Pre-class
• What is more diverse, the
United States or the Middle
East?
• Why?
The Middle
East
Chapter 25
Where is the Middle East?
• The region was named by
Europeans comparing where
they lived to Asia, the far east.
• Middle Eastern culture is in
Northern Africa and
Southwestern Asia
The Crossroads of the World
• The region connects Africa, Asia,
Europe
• It became a trade crossroads
over land and water
• Goods would travel across Asia
through the Middle East
– Across the Mediterranean to Europe
– Down the Red Sea to East Africa
The Crossroads: Even Today
• Military and Economic Positions
• Commands major sea routes
– Suez Canal: Mediterranean to the Red
Sea to Indian Ocean
– Bosporus and the Dardanelles
– Strait of Hormuz: mouth of the Persian
Gulf
• Oil
Diffusion
People
The population
• Ethnic Groups – Arabs, Persians, Kurds,
Pakistanis, Afghans, Jews, Turks
• Total in Middle East – 197,090,443
• Languages – Arabic and Persian are most
common
Population Denisty
for Israel
Outsourced
• Stereotypes
– American
– Indian
• Cultural Differences
– American
– Indian
Religion
•Islam
•Judaism
•Christianity
Goods/Trade/Inventions
• Our
Alphabet
• Iron
Making
• Sails
Pre-Class
• What ethnic groups live in the Middle
East?
• What are the predominant language
groups in the ME?
• Name three monotheistic religions
that began in the Middle East
Major Regions
The Northern Tier
• Across Turkey and Iran
–Anatolian Plateau: ringed by
mountains, fertile region, supports
farming, large population
–Iranian Plateau: ringed by
mountains, dry region, no farming,
small population
Arabian Peninsula
• About 1/3 the size of the United
States
• Borders major bodies of water
• Small population b/c most of it is a
desert
• Major role in world economy
– OIL
• Home of Islam
Fertile Crescent
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Arc-shaped region
Mediterranean
Tigris & Euphrates
Persian Gulf
Fertile Crescent
• Home to first civilizations: Mesopotamia
• Few natural barriers led to being
conquered often throughout history
• Region floods unpredictably in spring or
summer
– Too much=disaster; too little=drought
Nile Valley
• Geographic Advantages
–Ample natural barriers
• Deserts in the east and west
–Predictable & dependable
flooding
The Maghreb
• Maghreb means ‘Western Isle’ in Arabic
• Northern Africa
• People concentrated near Mediterranean
Coast
• Small population in Sahara and Atlas Mtns
Climate & Resources
• High Population Density in well-watered
areas
• <10% of the land is farmable
• Resourceful irrigators since early
civilizations
• Salt, phosphate, & copper = major
resources
• Uneven oil distribution creates economic
disparity
Early Civilizations
Sumerians
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•
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•
•
The first civilization in the Middle East
Collection of city-states
Polytheistic religion
Built Ziggurats
Writing was called cuneiform
The Babylonians
• Conquered the fertile crescent
• King Hammurabi wrote a code of laws
– Minor laws
– Major laws
• Hammurabi's Code
Hammurabi’s Law
• One of 1st written set of
laws
• Posted in public for
people to see
• Most of the nearly 300
laws written on the pillar
pertain to property rights
of landowners,
slavemasters,
merchants, and builders.
The Hittites
• Conquered the Fertile Crescent from the
Northern Tier
• Used iron weapons
• Spread their culture through warfare
The Phoenicians
• Set up city states along the Mediterranean
• Created the alphabet that evolved into
what we use today
• Diffusion spread the alphabet across the
Middle East
The Persians
• The largest empire - Turkey to Indus River
• Divided the empire into provinces and
each province had a governor (Satrap)
• Created roadways to encourage trade
• Used coins for money
The Romans and Greeks
• Blended Middle Eastern Culture with
European Culture
• Alexander the Great united the two
regions
• The Romans spread the culture west as
far away as England
Early Civs Chart
Civilization
Location
Sumerian
Mesopotamia;
Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia;
Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
Babylonians
Hittites
Phoenician
Persian
Mediterranean
Coast
Iran; across
Fertile Crescent
Accomplishments
Development of Religion in the
Middle East
• First religions – Polytheistic – animism (all parts
of nature)
• Judaism – monotheism – 5717 years old
– 10 commandments – Torah
– prophets
• Christianity – monotheism – 2010 years old
– Based on Jesus – Bible
– prophets
• Judaism – 562
1. How did Judaism differ from
other early religions?
2. Who is the father of Judaism?
3. What are the best known
Jewish laws?
4. What was promised to the
Jews?
5. What is the remaining wall of
the temple called? Why is it
important?
6. What is a Diaspora?
7. Define prophet
8. What do Jews believe about
the Messiah?
9. What are 3 Jewish Holidays?
What do they celebrate?
1. Christianity – 565
1. Out of what religion did
Christianity grow
2. How do Christian beliefs
about Jesus differ from other
religions?
3. How is the bible divided?
What are the parts called?
4. Why are the resurrection and
ascension important to
Christians?
5. Why were Christians
persecuted?
6. Why did Christianity appeal to
people? Why did it spread?
7. What is the eastern Orthodox
Christian Church?
8. What are 3 Christian
Holidays? What do they
Celebrate
Judaism
• The first monotheistic religion
• The land they lived on was called Judea;
today it is Israel
• King David, military general, and King
Solomon, wisdom and peace, were two of
the greatest leaders
• Jewish power ended when the Persians
conquered their land
• 70 AD a Jewish revolt against the Romans
forced Jews from their lands (Diaspora)
Video questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Who was Abraham?
What was the exodus?
Why were Jews persecuted?
What are the basic Jewish teachings?
Why is Jerusalem a sacred city?
What are 2 important Jewish celebrations
or holidays?
7. What is Passover?
Christianity
• Christianity grew out of Jewish traditions
• Jesus was born in Israel when it was ruled
by the Romans
• Some people saw Jesus as the messiah,
others saw him as a trouble maker
• Christianity stressed compassion for
others using parables, stories with moral
lessons
The spread of Christianity
• Christianity appealed to people because it
offered hope and eternal life to rich and
poor
• People could make their own choices to
impact their salvation
• The trade routes of the Romans helped
spread Christianity
Chapter 25 Vocab Terms
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Hammurabi
cuneiform
ziggurat
city-state
Sumer
Peninsula
Strait
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Satrap
Hellenistic Civilization
Oasis
Messiah
Parable
Torah
Abraham
Monotheism
Diaspora
Crossroads of the World
• Why was the Middle East
called the “crossroads of
the world”?
• Why is the Arabian
Peninsula home to a
small population?
• Describe two
achievements of early
Middle Eastern
Civilizations
• Why did Christianity
spread so rapidly?
• List two continents connected
by the Middle East
• List 3 ethnic groups that are
native to the Middle East
• What innovation made the
Hittites so powerful?
• What is the major geographic
feature of the Maghreb?
• How do the Old and New
Testaments differ?
• Why did the Romans
persecute the Jews and
Christians?
• Why did Christianity appeal to
people?
Identifications
• Oasis
• Peninsula
• Strait
• Ziggurat
• Cuneiform
• Parable
• Martyr
• Pope
• Ten
Commandments
• Gospels
Identifications
• Western Wall
• Carriers of
Civilization
• Hittites
• Byzantine
Church
• “First Civilization”
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Torah
Abraham
Monotheism
Diaspora
Crossroads of
the World
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The Middle East