The Muslim World Expands,
1300–1700
Three great Muslim
powers—the Ottoman,
Safavid, and Mughal
empires—emerge
between 1300 and
1600. By 1700 all three
were in decline.
Suleyman the Lawgiver.
NEXT
The Muslim World Expands,
1300–1700
SECTION 1
The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire
SECTION 2
CASE STUDY: Cultural Blending
SECTION 3
The Mughal Empire in India
Map
NEXT
Section 1
The Ottomans Build a
Vast Empire
The Ottomans establish a Muslim empire
that combine many cultures and lasted for
more than 600 years.
NEXT
SECTION
1
The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire
Turks Move into Byzantium
Turkish Warriors
• Many Turks live in Anatolia, on edge of Byzantine
Empire
• Many see themselves as ghazis—warriors who
fight for Islam
Osman Establishes a State
• From 1300 to 1326, Osman, successful ghazi, builds
state in Anatolia
• Europeans call him Othman and followers Ottomans
• Ottomans win battles because they use muskets and
cannons
• Successors expand state through alliances and land
buying
Image
Continued . . .
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SECTION
1
continued Turks
Move into Byzantium
Osman Establishes a State
• Orkhan, Osman’s son, declares himself sultan—
overlord
• In 1361, Turks conquer Adrianople
• Ottomans rule fairly over conquered peoples
Timur the Lame Halts Expansion
• Timur the Lame—Tamerlane—rises to power in
Central Asia
• Timur defeats Ottomans in 1402, burning Baghdad
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SECTION
1
Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
Murad II
• Murad II begins expansion
Mehmed II Conquers Constantinople
• Murad’s son, Mehmed II, conquers
Constantinople in 1453
• Opens city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims and
rebuilds
Image
Ottomans Take Islam’s Holy Cities
• In 1512, Selim the Grim, Mehmed’s grandson,
comes to power
• He defeats Persian Safavids and pushes into
North Africa
• Conquers Mecca, Medina, and Cairo: important
Muslim cities
NEXT
SECTION
1
Suleyman the Lawgiver
A Great Ruler
• Suleyman the Lawgiver, Selim’s son, rules from
1520 to 1566
Image
The Empire Reaches Its Limits
• Suleyman conquers Belgrade (1521) and
Rhodes (1522)
• Ottomans control eastern Mediterranean
• Turks take North African coastline, control inland
trade routes
• Suleyman’s forces advance to Vienna
• By 1526, Ottoman Empire is the largest in the
world
Interactive
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
1
continued Suleyman
the Lawgiver
Highly Structured Social Organization
• Suleyman creates law code, reduces
bureaucracy, simplifies taxation
• Army uses devshirme—drafts boys from
conquered lands
• Trains 30,000 elite soldiers—janissaries—loyal
only to the sultan
• Jews and Christians allowed to practice own
religion
Cultural Flowering
• Suleyman’s broad interests lead to flourishing of
arts, learning
• Sinan, brilliant architect, designs magnificent
Mosque of Suleyman
Image
NEXT
SECTION
1
The Empire Declines Slowly
Gradual Fall
• Suleyman kills one son and exiles another
• Third son inherits throne but rules weakly
• Later sultans kill their brothers and leave their
sons uneducated
• Long line of weak sultans leads to empire’s
eventual fall
NEXT
Section 2
Cultural Blending
CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire
The Safavid Empire produce a rich and complex
blended culture in Persia.
NEXT
SECTION
2
Cultural Blending
CASE STUDY:The Safavid Empire
Patterns of Cultural Blending
Cultural Blending in Persia
• Between16th and 18th centuries a Shi’ite Muslim
dynasty ruled Persia
• Safavid Empire—Shi’ite Muslim dynasty from 16th to
18th centuries
Causes of Cultural Blending
• Changes occur through migration, conquest, trade,
or religion
Results of Cultural Blending
• Changes in language, religion, government, use of
technology
• Racial and ethnic blending, intermarriage
• Cultural styles adapted into arts and architecture
NEXT
SECTION
2
The Safavids Build an Empire
Safavid Origins
• Begins as religious order named for founder
• Safavids concentrate on building powerful military
Isma’il Conquers Persia
•
•
•
•
Fourteen-year-old Isma’il conquers Iran by 1451
Takes title of shah—king
Makes Shi’a Islam official religion; kills Sunnis
Son, Tahmasp, greatly expands empire
NEXT
SECTION
2
A Safavid Golden Age
Abbas the Great
• Shah Abbas—Abbas the Great—takes throne in
1587
Image
Reforms
• Helps create a thriving Safavid culture
• Reforms military and government; brings in Christian
trade
A New Capital
• Esfahan—new capital—is one of world’s most
beautiful cities
Art Works
• Chinese artisans blend Chinese and Persian styles
Carpets
• Carpet weaving becomes national industry
NEXT
SECTION
2
The Dynasty Declines Quickly
The Safavid Empire Weakens
• Abbas kills and blinds his ablest sons
• Safi, Abbas’s incompetent grandson, leads to
empire’s decline
• By 1722, the empire is losing land to the
Ottomans and Afghans
• Nadir Shah Afshar expands the empire, but it falls
apart in 1747
NEXT
Section 3
The Mughal Empire
in India
The Mughal Empire brings Turks, Persians,
and Indians together in a vast empire.
NEXT
SECTION
3
The Mughal Empire in India
Early History of the Mughals
Mongol Invaders
• Mughals, or Mongols, invade northwestern India
Conflict
• Muslims and Hindus fight for almost 300 years
• In 1000, loose empire of Turkish warlords—Delhi
Sultanate—forms
Delhi Sultanate
• Sultans rule from Delhi between 13th and 16th
centuries
• Timur the Lame destroys Delhi in 1398
NEXT
SECTION
3
Early History of the Mughals
Babur Founds an Empire
• Babur becomes king of small land in Central Asia at
age 11
• Is dethroned and driven south into India
• Army conquers much of northern India, forming
Mughal Empire
• Son Humayun loses most of the territory Babur
conquered
• Babur’s grandson succeeds Humayan
Map
NEXT
SECTION
3
Akbar’s Golden Age
Babur’s Grandson
• Akbar—“Greatest One”— rules India from 1556
to 1605
Image
A Military Conqueror
• Akbar uses cannons; names native Indians as
officers
A Liberal Ruler
• Akbar allows religious freedom and abolishes tax on
non-Muslims
• Akbar allows all people a chance to serve in high
government office
• Hindu finance minister develops better tax plan;
income grows
• Akbar gives land to his officials, then reclaims Continued . . .
it when they die
NEXT
SECTION
3
continued Akbar’s
Golden Age
A Flowering of Culture
• Many cultures blend, mixing art, education,
politics, and language
• New languages like Hindi and Urdu emerge
The Arts and Literature
• Book illustrations, called miniatures, flourish
• Hindu literature reemerges during Akbar’s rule
Image
Architecture
• New architectural style named for Akbar develops
Image
NEXT
SECTION
3
Akbar’s Successors
Jahangir and Nur Jahan
• Akbar’s son, Jahangir, allows wife Nur Jahan to
control government
• Nur Jahan appoints her father prime minister
• Nur Jahan favors son Khusrau over other sons
• Khusrau rebels, supported by Sikhs, nonviolent
religious group
• Sikhs become targets of Mughal hatred
Continued . . .
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SECTION
3
continued Akbar’s
Successors
Shah Jahan
• Shah Jahan—Jahangir’s son and successor,
marries Persian princess
• Assassinates all competitors for throne
• His wife dies while giving birth to her 14th child in
1631
• Taj Mahal—huge marble tomb Shah Jahan
builds for his wife
• Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings
in the world
Image
Continued . . .
NEXT
SECTION
3
continued Akbar’s
Successors
The People Suffer
• People suffer paying for wars and monuments
• Shah Jahan’s third son—Aurangzeb—imprisons
father and takes over
Aurangzeb’s Reign
• Rules between 1658 and 1707; expands empire to
its largest
• Strictly enforces Islamic law and attempts to get rid
of Hindus
• Hindus rebel and Sikhs become militant
• Levies oppressive taxes on Hindus, causing more
rebellion
NEXT
SECTION
3
The Empire’s Decline and Decay
The Mughal Empire Crumbles
• Over 2 million people die of famine while Aurangzeb
wages war
• Emperor becomes a figurehead; empire breaks into
separate states
• Meanwhile, traders arrive from England, Holland,
France, Portugal
• European traders gain key ports
NEXT
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