A Western Dominated World
Imperialism – the domination by one
country of the political, social and
economic life of another country or
• “The sun never
sets on the British
Industrial Revolution = Imperialism
• The Industrial Revolution greatly
strengthened European economies and
gave westerners new confidence.
• Thus, European nations started on a
path of aggressive expansion known as
the “new imperialism”.
• What is a motive?
• Why would European nations want to
claim territories elsewhere in the world?
• How do they go about doing this?
Motive #1 Economic Interests
• The Industrial Revolution created a need for
raw materials and natural resources.
• It also created a need for markets. Someone to
sell their finished products to so they can make
a profit.
• The newly claimed territories offered an outlet
for the rapidly expanding empire. A new
frontier. An adventure.
Motive #2 Political and Military Interests
• Tied to the Industrial Revolution all the
new steam powered merchant ships and
naval vessels needed bases around the
world to take on coal and supplies.
• Nationalistic rivalries also encouraged
many nations to expand for fear of
becoming the “weaker” nation.
Motive #3 Social Reasons
• Many westerners felt a genuine obligation
to “improve” the lives of others.
• Missionaries wanted to spread their
religion. They built churches and started
• Europeans saw themselves as superior
due to the fact that they had industrialized.
Superior Beliefs (Theories)
• The White Man’s Burden
• Social Darwinism
White Man’s Burden
by Rudyard Kipling
• Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
• What is the white man’s burden according
to the poem?
• How do you think the natives felt about
this perception?
• The white man’s burden is a euphemism
what does this mean?
Social Darwinism
• Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles
Darwin's theory can be extended and applied to
the social realm.
• The idea was promoted by Herbert Spencer
• Just as competition between individual
organisms drives biological evolutionary change
through "survival of the fittest", competition
between individuals, groups, nations or ideas
drives social evolution in human societies.
Do you agree with this statement?
• Within the human species, nations are locked in
a struggle for survival. Everywhere, civilized
nations are supplanting barbarous nations.
Advanced civilization, obviously, has inherited
valuable traits from its ancestors.
Underdeveloped cultures, except in hostile
climates, will soon die off. Therefore, natural
order obligates powerful, civilized nations to
appropriate the limited resources of the weak.
Social Darwinism
• Whether you agree or disagree Social
Darwinism has been used as a justification for
• Powerful countries claim lands and subjugate
peoples under the belief in Social Darwinism.
• The application of this theory has created
How do the westerners take
• European nations were militarily superior.
• Most had stable governments.
• They possessed superior weaponry (Maxim
machine gun).
• They had medical advances such as
vaccines for deadly diseases.
Imperial Control
• How do you think France or Britain
might control an area in the middle of
the continent of
• Some countries sent out governors,
officials and soldiers to run the colonies.
• Britain used indirect rule – the use of
locals to govern.
• France used direct rule – the use of
Frenchman to govern.
Protectorate Rule
• In a protectorate, local rulers are left in
place. The ruler was however expected to
accept the advice of the European
advisors. (puppets)
Sphere of Influence
• An area in which an outside power claims
exclusive trading rights.
• China was carved out this way.
• It eliminates the to “take over” officially the
region or area.
Create your own picture!
• Topic:
• European Imperialism
Imperialism in Africa
The Partition of Africa
• Partition = Divide
Africa at the
height of
Why Africa?
• Africa is a huge continent, four times the size of
• It contains many diverse cultures and regions.
The people of Africa spoke 100’s of different
• This vast continent also possessed many
valuable natural resources and raw materials
that were needed by the Industrialized nations
of the world.
European Contact Increases
• In the 1500’s and 1600’s the coastal areas
of Africa had been used for trading with
other nations but the interior was
considered uncharted territory.
• Africa was referred to as the “Dark
Continent” because the interior was
• Technology encourages exploration and
many Europeans took on the challenge of
the unknown in Africa.
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
• For 30 years Dr. Livingstone explored the continent
as a missionary.
• He got to know many of the different cultures and
fell in love with the beauty and nature of the lands.
• His perspective was one of the first that offered
less bias.
• He proposed the ending of slavery and the opening
up of Christianity for the peoples of Africa.
• He disappeared for a few years and upon the
discovery of him in what is today Tanzania, Henry
Stanley said
“Dr. Livingstone , I presume?”
The Great Scramble Begins!
Berlin Conference 1884
• To avoid bloodshed and save money,
European nations decided to sit down
in Berlin at the table and carve out the
map of Africa for themselves.
• The interesting part is that no Africans
were invited.
Berlin Conference
• “We have been engaged in drawing lines
upon maps where no white man’s foot
has ever trod. We have been giving
away mountains and rivers and lakes to
each other, only hindered by small
impediment that we never knew exactly
where the mountains and rivers and
lakes were.”
A British Politician
The Boer War 1899-1902
• Dutch Boers
• Versus
• The British
• The Boers (Dutch farmers) resented British rule
and had migrated north to found their own
• In the late 1800’s the Boers discovered gold
and diamonds and this set off the Boer War.
• In the end the British won, but at great cost.
• In all, the war had cost around 75,000 lives —
22,000 British soldiers (7,792 battle casualties,
the rest through disease), 6,000-7,000 Boer
soldiers, 20,000-28,000 Boer civilians and
perhaps 20,000 black Africans.
Impact of the Boer War
• In 1910, the British took over the area and set
up a government run by whites and laid the
foundation for a system of complete racial
segregation that remained in effect until 1993.
= apartheid
• The Anglo-Zulu War
was fought in 1879
between the British
Empire and the Zulu
Empire. From complex
beginnings, the war is
notable for several
particularly bloody
battles, as well as for
being a landmark in the
timeline of colonialism in
the region. The war
ended the Zulu nation's
Zulu Wars
• The British gave an unreasonable
ultimatum to the Zulus on 11 December
• The 4,000 word ultimatum could not be met.
• The was lasted six months.
• 1,727 Zulus died
10,500 British died
Suez Canal
The Suez
located in
Egypt is
Cecil Rhodes and entrepreneur
• Cecil John Rhodes was an English-born
businessman, mining magnate, and politician in South
• He was the founder of the diamond company De
Beers, which today markets 40% of the world's rough
diamonds and at one time marketed 90%.
• He was an ardent believer in colonialism and
imperialism, and was the founder of the state of
Rhodesia, which was named after him. Rhodesia, later
Northern and Southern Rhodesia, eventually became
Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively.
• South Africa's Rhodes University is named after him,
and he is also known for the Rhodes Scholarship
which is funded by his estate.
“From the
Cape to Cairo”
1. Which is an accurate statement about the
partitioning of Africa by European imperialist
nations during the 1800’s?
1. new nations were based on old tribal
2. the cultural and ethnic diversity of the African
people was disregarded
3. the continent was divided equally among the
colonial powers
4. African unity was encouraged
2. After 1880, European nations sought colonies
in Africa primarily because the Europeans were
1. in need of land for their surplus populations
2. competing of raw materials and markets
3. determined to bring Christianity to the Moslem
4. interested in completing their geographic
knowledge of the world
3. The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden”
reflects the idea that
1. Asians and Africans were equal to Europeans
2. Asians and Africans would be grateful for
European help
3. imperialism was opposed by most Europeans
4. Europeans had a responsibility to improve the
lives of the colonial peoples
4. In the past, European nations have
conquered other lands, made them into
colonies, and controlled their economies.
Which term refers to the situation
described in this statement?
1. socialism
2. isolationism
3. imperialism
4. monotheism
5. During the 18th and 19th centuries, increased
contact between European and the continents
of Africa, Asia, and South America resulted in
1. closer cultural cooperation between Europe
and these continents
2. the exploitation of the labor and resources of
these continents
3. a return to the political and economic systems
of feudal Europe
4. preservation of the rights of the indigenous
6. During the 18th and 19th centuries,
Europeans improved roads and bridges and
built railroads in their colonies primarily to
1. provide jobs for the colonists
2. obtain raw materials needed for
3. impress the colonists with their technological
4. help missionaries spread Christianity

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