To bring out of a savage, uneducated, or rude state
To raise from brutality to an educated stage of
development; bring out of a primitive or savage state
• Mid-1800s
• Missionaries and explorers
sparked foreign interest in
Africa (1880)
• Scottish missionary
• 1841-1873 – lived in central Africa
– Explored Africa
• Named Lake Victoria after the British queen
– Converted many Africans to Christianity
– Wrote books on Africa which piqued foreign
• 1871 – reported “lost”
– “Found” by Henry Stanley
– “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
Dr. Livingstone, I Presume?”
• David Livingstone
• Doctor/Missionary
• Mapping the “Dark
• Open the interior of
Africa for commerce
& Christianity
David Livingstone
The Scramble for Africa
# 1. Colonization of Africa
by Europeans 1880-1914
#3 Great Britain, France, Italy,
Portugal, Spain, Germany,
King Leopold II of
Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation
to attempt to create an empire by dominating
weaker nations economically, politically,
culturally, or militarily.
How Did Imperialism Begin?
A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town, South Africa
Economic Motives #1
nations sought:
• Raw materials
• Natural resources
• A cheap labor
• New
marketplaces for
• Control means of
The Industrial
• The Industrial
Revolution began
in Great Britain
in the mid-18th
• Britain’s
• The spread of
The steam engine
Better transportation
Increased exploration
Improvements in
The steamboat Herald
(with mounted machine guns)
on the Zambezi river in Africa
One of the first steam engines
Cecil Rhodes
• British imperialist who
made huge profits from
Africa’s natural resources
• Founder of the state of
Rhodesia in Africa
“The Rhodes Colossus”
This cartoon
depicts British
ambitions to
control the
entire African
Motives #1
• Religious: to spread the benefits
of Christianity and Western Culture
• Political: competition fuel by
Nationalism, Empire Building
Justification for
• A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans
also spurred the development of
• Social Darwinism
Darwin’s handwritten cover page for
The Origin of Species
Herbert Spencer
Describe 3
examples of
in the political
Imperialism Quote
• “If you woke up one morning and found that
somebody had come to your house, and had
declared that the house belonged to him, you
would naturally be surprised, and you would like
to know by what arrangement.”
– Jomo Kenyatta – 1st President of Kenya
• How does this quote show an African reaction to
European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples
Imperialism Quote
• Desmond Tutu … “when the missionaries
came to Africa, they had the Bible and we
had the land. They said ‘let us close our
eyes and pray’. When we opened them, we
had the Bible, and they had the land”.
• How does this quote show an African
reaction to European Imperialism in Africa?
Use 3 examples
The Berlin Conference
1884 #4
Rules to divide Africa
among European
powers to avoid
conflict among
European powers=
Artificial Borders
European Control of Africa
By 1914,
only two
Liberia and
Ethiopia #2
The Maxim Gun #5
forces in
Benin in
Methods of Management
• Indirect Control: This form relied on using the
existing African political rulers.
– Britain sometimes asked local chiefs to accept
British rule and legislative councils were formed
and included colonial (European) officials and
• The idea was that these councils would train the Africans,
and at some point in time, these territories would be able
to rule themselves, much like Australia and Canada.
Methods of Management
• Direct Control: The French and most other European countries
preferred stronger control because they felt that Africans were
not civilized enough to rule themselves.
– They adopted a policy of paternalism, in which the
Europeans acted like the Africans’ parents in providing for
their survival, but denying them rights.
– They avoided training locals, and instead, brought along
Europeans to rule the Africans.
– The French also supported a policy of assimilation, in which
the native population would take on French customs and
culture and be like them.
• African customs and culture were looked at as inferior, or
not as good as French culture.
Direct vs. Indirect Rule #6
European nations chose one of two different paths
when it came to colonial rule:
Indirect rule: colonies were ruled
through existing traditional rulers
Example: Nigeria
Direct rule: the colony was directly
administered by the colonizer
Example: Senegal
Result: loss of power and influence
By Traditional rulers
Cash Crop/Money Economy #7
• Africans sold labor to make money to pay taxes
• Problems
– Created dependence on Colonial rulers
#8 Purpose of the Railroads was to
extract wealth
#9 Aim of Colonial Rulers
• To benefit Colonial economies
accomplished by cash crop system and
forced labor
• King Leopold II of Belgium
• Cecil Rhodes
5-8 Million Victims!
(50% of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the
soldiers) returning with the hands of the
slain, and to find the hands of young
children amongst the bigger ones
evidencing their bravery...The rubber from
this district has cost hundreds of lives, and
the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to
help the oppressed, have been almost
enough to make me wish I were dead... This
rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the
natives were to rise and sweep every white
person on the Upper Congo into eternity,
there would still be left a fearful balance to
their credit.
-- Belgian Official
African Resistance
• Africans Confront Imperialism
– Broad resistance, but Europeans have superior weapons
• Unsuccessful Movements
– Algeria fights the French for 50 years
– German East Africa resistance results in 75,000 deaths
• Successful Movements
– Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II
– Plays Europeans against each other
– Stockpiles modern weapons
– Defeats Italy and remains independent
African Resistance
• Unsuccessful Attempts: Africans resisted
Europeans in both military conflict, and through
religious resistance.
– Algeria was able to resist French rule for 50 years.
– French West Africa held out for 16 years because it
had a strong king named Samori Toure that had
modernized his military.
– In the end, only famine could beat Toure.
African Resistance
Maji-Maji prisoners
captured by Germans.
• German East Africa: Natives in this region
used religious faith as defense.
– German colonizers had forced them to
grow cash crops, such as cotton, instead of
– Natives came to believe that if magic water
called maji-maji were sprinkled on their
bodies, they would be bullet-proof
• Furthermore, they believed that God had
approved of their struggle, and that their
dead ancestors would rise from the
grave and help them against the
• As many as 75,000 were mowed down
by German Maxim machine guns, and
150,000 more starved to death later.
African Resistance
• Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance: Ethiopia was the only
country that successfully resisted Europeans.
– Its king, Menelik II, played all of the European countries
off of each other (tricked them) as they tried to convince
him to be under their sphere of influence,
• While he tricked them, he bought modern weapons from the French and
African Resistance
– In signing a treaty with Italy, Menelik II realized that he
had been tricked by differences in translation between
languages, and that he had given up control of his
• Menelik declared war on Italy, and was able to beat Italy at the Battle of
Adowa. 1896
– Menelik II continued to stockpile weapons to resist any
other attempts to take over his country.
Section 3
The Age of Imperialism
African Resistance
Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As
European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance.
The Zulu
• Zulu people resisted colonialization
more than 50 years
• Only nation to retain independence
by matching European firepower
• Zulu leader Shaka built strong
kingdom by subduing several
neighboring peoples
• 1889, emperor Menelik II
modernized nation, army
• 1879, British invaded Zulu territory,
annexed kingdom as colony
• 1895, Italian forces invaded over
treaty dispute
• Menelik’s forces defeated Italians
Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted
European powers.
The Age of Imperialism
Section 3
French and Germans
French West Africa
• West Africa, leader of Malinke peoples, Samory Touré, formed army to fight
against French rule; fought for 15 years; proclaimed self king of Guinea
• 1898, French defeated Touré, ended resistance to French rule in West Africa
German East Africa
• Africans called on gods, ancestors for spiritual guidance in resistance
• 1905, several African peoples united to rebel against Germans’ order to grow
cotton for export to Germany
Rebellion Put Down
• To combat Germans, spiritual leader encouraged followers to sprinkle magic
water over bodies to protect selves from German bullets; did not work
• Rebellion quickly put down; Germans killed tens of thousands of Africans
#10 African Resistance and failure
• Many Africans resisted European rule
– Millions of Africans died
– Europeans = superior military technology
• North Africa: Algerians fought French
• West Africa: Ibo and Fulani fought
• Congo Free State: 20 years of fighting
• Ethiopia exception: European training
preserved independence
The Legacy of Imperialism
Caricature of former
Ugandan dictator Idi Amin
Mozambican war refugees, 1978
How do the pictures show how life changed for
Africans after the arrival of Europeans? 3 examples
A Closer Look at
Imperialism in Africa
• European quest to control
natural resources
• Doing so led to drastic
changes in the
infrastructure of the
The port of Zanzibar around 1900
Transportation, Communication,
Education, Medical Care
• New political systems
• New Economic pattern: money economy, cash crops,
taxes, dependence, lack of diversity
• Transportation
• Communication,
• Education,
• Medical Care
• migrant workers, chibaro = breakdown of Family
• New attitude towards land
• Racism
• Christianity
• Artificial boundaries
• Educated African elite
• Nationalism
• westernization
• Generalization: change and breakdown of traditional
values and organizations
Economic Consequences
Cash Crops
depleted the soil and made it difficult to grow
subsistence crops.
undermine local industries because they sucked up
most of the labor force.
once colonies gained their independence, years of
dependence on a single cash crop made it difficult to
modernize and diversify their economies
Result: Slowed development and modernization
Effects of European Imperialism on Africa
Directions: Using your answers from question #11 from Scramble for
Africa sheet and pages 102-104 from the text, categorize the effects of
European Imperialism on Africa as positive or negative to the
development of Africa.
Was European Imperialism in Africa more disruptive or
beneficial to the African culture and its people?
Support your answer with evidence.
• Material Improvements
– Transportation and communication
– RR and Telegraphs
– Hospitals
– Sanitation and water systems
– Formal education system (western)
• Educated African elite
• Nationalism
•Disruption of Traditional African Life
•New political systems
•New Economic pattern: money economy, cash crops, taxes,
economic dependence, lack of diversity
•migrant workers, chibaro = breakdown of Family
•New attitude towards land
•Artificial boundaries
•Generalization: change and breakdown of traditional values
and organizations
Material improvements:
•Transportation and
•RR and Telegraphs
•Sanitation and water systems
•Formal education system
Disruption of Traditional African Life
•New political systems
•New Economic pattern: money
economy, cash crops, taxes,
dependence, lack of diversity
•migrant workers, chibaro = breakdown
of Family
•New attitude towards land
•Artificial boundaries
•Educated African elite
•Generalization: change and
breakdown of traditional values and