MIDDLE EAST UNIT 1 TEST REVIEW
MRS. NIX—7TH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES
WHAT IS THE VOCAB. WORD FOR “BRINGING
WATER TO DRY LAND?”

irrigation
IF LAND HAS THE REQUIRED NUTRIENTS
NEEDED FOR PLANTING CROPS, THE SOIL IS
_________.
 Fertile
WHAT ARE “HUNTER GATHERERS?”

Nomadic people who travel in search of food
and survive on hunting, fishing, and gathering
wild grains, fruits, and nuts
__________ IS THE COLLECTED WRITINGS AND
SAYINGS OF MUHAMMED THAT FORM THE HOLY
TEXT OF ISLAM.

Qur’an
WHAT IS A THEOCRACY?

A government ruled by a religious leader
WHAT RELIGION DO MUSLIMS PRACTICE?

Islam
WHAT WAS ISTANBUL’S FORMER NAME AND
WHY WAS IT CHANGED?

Constantinople—it was changed because when
the Ottomans (a Muslim Empire) took over the
land, they did not want their capital city to be
named after a Christian (Constantine the
Great).
__________IS RELIGIOUS LAW BASED ON THE
QUR’AN THAT ALL MUSLIMS ARE REQUIRED TO
FOLLOW.

Sharia
WHICH COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN
ESTABLISHING THE MANDATES IN THE MIDDLE
EAST AFTER WWI?

Great Britain and France were given the
mandates by the League of Nations and they
divided up the land that used to be the
Ottoman Empire
WHY DID THE MANDATES CAUSE CONFLICT?

ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARIES! They divided the
Middle East without regard for ethnic/religious
diversity or for the people who actually lived
there. Also, some groups felt left out of the
new boundary lines and started rebellions.
THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST, OIL INDUSTRY
WEALTH HAS FUELED A GROWING CLASH
BETWEEN___________(2 POSSIBLE ANSWERS)
Traditional Muslim Values vs. Modern Western
Culture and Trade
 The “Haves” vs. the “Have Nots”

WHY HAS THERE BEEN CONFLICT OVER THE
TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS FOR MANY
YEARS?

They provide needed water resources and
irrigation for farming for Turkey, Syria, and Iraq.
Turkey has been building dams to control the
flow of these rivers and their neighbors think
that they are taking too much water.
WHERE IS THE SUEZ CANAL LOCATED?

Egypt
THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES RIVERS FLOW
THROUGH THE MAJORITY OF WHICH MODERN
NATION?

Iraq
THE NATURAL RESOURCE THAT SAUDI ARABIA IS
MOST KNOWN FOR IS ___________.

OIL!
WHY MIGHT POLITICAL UNREST IN THE MIDDLE
EAST IMPACT OTHER COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES?

The Middle East provides much of the world’s
oil. A disruption in trade in the Middle East
could cause major economic problems
worldwide.
VAST AREAS OF THE MIDDLE EAST ARE
DESERTS. HOW HAS THAT IMPACTED THE USE
OF WATER IN THIS REGION?

People need water to live. Areas with fresh
water sources (rivers or oases) are
overpopulated and becoming polluted. Most
large cities in the Middle East are located near
water resources.
MOST PEOPLE IN THE MIDDLE EAST LIVE NEAR
___________.

water
THE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUP LIVING IN SAUDI
ARABIA (AND MOST OF THE MIDDLE EAST
REGION) IS ___________

Arabs
THE MAJOR ETHNIC GROUP LIVING IN ISRAEL IS
____________.

Jews (remember that the Jewish people are
the exception to the rule—they are considered
to be both an ethnic group and a religious
group because of their shared history, culture,
traditions, and roots in the land of Israel)
THE MAJORITY OF IRAQIS CONSIDER
THEMSELVES TO BE______ AND __________.

Arabs, Sunni Muslims
MOST IRANIANS CONSIDER THEMSELVES TO BE
__________ AND _________.

Persian, Shia Muslims
THE MAJORITY OF ARABS AND PERSIANS
FOLLOW WHAT MAJOR WORLD RELIGION?

Islam
IN ISRAEL, AS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD,
THERE IS A DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN A
HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING AND A HIGH
_________ ________.

literacy rate
BECAUSE OF A DISAGREEMENT AMONG THE
FOLLOWERS OF ISLAM, A SPLIT OCCURRED.
THE TWO GROUPS THAT CAME OF THE SPLIT
ARE THE ________AND _________ MUSLIMS.

Sunni, Shia
TRUE OR FALSE: PEOPLE CAN BELONG TO
DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS AND STILL
PRACTICE THE SAME RELIGION.

true
WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE MANDATE
SYSTEM?

To divide the former Ottoman territory into new,
independent countries. The Europeans
determined when this would occur.
WHAT WAS THE SYKES-PICOT TREATY?

This was a secret document/agreement
between Great Britain, France, and Russia that
divided up the former Ottoman territory
between those countries. They had a plan to
divide the land BEFORE the war was even over!
WHICH TWO RESOURCES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
ARE THE MOST PRIZED?

Water and oil! (Be able to explain WHY on your
actual test)
WHY IS WATER A POINT OF CONFLICT IN THE
MIDDLE EAST?

It is scarce and people must have it to live.
(Remember the example of Turkey, Iraq, and
Syria’s “water wars”)
LIST SEVERAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE OTTOMAN
EMPIRE:
They gained important cities and control of
trade routes
 They trained a strong slave army—The
Janissaries
 They had land, power, and wealth
 They developed gunpowder and advanced
weapons
 They had centralized power, family rule, and
strong leaders

LIST SOME REASONS FOR THE FALL OF THE
OTTOMAN EMPIRE:
Economic problems/debt to Europe
 Refusal to modernize
 The Janissaries became too expensive to maintain
 They were fearful of change and Western
influences
 They would not use the printing press, allow
foreign languages to be studied, or allow foreign
embassies
 They joined the Germans on the losing side of WWI

WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE MANDATE
SYSTEM AND HOW DID IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
PROBLEMS OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST?
It divided up the former Ottoman territory into
new countries that were to be given their
independence by the British/French later on.
 The land was divided without regard for
ethnic/religious diversity in that area.
 Conflicts still arise because minority groups are
exploited/ignored/persecuted by the majority.

WHY IS JERUSALEM IMPORTANT TO THE THREE
MAJOR RELIGIONS OF THE MIDDLE EAST?
Each of the religions has a holy site in
Jerusalem.
 Judaism: The Western Wall—remains of the old
temple destroyed by the Romans
 Christianity: Church of the Holy Sepulchre—
built on the site of Christ’s tomb
 Islam: Dome of the Rock—mosque built at the
site of Muhammed’s death

ESSAY QUESTION PREPARATION: IN
PARAGRAPH FORM, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO
COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE THREE MAJOR
RELIGIONS OF THIS REGION (3 SIMILARITIES, 3
DIFFERENCES MINIMUM). USE A VENN
DIAGRAM TO BRAINSTORM IF YOU WISH BUT
YOU MUST WRITE A PARAGRAPH ON YOUR TEST!
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Middle East Unit 1 Test review