Christianity, Feudalism, and Manoralism Christianity O The attacks from the barbaric tribes weakened the empire fatally. O Many historians now believe that Christianity may have also weakened the defenses of the empire. Christianity O In the Roman way of life, emperors, governors, and administrators stood far above the people and Roman religion provided little spiritual compensation for a low rank in the world. The Christian faith offered something better: the message that all persons are potentially equal in the eyes of God and may hope for a better afterlife through salvation. As the Western Empire came under constant attack, the increasing number of Christians may have been less eager to fight to preserve the old system. Christianity O The triumph of Christianity within the Roman Empire was one of the most remarkable cultural revolutions in history—all the more extraordinary because it’s values were opposed to those of classical thought, which sought the good life in the present world. Carpe diem, “Seize the day” was the standard Roman motto. Classical values were failing to reach the disadvantaged, the subjugated, the losers. Christianity O Christianity was born into a world alive with religious fervor. Christians were striving to lead lives of pure morals and would welcome everyone, commoner and intellectual alike, into God’s kingdom. O Martyrs testified for their faith with their lives. Within the church, some theologians took positions that the established leaders rejected and denounced. A world of debate and interpretation of Christian thought flowed from the pens of the scholars known as the Fathers of the church. Characteristics of Christianity O This new religion hardly looked “religious.” Christians had no temples or other holy places, no priests, no ordinary sacrifices, no oracles, no visible gods, no initiations, they made no pilgrimages, would not venerate (worship, revere) the emperor. It is no wonder that some pagans accused Christians of being atheists who undermined traditional society. O Christians maintained that prophecies in the Bible (Old Testament) had foretold the coming of Jesus as the Messiah. Characteristics of Christianity O All the first Christians had been Jews, but they parted company with Jewish tradition by insisting that Jesus’ life, sacrificial death, and his resurrection all meant that God’s community had become open to everyone, on absolutely equal terms. Judaism and the Empire O In 6 A.D., Augustus made Judea a Roman Province. Rome still allowed Jews to practice their religion but treated them cruelly. Many Jews strengthened their hope that a Messiah would help them regain their freedom. Believing that God would intervene on their behalf, some Jews took matters into their own hands. Judaism and the Empire O In 66 A.D., Jerusalem burst into rebellion. This great Jewish War as the Romans called it lasted until 70 when the Romans under the Emperor Titus demolished the Temple, except a remnant of the Western Wall, where Jews were allowed to pray once a year. Jewish Factions O Back up to the time of Christ : Three principle factions (groups) arose in Jewish society each stressing the part of Jewish tradition it considered the most essential for the survival of the Jews as God’s people. O The Sadducees were composed of the landed aristocracy and high priests in Jewish society. They were religious conservatives who rejected belief in the afterlife and in angels because they did not find such teaching in the five books of Moses (The Torah). Jewish Factions O The Pharisees were composed of pious middle-class laypersons who taught the resurrection of the dead, believed in angels, and accepted gentile converts. Historians call the modern rabbis the spiritual heirs of the Pharisees due to their organization of legal traditions into a book called the Mishnah. This book evolved into the Talmud, or general body of Jewish tradition. Jewish Factions O The Essenes were austere priests who settled at Qumran, fifteen miles into the desert east of Jerusalem. They protested against the leadership of the Temple by high priests whom they considered corrupt and unworthy. The Essenes are most famous as the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. These scrolls have given historians an extraordinary view of the apocalyptic beliefs and strict practices of this faction that was active from 150 B.C. until 70 A.D. The Origins of Christianity O Scholarly investigation of Jesus is difficult. He seems to have been a charismatic Jewish teacher, yet he wrote nothing that we know of. His existence and execution by the Romans are confirmed by such first and second-century historians as Tacitus. O For details we must sift the writings of early converts, such as Saul of Tarsus (Paul), who did not know Jesus, or the authors of the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), which focus on Jesus’ power over evil forces, his message of hope and moral demands, his miracles, and his radical inclusiveness. The Origins of Christianity O Ancient writers had little interest in presenting his biography in chronological order or probing his inner life. We know almost nothing of his career as a youth and young adult apart from his being raised a Jew in Galilee, thus it is impossible to write a biography of Jesus. Jesus as a Teacher O As his followers recalled his career, Jesus was born of a virgin named Mary who was betrothed but not yet married to a man named Joseph. At around age thirty, Jesus went to John the Baptist, and outspoken prophet, to be baptized. Soon afterward John was imprisoned and Jesus began to preach. Jesus declared that when God rules the poor, the meek, the pure in heart, the peacemakers, and the justice seekers will be honored. He also taught that prayer and piety were matters of personal commitment, not public gestures to win society’s acclaim. Jesus’ Death O Christian writers state that the high priests in Jerusalem accused Jesus of blasphemy, pretending to be the Messiah and king, and refusing to pay taxes to the Roman emperor. The Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, apparently feared that a riot, led by Jesus’ enemies was about to break out at the Passover. He washed his hands to make himself innocent of Jesus’ blood and handed him over to the crowd who chose to have him crucified. O Jesus’ followers believed that he was raised from the dead three days later and ascended into heaven after promising to return one day and establish his kingdom. Soon after the ascension, Jesus’ apostles began to preach Jesus’ message throughout Judea, win converts, and establish churches for worship, fellowship, and instruction. The Spread of Christianity O Paul and His Mission (Paul: Roman, Saul: Jewish) O Saul of Tarsus (southern Turkey), a Pharisee, became a leader in persecuting Jews who had become Christians. About 33 B.C., on his way to Damascus he saw a vision of the resurrected Jesus who asked him to explain his hatred of Christians. As a result of this vision, Saul converted to Christianity and believed that he was the “chosen instrument” to bring the message of Christ to the Gentiles. The Spread of Christianity O He is better known as the apostle Paul. He became the best known of all the early Christian teachers. His letters gave specific guidance to the congregations he founded; they were later collected and now make up much of the New Testament. Paul taught Christians to regard themselves as citizens of heaven and to live in humility and love. Paul is acknowledged as the second founder of Christianity. He was executed in Rome in 62 A.D. Persecutions O The Romans asked that reverence be shown on official occasions to the traditional gods (of Rome) and to the deceased and god like emperors. Romans saw this as public patriotism not blasphemy as the Christians did. Christians refused to do this. Rome either lacked interest in the Christians or mercilessly persecuted them. O The first serious persecutions took place under Nero in 64 A.D. He blamed Christians for starting a vast fire that ravaged Rome. Many were put to death as scapegoats for the fire. Persecutions O From 303-313 A.D. persecution intensified. The emperor Diocletian and his successors, tried to eliminate Christianity completely. Many were put to death but the persecution only strengthened the commitment and devotion of the church members. The persecution also created a list of venerated martyrs that led to the creation of these individuals as ‘saints’ that became an integral part of Christianity ever after. “The blood of the martyr became the seed of the church.” Reasons for the Spread of Christianity O Followers of the “mystery cults” found Christian beliefs and practices familiar enough to convert easily to the new faith. The doctrine allowed women to worship with men, taught that all men were equal under God, and showed how the common man could achieve a better life in the next world. The persecutions united them together and the courage that they faced death impressed even their bitterest enemies. The church was eventually officially recognized by Rome in 311 A.D. Reasons for the Spread of Christianity An Emperor becomes the Church’s Patron O In 312, Constantine was battling a rival for supremacy in Italy. The night before the Battle of Milvian Bridge, he had a dream. In the dream he was told to decorate the shields of his men with the Greek letters chi and ro (the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ) and was told “In this sign you shall conquer.” He followed the instructions in the dream and did win the battle and thereafter recognized divine power in the name of Christ. O Reasons for the Spread of Christianity O He called for and held a conference at Milan and from that meeting issued the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity. He also ordered the return of any and all confiscated goods to Christians. O During his reign, Christianity grew from a persecuted sect to the most favored sect in the Empire. O Just before his death, Constantine was baptized. The emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion, and prohibited all pagan cults. Christianity and Roman Law O Constantine and his successors gave more and more privileges to the church. Christians became exempt from some civil service duties; 1-churches could own property and 2- enjoyed exemptions from some taxes.(Some taxes enriching the church) 3- Bishops were also allowed to judge the legal (not religion) disputes of the members of their congregations.(This is becoming a problem) Constantine repealed the laws of Augustus that regulated marriage and punished celibacy—a lifestyle now tolerated more easily because celibacy in priests was seen as a virtue. Battles Within Christianity O Usually the Christian community did not bother to define matters of dogma or discipline until disputes threatened its internal unity. The losers in these disputes, if they did not amend their beliefs, were regarded as heretics, meaning those who had made a wrong choice. O Heresies caused the early church to redefine its positions. Out of the turmoil and disagreement, the Church emerged stronger even though sincerely held opinions were suppressed. Battles Within Christianity O Orthodox theologians of the second century defined the canon of sacred writings to include the modern bible (Old and New Testaments). The church also declared that the era of divine inspiration had come to an end. All truths needed for salvation were complete with the work of St. John, and no new revelations were needed. The Government of the Church O During the first century, the terms deacon, bishop, and elder appear in church language. During the second century, the bishop became the elected leader of a group of elders (later called priests) and of deacons (both men and women) who became responsible for collecting donations and managing the church’s material affairs. The Government of the Church O Bishops gained the right to 1- appoint priests, 2- define doctrine, 3- maintain discipline, and 4oversee morals. In the west, the number of bishops remained small and so obtained power over fairly large areas. O Bishops in Rome, Alexandria (Egypt), and Antioch (Holy Land) became the most influential due to the large Christian communities living in those cities. The Bishop of Rome became the head of the western church. The name for a bishop was papa or father, but eventually only the Bishop of Rome was called papa or pope. Arius O In 311 A.D., a priest from Alexandria named Arius began to teach that Jesus was not coequal with God the Father but had been created by him. The teachings raised troubles throughout the Roman Empire. To restore peace, Constantine(Emperor) summoned a council of the church to meet at Nicaea in Asia Minor, May 325. O The council condemned Arius in the Nicene Creed which declared that Jesus was coeternal with the Father and of one substance with God. Arius was exiled. The Fathers of the Church O Some of the most influential leaders of the early church lived in the late 300s A.D. O Ambrose (340-397) was the Bishop of Milan (Northern Italy). His most important doctrine was that the Church must be independent of the emperor and that bishops should have the right to chastise rulers. O In 390 Ambrose excommunicated the emperor Theodosius for massacring the rebellious citizens of Thessalonica and forced him to do public penance. Theodosius later admitted his guilt and repented. O Popes of later centuries who struggled with leaders of nations owed much of their power to Ambrose. Jerome and Augustine O Jerome (340-420) was a learned priest who translated the Old and New Testaments into Latin. This version of the Bible is called the Vulgate version. This Latin version became the most widely used during the Middle Ages. O Augustine (354-430) became the most important of the Church Fathers. He was the leading figure in the development of church theology. He is one of the authors of the idea of predestination. He taught that sin descended from Adam into every human being, and doing good works could not guarantee salvation which was a gift of god alone. He profoundly influenced teachings on morality and marriage. He urged all Christians to a life of celibacy and banned sex before marriage. Jerome and Augustine O He wrote one of the worlds first great autobiographies called Confessions. In his book The City of God, Augustine tried to show that there was an order to history and that God’s hand was directing people to their destiny. This book was the greatest work of philosophy in early Christendom. O The Rise of the Middle Ages Invasions Triggered Changes O Repeated barbarian invasions and constant warfare sparked new trends. A series of changes altered the government, economy, and culture of Europe. Trade was disrupted; businesses collapsed; money became scarce. Established cities began to deteriorate. This led to a population shift in Europe. As the centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles retreated to the rural areas. Roman cities were left without strong leadership. Other city dwellers retreated to the countryside as well. During this time, the concept of government changed. People’s loyalty changed from loyalty to the government to loyalty to a single leader. Invasions Triggered Changes O In this new civilization in the west, there were no: O 1-great cities O 2- no commerce O 3- no industry O 4- no strong central governments O 5- no universities. O Society was simple. Assimilation and Synthesis O The shattering of the Roman world and its lifestyle by the barbarian invasions released the forces of creative energy. Adding Celtic and Teutonic elements to Roman Christianity enriched the culture of Western Europe. Assimilation and Synthesis O The encounter of Latin-Christian civilization with the barbarians resulted in a double process of assimilation and synthesis. In assimilation, one culture conquers and absorbs the other. In many areas and in many aspects of culture, Latin culture absorbed barbarian; in others, the barbarian absorbed the Latin. In other respects a true synthesis between the two was attained. Assimilation and Synthesis O Accompanying the process of assimilation and synthesis was a shift northward from the Mediterranean of the centers of culture. Also, the Mediterranean world became divided into three areas: 1-Western, 2Byzantine, and 3- Islamic. The northern fringe areas of Greco-Roman civilization would become the heartland of the new Western civilization. The Bible Translated Into Gothic O The conversion of the Germanic barbarians to Christianity began before they invaded. Their conversion began with Ulfilia, the son of Christian parents who lived in the land of the Goths. His parents had been captured by the Goths so he grew up a Gothic speaking Christian. He became a bishop in 341 A.D. The Bible Translated Into Gothic O Ulfilia brought the Arian version of Christianity to the Goths and translated the Bible into their language. From this, Arian Christianity spread to the Visigoths, Vandals, and Ostrogoth's. One result of this conversion was to create in many kingdoms a tension between Arian Germans and Catholic Romans that would hamper the achievement of a peaceful synthesis. German Church believe in different things. The Bible Translated Into Gothic O Two other European groups converted to Christianity: the Franks in Gaul and the Anglo-Saxons in England. Before these two groups controlled Northern Europe, the Celts were the dominant ethnic group. The Celts (Caesar’s group that he conquered, and have been absorbed since then.) migrated from their central European homeland around 5000 B.C. From around 400 B.C. to 100 B.C. they dominated Northern Europe. They were gradually conquered, killed, or expelled from their territories by the Latin Romans from the south and the Teutons, from the north. After Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, they retained independent control of Britain and Ireland. Anglo-Saxons O The Anglo-Saxons originally dwelt along the coast of the North Sea, from the present nations of the Netherlands to Denmark. They began their conquest of Britain shortly after 410 A.D. The conquest was completed by 600 A.D. The Angles (English) were the only Teutonic people who chose to exterminate, rather than to rule or assimilate, the province they conquered. Franks O The Franks were the most successful of the invading Teutonic peoples. This diverse group of tribes was formed some time in the 3rd century A.D. Early on there was very little political unity among the Franks. Each group or tribe was ruled by its own chieftain and pursued its own course of migration and settlement. Some tribes remained east of the Rhine River in an area known as “Franconia.” Others crossed the Rhine and settled in the empire where they entered into an alliance with the Romans. Around 410 A.D., other Franks crossed the river, refused and alliance, and penetrated deep into Belgium to set up their own kingdom. This was the beginning of the Merovingian Dynasty. The Dark Ages O These years were stark in every dimension. Mediaeval man’s first goal was survival. There were famines and plagues that repeatedly thinned the population. The church remained as the only unifying force for the people of Europe. The Time Period of the Middle-Ages 500-1500 A.D. O The decline of Rome and the barbarian invasions created three basic problems for European man, and created solutions for these problems: 1) Keeping his religious faith. Solution: establishment of the Mediaeval church. O 2) Restoring law and order to society. Solution: the gradual growth of the Feudal System. O 3) Making a living. Solution: establishment of the Manorial System. Major Kingdoms out of the Many O Two of the groups of peoples of Europe organized into powerful kingdoms: AngloSaxons in Britain and the Franks in Gaul. These two kingdoms converted directly to Catholicism. Different that the Germans. O The Kingdom of the Franks O The Franks helped raise the Papacy to supremacy. The Merovingian Kingdom 481-751 A.D. O This kingdom, initiated by Clovis I, presided over the synthesis of Roman and Germanic societies. Clovis was descended from the chieftain known as Merovech (Merovingian named for him) the king of the Salians. Clovis’ great accomplishment was the political unification of nearly the whole of Gaul. (Under his rule) One of the reasons Clovis succeeded in becoming sole ruler of Gaul was that he killed all his relatives who might challenge him. Clovis converted to Roman Christianity in 496 A.D. He was the first German king to become a Roman Catholic. This step facilitated his conquests and made possible the peaceful assimilation of the diverse peoples he ruled. His conversion is considered a decisive event in European history. Later, Catholic bishops wanted his help against other Germanic peoples (Ostrogoth's, Visigoths, and Burundians were all Arian Christians). His capital was at Paris. Decline of the Merovingian's Clovis died in 511 A.D. Upon his death, his kingdom was divided among his four sons: Chlodomer, Childebert I, ClotherI, and Theuderic. History calls these men the “Do-nothing Kings.” LOSERS THEY DON’T DO ANYTHING!!!! These men and their heirs were unable to conceive of the kingdom as anything but a private family estate. They divided and redivided their lands among their heirs. To resolve disputes over land, the Merovingian's relied primarily on violence. Eventually the Frankish kingdom was divided into three separate kingdoms. In fighting, constant chaos! O In each kingdom, power gradually fell to the chief official known as the mayor of the palace. The mayor’s official duties were to 1manage the palaces and estates, 2-receive the taxes and 3-to lead the army in war. He was also able to 4- distribute land as he saw fit. Those who fought under him looked upon him as the real leader of the state. THE DAY TO DAY OPERATIONS. O Decline of the Merovingian's O A man by the name of Pepin of Landen was the Mayor of the Palace for Chlodomer. He was the first of the Carolingians. Pepin II of Heristal is given credit for really beginning the Carolingian Dynasty. He was a Mayor who already administered the eastern lands of the kingdom and then gained control over the western lands in 687, unifying the whole kingdom of Gaul under his administration. He retained the title of Mayor but exercised the powers of King. He ruled from 687-714 during which time he subjugated rebellious counts. He is called the second founder of the Frankish Kingdom. Exercised the powers of the king! Charles Martel “The Hammer” 714-741 A.D. O Pepin’s son Charles helped his father bully the nobles. Upon the death of his father, Charles became the Mayor. He was said to be the best knight in all of Europe. He was ruthless, ambitious, and successful. He exercised all of the powers of a king. He created an army of mounted warriors. These warriors were very effective du to the introduction of the stirrup. This simple device totally changed the face of warfare. His army also pursued a “scorched earth” policy when fighting Charles Martel “The Hammer” 714-741 A.D. O Charles Martel (Christian Hero) stopped the Muslim invasion of Spain and also defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours. He became a Christian hero. Martel looked beyond military power to take control of religious and cultural institutions. One such action was lay investiture. Charles Martel gave church offices to supporters. These offices were later ratified by the Pope. These men were loyal to Martel and eventually the king and not necessarily the Pope. Martel also encouraged Christian missionaries to convert the newly conquered people and break them from their old customs. Pepin III (The Short) 741-761 O O Pepin continued the policies of his father. The continued support of the military aristocrats and the new sympathy of the ecclesiastical hierarchy enabled Pepin to effect a major change in government. In 751 (things will change) Frankish nobles declared the last Merovingian King, Childeric III, was not truly a king and also declared Pepin the Short as their legitimate sovereign. Pepin sent a delegation to the Pope asking about the legitimacy of the change and was told by Pope Zacharias “It is better that he who possesses power be called King than he who has none.” Pepin III (The Short) 741-761 O In 754, Rome was threatened with attack by the Lombard's, a Germanic tribe who had been harassing Italy. Pope Stephen II crossed the Alps and went to Pepin’s court and anointed his head with oil and declared him “King by the grace of God.” O This act gave legitimacy to the rule of Pepin and his heirs. In return, Pepin came to the aid of the Pope twice and defeated the Lombard's. After the defeat of the Lombard's, Pepin confirmed papal possession of Rome and its surrounding area. This act became known as the Donation of Pepin and established the Papal States. It also tied the Franks to the Catholic Church and the Church to Western Europe rather than the Byzantine Empire. Pepin also wisely did away with the office of Mayor of the Palace. The Carolingian Empire O The Frankish empire was already strong when Charles the Great or Charlemagne (Son of Pepin) He looks like Charles Martel! became its king. Charlemagne’s grandfather, Charles Martel had defeated the Arabs in a battle at Tours in 732, His father Pepin the Short had elevated the family role in government from that of mayor of the palace to king of the Franks. The Frankish kings established a large empire in the former Roman province of Gaul, and extended their control beyond the Rhine River. Charlemagne was crowned king by Pope Leo III in 800. This act marked the peak of church-state cooperation. The Carolingian Empire O Charlemagne was a large man who delighted in physical exercise particularly hunting, riding, bathing, and swimming. He was more remarkable because of his intellectual curiosity, and respect for intellectuals and the intellectual life. He could not read and write however. He spoke and understood Latin, and comprehended Greek. The Carolingian Empire O His main ambition was to bring all the German peoples together into one Christian Empire. He fought over fifty campaigns to do just that. At the Pope’s request he fought four times in Italy against the Lombard's and against factions that opposed the Pope. He suppressed the Bavarians( South Germany) and overcame the Saxons after 33 years of fighting. After defeating them in battle, Charlemagne expected/ demanded conversion to Christianity. Charlemagne threatened to behead them and did on occasion if they did not convert. He ordered the beheading of 4500 Saxons at Verdun. He gave the death sentence to those who broke religious laws such as 1-eating meat during Lent, 2- pretending to be baptized, 3- and cremating the dead. O Charlemagne had a complicated marriage. He had a total of four wives and six concubines. Only one son outlived him Louis the Pious. The Carolingian Empire O Charlemagne ordered Alcuin to prepare a new version of the Bible to serve as the common religious text throughout the empire and the western church. O Pepin, Charlemagne, and their descendants promoted learning within their domains in what is now called the Carolingian Renaissance. At Charlemagne’s capital at Aachen (German) or Aix-la-Chapelle (French) Charlemagne promoted learning. He invited learned men from all over Europe to join him at his palace. The most notable one of these was an English Scholar Alcuin. He taught 1-religion, 2-Latin, 3- music, 4- literature, and 5- arithmetic. He encouraged churches and monastery’s to found schools. Alcuin’s famous maxim was: “Ye lads whose age is fit for learning, learn! The years go by like running water, waste not the teachable days in idleness.” The Carolingian Empire O Charlemagne ordered Alcuin to prepare a new version of the Bible to serve as the common religious text throughout the empire and the western church. O Monks labored to make hand written copies of Latin books and illuminating them with beautiful artwork. Unfortunately, literate persons in one part of Europe had great difficulty recognizing or reading a text written in another part. The widespread decline in education had left few persons who could read at all. Poorly educated priests could not properly perform the liturgy, on which God’s blessings on the community were though to depend; and variations in religious rituals were also growing. Both situations weakened the unity of the Church as well as the state. The Carolingian Empire O Around the year 800, monks at the monastery of Corbie and Tours devised a new type of formal literary writing using lowercase letters. This writing was called Carolingian miniscule. (Punctuation: Helps to see where sentences begin and end) Previous to this development, texts used all capital letters and that made reading difficult. Now capital letters were used to show the beginning of sentences and smaller letters for the text. Our modern printing is based on this innovation. This script eventually spread across the continent of Europe. The Carolingian Empire O Carolingian scholars also perfected a distinctive language known as medieval Latin. This language allowed travelers, administrators, and scholars to make themselves understood in all parts of Europe; it continued to serve this function until the modern era. Al the modern languages of Europe developed under the strong influence of these scholars’ Latin. Death of the Empire of Charlemagne O At his death, Charlemagne left a united and apparently strong empire to his only surviving son Louis the Pious. Louis was a deeply religious man who was well educated but not a soldier. He did not gain the respect or loyalty of the warrior aristocracy on whom he depended for soldiers. He even lost control of his own family and his own sons tried to kill him. O After his death, his three surviving sons divided the kingdom by agreeing to the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Lothair became king of the middle kingdom. Death of the Empire of Charlemagne O His two other brothers Charles and Louis allied themselves together against Lothair. Charles (The Bald) ruled the western kingdom (France) and Louis ruled the eastern kingdom (Germany). When Lothair died, the middle kingdom was divided between Louis and Charles. O Charles and Louis were also very weak kings. This weakness opened the door for barbarian invasions Three Positives from the Carolingian Kingdom: O 1- It established the foundations for the modern nations of France and Germany. O 2- It kept alive the idea of a universal church and a universal state. O 3- It placed the Catholic Church on a solid footing as a secular power in the political life of Europe. Invasions O Invasions of the Northmen (North), Muslims, and Magyars( Russian Steps/ Vikings) They go all over the rivers- they are used as highways. O In the ninth century, Europe was assaulted by these three groups. For both Western and Eastern Europe, the migration and raids of the Vikings (Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes) or Northmen, altered the political map during a long period from the mid-eighth to the early tenth century. In 900, Rollo the Viking forced Charles the Simple King of France, to give him the territory in Northern France that came to be known as Normandy (WWII). The Muslims invaded Europe from the south and took Sicily and raided Italy. The Magyars were skilled horsemen who took control of the Danube River Valley. They later converted to Christianity. Feudalism O Feudalism developed out of the chaos of the ninth century and endured until the 13th century. It concerned the rights, powers, and lifestyle of the military elite. It was a political and military system based on the holding of land. Its agreements rested on solemn promises and the principle of honor between a king and his vassal. A vassal is a free person who put himself under the protection of a lord for whom he rendered loyal military aid. Both the lord and the vassal came from the upper echelons of society. Feudal arrangements did not include the serfs and the poorer freemen. Feudalism Vassalage was an honorable personal bond between the lord and his man. An act of homage established the relationship. In this simple ceremony, the prospective vassal placed his hands within those of his lord and swore to become his man. He might also swear fealty on the Gospels or a saint’s relic. The joining of hands was the central act in the ceremony of homage. O A vassal could not refuse military service, but if the lord asked for more than the customary time (40 days and nights) O Feudalism A vassal could not refuse military service, but if the lord asked for more than the customary time (40 days and nights) O the vassal could demand compensation known as Scutage or shield money, or simply return home. The lord could demand financial aids such as 1- paying the ransom if the lord was captured and 2-paying for the knighting of his eldest son or the 3marriage of his eldest daughter. Only a 4- jury of his peers (his fellow vassals) could judge a vassal. O The Lord owed his vassal military protection and material support. 1- He had to come to the vassal’s aid when requested, 2- repel invaders from his vassals land, and help a 3-vassal being sued in another’s court, 4- act as guardian for the minor children of deceased vassals, and to 5- try and find a suitable husband for the vassals daughters. Because a lord often had no cash revenues for making monetary compensations, he would often distribute land as a form of payment for allegiance. O Knights O Prospective knights were rigidly trained. At age 7 they served as a Page (Messenger) to a knight or noble. At age 14 they served as a squire to a knight and began to learn weaponry and fighting styles and techniques. At age 21 they were knighted and given the title of “Sir” by the lord in a ceremony known as The Accolade. The lord would lay the flat of the knights sword on the prospective knight’s shoulder and say, “In the name of God, St. Michael, and St. George, be valiant.” That’s it! Probably English accolade ceremony. Knights O Knights were expected to follow the Code of Chivalry O O O O O O O O which encompassed the ideals toward which all knights should work. They were: Be brave in battle Fight fairly Keep promises Defend the church Treat women of noble birth in a courteous manner Be loyal to your king Protect women and children Be generous Knights O Cowardly knights who disregarded the code faced public shame. Their armor was 1stripped off, their 2-shield was cracked, their 3-spurs were cut off, their 4- sword was broken over their head, 5-they were thrown into a coffin and dragged to their church where the priest would chant a mock funeral service. The Fief O The lords gift of land to his vassal was called a fief. The lord granted the fief to his vassal in a special ceremony called investiture. (Creating a new Nobel, new lord) As a symbol of the land the vassal was receiving, the lord gave to his vassal a clod of earth or a branch. At the vassal’s death, disability, or refusal to serve his lord, the fief at once returned to the lord who granted it. Gradually the fief became hereditary because the lord found it useful to grant the fief to the adult son of the dead vassal because the son could serve in his father’s place at once. Social Classes Status determined a person’s power and prestige. Nobles and knights were those who fought. Men and women of the church were those who prayed. Peasants and Serfs were those who worked. O The Feudal Hierarchy: O King: All land belonged to him O Royal Vassals: Dukes and Counts who received land from the king. LESSER LORDS/ not related to the king. O Lesser lords: Received portions of land O Knights: Fiefs were very small. Manoralism O The manor system (Manoralism) was the basic O O O O economic arrangement of the middle ages. It involved the services and obligations of the Peasant class. The wealth of the Feudal lords came from the labor of the peasants who lived on and worked the land.(Farming) A manor was the lord’s estate and was directed by him. It included: The Castle The Village The surrounding lands Manoralism O Demesne lands: lands that the lord held for his O O O O O O O O own crops and profits. Serfs worked this land. Serf’s lands Land held in common. The manor became a self-sufficient economic unit. The manor had three officials: 1-the Steward 2-Bailiff 3-Reeve. These men managed the lord’s manor.