
Arts
Poetry
Paintings
Write down Sanskrit
Spread language
Science
mathematics, Pi, decimals
Algebra, Concept of 0  proved earth is round
Universe– lunar cycles
– 7 day week, sun cycles.
• ·
Medicine surgeries, medical plants
Operations 1st Plastic surgeries
– Medical instruments
Over time the Gupta
Empire will fall to the
Mughal Empire (Muslims)
Famous King Akbar
Allowed religious tolerance between Muslims
and Hindus
Married a Hindu Wife
The rulers that followed
Akbar were not as
tolerant as he was and
Muslims and Hindus
became intolerant of one
another future
problems
During Mughal Empire is
when the Taj Mahal was
built. Combines both
Muslim and Hindu
architecture and design
Soon bad rulers and
the division between
Muslims and Hindus
would lead to rebellion
and fall of Mughals
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Indus River Valley Civilizations