THE MIDDLE AGES IN
EUROPE
Germanic Kingdoms Unite Under
Charlemagne
After the fall of Rome, the
years 500-1500 were a time of
rebuilding for Europe.
Dark Ages
Disruption of Trade
– invasions caused business to collapse,
economic centers were destroyed, and money
was scarce
Downfall of Cities
• without Roman Administration, cities fell
• People fled to the countryside
(D)Learning
–Germanic people could not read
–as people moved to rural areas
education declined
(E)Language
–Latin merged with many other
languages and dialects began to
develop into new languages
Germanic Kingdoms
• Replaced Roman provinces between 400
and 600
• Bound by family ties rather than
citizenship in a public state
• Orderly government over large
territories impossible
(II)The Franks and Christianity
• Settled in Gaul
• ruled by Clovis after
Rome fell
The Franks and Christianity
• Clovis converted to Christianity (496)and
began working closely with the Pope.
– he protected church property
– the Pope encouraged loyalty to the king
• By 511, Clovis had united the Franks into
a kingdom.
The Baptism of Clovis
Monasteries developed in Europe
Know these
• 520- Benedict and Scholastica
• 731- Venerable Bede
Scholastica
Benedict
Pope Gregory began to exercise
secular authority over Rome
(590)
• Gregory exercised influence throughout
Europe
• Idea of a churchly Kingdom
The Empire of the Franks
• Clovis had begun the Merovingian
Dynasty(just write this on the edge)
• (A)Charles Martel (719)
– a mayor of the palace who exercised more
power than the king
– Expanded the Frankish Empire
– Turned back Muslim invaders into Europe
in 732 (Battle of Tours)
aka Poitiers
This is very IMPORTANT
(B)Pepin (the short) (747-768)
• Fought Lombards to protect Rome
• gave land around Rome to the Pope,
called the Papal States, giving the Pope
more secular power
• the Pope anointed Pepin king beginning
the Carolingian dynasty
(C)Charlemagne (Charles the
Great) ( 768-814)
• son of Pepin, he became ruler of a large
empire
• further expanded Germanic territory
• In 800 AD he was crowned Emperor by
the Pope, joining Germanic power, the
church, and the legacy of the Roman
Empire.
• This precedent gave more political power
to the Pope
Treaty of Verdun
• Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious was
ineffective
• Louis' three sons: Charles the Bald, Louis the
German, and Lothair fought for control until
843 when they divided the kingdom according
to the treaty
• Violence and confusion reigned for the next 200
years
Christianity grows
stronger in Europe
Method of Spreading Christianity
Clovis
Converted himself and his army
Benedict
Wrote rule book for monasteries
Gregory I
Extended papal power; blended church and government power
Charles Martel
Defeated Muslims at Battle of Tours
Charlemagne
Spread Christianity through conquests; was crowned emperor by pope
continued . . .
Feudalism in Europe
New Invasions in Western
Europe
(A)Vikings
– from Scandinavia (northern region of Europe)
– traders, farmers, explorers, and sea-faring
warriors
– attacked France and England; voyaged to
Iceland, Greenland, and even America
– (Leif Erikson)
Viking Invasions
(B)Magyars
– Turkish group of nomadic people
– excellent horse riders
– did not settle conquered areas, but sold people as
slaves
– overran Italy and reached as
far west as Rhineland
and Burgundy
(C)Muslims
– Controlled the
Mediterranean and
attacked from the
South
– Controlled the
Iberian Peninsula
Feudalism Develops in Europe
(IV)Feudalism Develops in
Europe
• Based on mutual obligations
• In exchange for military protection and
other services, a lord would grant a fief,
or parcel of land to a vassal
Class structure
• Pyramid-like
a.Kings and Queens--> lords and
bishops--> peasants and serfs
• peasants and serfs worked the land in
return for the produce left after taxes
• freemen- artisans and merchants
Feudal Life
• Manor- lord's estate
–
–
–
–
castle- mainly for protection
Church
peasants quarters
mill, blacksmith, and/or other necessities
Feudal Life
• serfs and peasants worked the fields to feed the
manor
• manors were self-sufficient, so there was little
trade
• Steward- chief advisor to the lord; manager in
the lord's absence
• Reeve- foreman; go-between for serfs and lords
• Manorialism
Feudal Life
• Knights
– only those of noble birth
– became a page at age seven for a lord
(personal servant)
– weapon training (sword, bow and arrow,
lance) began at age 14 when the boy becomes
a squire
Feudal Life
– Around the age of 21, he bathed, fasted, and
spent the night in church praying and
confessing. The next day, the lord would tap
the squire with a sword and dub him a
knight.
– Most of a knight's time was spent in battle,
tournaments, or training
Castles, Manors, and Feudalism
Causes
Magyar, Muslim, and Viking invasions;
decline of centralized government
Rise of Feudalism
Effects
Increased emphasis on warfare
and the control of land;
well-defined social classes
The Crusades
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THE MIDDLE AGES IN EUROPE Germanic Kingdoms Unite …