MIDDLE EAST UNIT 1 TEST REVIEW MRS. NIX—7TH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES WHAT IS THE VOCAB. WORD FOR “BRINGING WATER TO DRY LAND?” irrigation IF LAND HAS THE REQUIRED NUTRIENTS NEEDED FOR PLANTING CROPS, THE SOIL IS _________. Fertile WHAT ARE “HUNTER GATHERERS?” Nomadic people who travel in search of food and survive on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild grains, fruits, and nuts __________ IS THE COLLECTED WRITINGS AND SAYINGS OF MUHAMMED THAT FORM THE HOLY TEXT OF ISLAM. Qur’an WHAT IS A THEOCRACY? A government ruled by a religious leader WHAT RELIGION DO MUSLIMS PRACTICE? Islam WHAT WAS ISTANBUL’S FORMER NAME AND WHY WAS IT CHANGED? Constantinople—it was changed because when the Ottomans (a Muslim Empire) took over the land, they did not want their capital city to be named after a Christian (Constantine the Great). __________IS RELIGIOUS LAW BASED ON THE QUR’AN THAT ALL MUSLIMS ARE REQUIRED TO FOLLOW. Sharia WHICH COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING THE MANDATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST AFTER WWI? Great Britain and France were given the mandates by the League of Nations and they divided up the land that used to be the Ottoman Empire WHY DID THE MANDATES CAUSE CONFLICT? ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARIES! They divided the Middle East without regard for ethnic/religious diversity or for the people who actually lived there. Also, some groups felt left out of the new boundary lines and started rebellions. THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST, OIL INDUSTRY WEALTH HAS FUELED A GROWING CLASH BETWEEN___________(2 POSSIBLE ANSWERS) Traditional Muslim Values vs. Modern Western Culture and Trade The “Haves” vs. the “Have Nots” WHY HAS THERE BEEN CONFLICT OVER THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS FOR MANY YEARS? They provide needed water resources and irrigation for farming for Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Turkey has been building dams to control the flow of these rivers and their neighbors think that they are taking too much water. WHERE IS THE SUEZ CANAL LOCATED? Egypt THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS FLOW THROUGH THE MAJORITY OF WHICH MODERN NATION? Iraq THE NATURAL RESOURCE THAT SAUDI ARABIA IS MOST KNOWN FOR IS ___________. OIL! WHY MIGHT POLITICAL UNREST IN THE MIDDLE EAST IMPACT OTHER COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES? The Middle East provides much of the world’s oil. A disruption in trade in the Middle East could cause major economic problems worldwide. VAST AREAS OF THE MIDDLE EAST ARE DESERTS. HOW HAS THAT IMPACTED THE USE OF WATER IN THIS REGION? People need water to live. Areas with fresh water sources (rivers or oases) are overpopulated and becoming polluted. Most large cities in the Middle East are located near water resources. MOST PEOPLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST LIVE NEAR ___________. water THE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUP LIVING IN SAUDI ARABIA (AND MOST OF THE MIDDLE EAST REGION) IS ___________ Arabs THE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUP LIVING IN ISRAEL IS ____________. Jews (remember that the Jewish people are the exception to the rule—they are considered to be both an ethnic group and a religious group because of their shared history, culture, traditions, and roots in the land of Israel) THE MAJORITY OF IRAQIS CONSIDER THEMSELVES TO BE______ AND __________. Arabs, Sunni Muslims MOST IRANIANS CONSIDER THEMSELVES TO BE __________ AND _________. Persian, Shia Muslims THE MAJORITY OF ARABS AND PERSIANS FOLLOW WHAT MAJOR WORLD RELIGION? Islam IN ISRAEL, AS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD, THERE IS A DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN A HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING AND A HIGH _________ ________. literacy rate BECAUSE OF A DISAGREEMENT AMONG THE FOLLOWERS OF ISLAM, A SPLIT OCCURRED. THE TWO GROUPS THAT CAME OF THE SPLIT ARE THE ________AND _________ MUSLIMS. Sunni, Shia TRUE OR FALSE: PEOPLE CAN BELONG TO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AND STILL PRACTICE THE SAME RELIGION. true WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE MANDATE SYSTEM? To divide the former Ottoman territory into new, independent countries. The Europeans determined when this would occur. WHAT WAS THE SYKES-PICOT TREATY? This was a secret document/agreement between Great Britain, France, and Russia that divided up the former Ottoman territory between those countries. They had a plan to divide the land BEFORE the war was even over! WHICH TWO RESOURCES IN THE MIDDLE EAST ARE THE MOST PRIZED? Water and oil! (Be able to explain WHY on your actual test) WHY IS WATER A POINT OF CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST? It is scarce and people must have it to live. (Remember the example of Turkey, Iraq, and Syria’s “water wars”) LIST SEVERAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: They gained important cities and control of trade routes They trained a strong slave army—The Janissaries They had land, power, and wealth They developed gunpowder and advanced weapons They had centralized power, family rule, and strong leaders LIST SOME REASONS FOR THE FALL OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Economic problems/debt to Europe Refusal to modernize The Janissaries became too expensive to maintain They were fearful of change and Western influences They would not use the printing press, allow foreign languages to be studied, or allow foreign embassies They joined the Germans on the losing side of WWI WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE MANDATE SYSTEM AND HOW DID IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST? It divided up the former Ottoman territory into new countries that were to be given their independence by the British/French later on. The land was divided without regard for ethnic/religious diversity in that area. Conflicts still arise because minority groups are exploited/ignored/persecuted by the majority. WHY IS JERUSALEM IMPORTANT TO THE THREE MAJOR RELIGIONS OF THE MIDDLE EAST? Each of the religions has a holy site in Jerusalem. Judaism: The Western Wall—remains of the old temple destroyed by the Romans Christianity: Church of the Holy Sepulchre— built on the site of Christ’s tomb Islam: Dome of the Rock—mosque built at the site of Muhammed’s death ESSAY QUESTION PREPARATION: IN PARAGRAPH FORM, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE THREE MAJOR RELIGIONS OF THIS REGION (3 SIMILARITIES, 3 DIFFERENCES MINIMUM). USE A VENN DIAGRAM TO BRAINSTORM IF YOU WISH BUT YOU MUST WRITE A PARAGRAPH ON YOUR TEST!