Earliest humans to think
Homo sapiens
taming of plants and
animals
domestication
Inter-related groups which
survived by following and
finding food
Hunter-gatherers
The way in which people
live
(art, science, government,
etc.)
Culture
Wandering lifestyle
following food and water
Nomadic
Items such as rocks or
sticks used to accomplish
work
Simple Tools
Inter-related groups of
people
Clans
Communication which
developed in the
Paleolithic (OLD) age
Oral language
Living in one place and
raising food
Settled
agriculture
Tools which require
reshaping or combining
parts to work
Complex
tools
Person who uses artifacts
and fossils to determine
past human events
Archaeologist
Animal and plant matter
which has been preserved
in nature
Fossil
Method of telling the
approximate age of an
artifact or fossil
Carbon
dating
Giant circles of stone in
England probably used
for religious ceremonies
Stonehenge
Shift from huntinggatherer societies to
settled agriculture
Neolithic
Revolution
Tool Age following the
Stone Age
Bronze Age
“U” shaped area stretching
from the eastern
Mediterranean coast through
Syria into Mesopotamia
Fertile
Crescent
Area in between and around
the Tigris and Euphrates
River Valleys
Mesopotamia
Geographic term for the
Indian sub-continent
South Asia
Geographic term for
China
East Asia
Jewish people
Hebrews
phrase describing river
valleys as the beginning of
civilization
Cradles of
Civilization
Passing of leadership from
father to son
(rule stays in the family)
dynasty
Independent cities and their
surrounding lands
(small kingdoms)
City-state
Moral law code of
Christianity and Judaism
Ten
Commandments
Early civil law code of
Babylon
Code of
Hammurabi
Working at or creating only
one item or good in order to
meet ones needs
Specialization
of labor
Holy scriptures of
Judaism
Torah
Banished from a land
exiled
Scattering of Jewish
communities
Diaspora
Earliest form of writing
by man
pictograms
Pictograms used in Egypt
hieroglyphics
Pictograms used in
Sumeria
cuneiform
Symbols used to represent
sounds created by the
Phoenicians
alphabet
A political unit composed of
the kingdom and all of its
conquered lands
empire
Organization of people who
complete the day to day
tasks of government
bureaucracy
Early Persian religion with
a belief in the forces of good
and evil
Zoroastrianism
Race of people who controlled
the Indian subcontinent with a
caste system
Aryan
Period of time when a
civilization enjoys a rapid
advancement in culture
Golden Age
Rigid system of India which
placed people in a particular
social class from which they
could not move
Caste
(Varna)
System
Movement of people from
one location to another
migration
Belief that a person will
return after their death in
another form
reincarnation
Idea that one’s actions in
life determines one’s
destiny and future
karma
Religious scriptures for
Hinduism
Vedas
Main ideas of the religious
philosophy of Buddhism
Four Noble
Truths
The course in Buddhism
that would lead to freedom
from the cycle of rebirth
Eightfold Path
to
Enlightenment
Fortified barrier
constructed to protect East
Asian people from attacks
Great
Wall of
China
Approval needed in order
for Chinese rulers to hold
power
Mandate
of Heaven
Overland trade route that
connected China to Western
Europe
Silk Road
Professional government
organization which required
testing in order to work in
government
Civil Service
Belief that deceased
relatives continued to guide
the family
Ancestor worship
Representation of good
and evil in Daoism
Yin and
yang
Exchange of goods for
goods
barter
Exchange of goods for
coins
Money
economy
Settling of foreign lands to
produce materials for the
home country
colonization
Tales and legends of a
civilization usually centered
on nature and creation
mythology
Form of government in
which citizens hold power
democracy
Form of government in
which a few hold power
oligarchy
Person who can take part in
the governing of society
citizen
Form of democracy in
which each citizen has
DIRECT input into decision
making
Direct
democracy
Wars fought between
Persians and Greeks
Persian
Wars
Wars fought between
Spartans and Athenians
Peloponnesian
Wars
Outdoor center of
government in ancient
Greece
agora
Form of government where
one person seizes power and
established a one-man rule
tyranny
Epic poem by Homer
about the Trojan Wars
Iliad &
Odyssey
The manner in which
people meet their needs
economy
Form of government where
the upper class nobility
rules
aristocracy
Codified, harsh, law code
of ancient Greece
Code of Draco
Alliance created under
Pericles to free Ionia and
protect Greeks from Persia
Delian
League
Temple to Athena
Parthenon
Period where Greece
reached its cultural height
Golden Age
of Pericles
Classical
Age
Mixture of Greek and
Persian cultures under
Alexander the Great
Hellenistic
Group of Greek citizens
who met in the agora to
govern
Assembly
Lower class of Roman
society, majority of free
Romans
plebeians
Upper class of Roman
society
patricians
Governing body in Rome
composed of the patrician
class
Senate
2 elected officials in Rome
who administered the
government in Rome
consuls
The codified law of Rome
Twelve
Tables
Wars fought between
Rome and Carthage
Punic
Wars
Internal warfare of a
kingdom or empire
Civil War
Situation in which prices
rise and the value of money
decreases
inflation
A three person ruling
group
triumvurate
200 year period of Roman
peace
Pax
Romana
Holy scriptures of
Christianity
Holy Bible
Old & New
Testaments
Teachings of the
Christian Church
doctrine
Temple to all gods in Rome
pantheon
Arena for gladiator
battles
Colisseum
Center of government in
ancient Rome
forum
Epic poem by Virgil about
the founding of Rome
Aeneid
The mixture of Greek and
Roman culture
GrecoRoman
Group of languages derived
from Latin including French
and Italian
Romance
languages
Codified law of the
Byzantine Empire
Justinian
Code
Religious images used in
Christianity
icons
Form of artwork using
pieces of tile and glass to
create images
mosaics
Early Christian Church
incorporating the dome on a
rectangular building
Hagia
Sophia
Eastern Church of early
Christianity
Greek/Eastern
Orthodoxy
Western Church of early
Christianity
Roman
Catholic
Alphabet adapted from the
Greek alphabet to represent
Slavic languages
Cyrillic
Holy scriptures of Islam
Koran/Quran
Basic concepts of Islam
Five Pillars
Islamic sect believing the
caliphate should be a
descendant of Muhammad
Shi’a / Shiite
Islamic sect believing the
caliphate could be held by
any Muslim
Sunni
Ended the expansion of
Islam into Western Europe
Battle of
Tours
Holy mosque built on the
site where Muhammad
ascended to Heaven
Dome of the
Rock
Muslims of Spain
Moors
Religious wars to reconquer Middle Eastern
holy sites by Christianity
Crusades
Islamic group which
conquered Constantinople
around 1300 AD
Ottoman
Turks
Religious community of
men who have taken
religious vows
monastery
People who spread a
religious message
missionaries
Local congregation of
Catholicism with a priest in
charge
parish
Estate with peasant workers
granted to a noble in exchange
for loyalty and military service
Manor / fief
Noble who held land and
served a higher ranking
lord
vassal
Medieval peoples living in
the area of present day
France
Franks
Document restricting the
powers of the English king
and listing individual
freedoms for English people
Magna
Carta
Non-religious
secular
Belief in more than one
god
polytheism
Belief in one god
Monotheism
Medieval building designed
to protect the manor/fief
from invasion
castle
Ethnic religion of Japan
Shintoism
Group or chain of islands
archipelago
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What the end of the Punic Wars meant for the Romans