Vocabulary
Chancellor
Realpolitik
Annex
Kaiser
Reich
Social welfare
Anarchist
Emigration
Emancipation
Electorate
Free trade
Repeal
Home rule
Provisional
Premier
Coalition
Libel
Expansionism
Abolitionist
Isolationism
Imperialism
Protectorate
Sphere of
influence
Elite
Genocide
Concession
Trade surplus
Trade deficit
Extraterritoriality
Homogeneous society
Indigenous
Confederation
Dominion
Regionalism
Nationalism and Imperialism
1800 to 1914
Chapters 23-26
31 Questions
4 Summaries
*Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride and
devotion to one’s country
Germany
• Napoleon
– Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire
– Created the Rhine Confederation
• Congress of Vienna
– Created German Confederation
– Controlled by Austria
• Bismarck, Otto von 1862
– Aligned with Austria
– Annexed parts of Germany to control the German
Confederation
– Insulted Napoleon III starting the Franco-Prussian
War 1870
Germany
• William I King of Prussia
– Took the title “Kaiser” meaning emperor
– Ushered in the second Reich (Holy Roman
Empire is the 1st)
• *William II
– Expanded social welfare
– Transportation, electricity, public schools, etc.
– Expanded the army and navy to win an overseas
empire
– Becomes Europe’s leading industrial giant
Italy
• Had been a battleground for foreign and local princes
• Nationalists wanted to unite due to language and
customs
• City-states controlled by various empires
– N W by Austria, NE by France
– Catholic church Rome and central parts called the Papal
lands
– South was the Kingdom of Two Sicily’s
• Kingdom of Sardinia
– Combined Italy under King Emmanuel II
– Factionalism brought civil war
– Church bitter
By 1870
• *Population increased encouraging immigration to the
U.S.
Hapsburg Empire “Austria”
• Slowly declining
– *Nationalistic feelings of
Austria’s ethnic groups...
Poles, Czechs, Slovaks,
Ukrainians, Romanians,
Serbs, Croats, Hungarians
and German speaking
Austrians
• 1866 defeat by Prussia
caused a split
– Creating Hungary-Austrian
empire
Coat of Arms of Austria-Hungary,
adopted in 1915 to emphasize the
unity of the Empire during WWI
Ottoman Empire
• “Sick Old Man”
ethnically diverse
• *Various groups
revolted
– Serbia 1817, Greece
1830's, others followed
– France, Britain, Austria
began taking pieces of
the Old Man
Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize your
notes up to this point.
Western Democracies
• Grow during the
1800's
• France, Britain and
United States
– *The people taking
more governmental
power
British Labour leader,
workers' rights campaigner
and politician Keir Hardie
making a speech in
Trafalgar Square.
United States National and
Economic growth
• *Manifest Destiny --- 4,000,000
Americans moved to western
territories between 1820 and
1850
• Expands from ocean to ocean
– Texas 1845, Mexican Secession
1848, Oregon Country 1846,
Alaska 1867, Hawaii 1898 and
Florida 1819
• *Became the worlds leading
industrial giant
• *Had a tradition of isolationism
*Imperialism.....the domination
by one country of the political,
economic, or cultural life of
another country
• *Industrialized nations
enlightened economic
and political power
allowed them to
dominate and build
overseas colonial
empires
*Motives for Imperialism
• Economic interests
– Needed raw materials
– New markets
– Immigration
• Political and military interests
– Needed resupply bases
– National security
• Humanitarian Goals
– Thought it was their duty to share their blessings
with little brothers
• Social Darwinism
– European races superior...natural selection
Success 1870-1914
*European’s controlled most of
the world Why?
• Other countries were weak—
old empires declining
– Slave trade weakened Africa
• Superior technology and
medical knowledge (maxim
gun)
• Strong central government &
economies
Problems with Imperialism
• *Resistance
– Western educated
natives pushed for
nationalism
– Anti-imperialists
questioned the
treatment of the
colonies
Africa Partitioned
• Resistance– Zulu vs Britain,
Algerians vs French, E.
Africa vs Germany
• Ethiopia survives— beats
Italy ---Christian
– Modernized– roads, bridges,
schools, weapons & training
• Creates and native African
Elite
– Western trained
– Forged nationalist movements
*Forms of western rule
• Colonies— direct or indirect rule, using
military force when needed.
• Protectorates–local rulers had to do as
told
• Spheres of Influence– exclusive
investment or trading privileges.
– U.S. claimed So. America
– Europe claimed China and So. E. Asia
Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize your
notes up to this point.
Europeans challenge the
Muslim world
• Mughals in India,
Ottomans in the
Middle East, Safavids
in Iran
• All in decline by mid
1700's
– *Reform movements
• Stressed religious piety
• Caused more internal
problems
Ottomans
• *Nationalism caused internal
revolts
• Tried to modernize but too
little and too late (WWI)
• *Egypt borrowed to build the
Suez canal 1869
– Defaulted to Britain
– Became Britain’s protectorate
India
• British East India Company
• *Negative effects
–
–
–
–
Exploited diversity to make money
saw India as a market and source of raw materials
encouraged cash crops — deforestation
caused a famine in the late 1800's
• *Positive effects
–
–
–
–
brought peace and order
revised legal system
communications & transportation
increased education
• India did not become an independent nation
until 1947
China
• Prior to 1800 had a trade surplus
• *Opium War 1839 led to unequal treaties
–
–
–
–
–
Treaty of Naming
Britain received a huge indemnity
Britain got Hong Kong
China opened 5 more ports
British citizens received extraterritoriality
Qing Dynasty
1800's in decline
• Taiping Rebellion— peasant revolt
– Lasted 14 yrs then crushed
• Reform efforts thwarted by Qing’s Confucian
beliefs
• *Boxer Rebellion 1899
– Righteous Harmonious Fists
– Crushed by western powers and Japan
– China again gave up concessions
• 37 years more of civil and foreign wars
Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize your
notes up to this point.
Japan
• 1853 U.S. navy gunboats force Japan to open
their ports
– Ending 215 years of isolation
• *Tokugawa shoguns were in trouble
– Corruption was common
– Daimyo’s were land rich and cash poor
– Samurai were bureaucrats not fighters
– Merchants resented being on the bottom of society
– Peasants suffered under heavy taxes
Meiji Restoration –- 1867
•
•
•
•
Daimyo and samurai revolted
Put Meiji in as emperor
Lasted until 1912
*Government used the German
Model
–
–
–
–
All citizens equal under the law
Diet (Legislature)
Emperor was autocratic
Bureaucracy used separate
departments
• All men were subject to military service
• Economy— followed the western style
– By 1890's was the Asia industrial powerhouse
• Social changes
– More and better schools
– Class distinctions outlawed but survived
unofficially
– Literacy increased
• Amazing success
– *Homogenous society — strong sense of
identity
The delegates of the Iwakura mission
were among the first Japanese to
encounter the West after Japan emerged
from a long period of international
isolation in the mid-19th century. The
Meiji government, which had recently
overthrown Japan’s centuries-old feudal
system, sent the mission around the
world from 1871 to 1873 to study the
economic and political systems of
Sino-Japanese War 1894
• Took control of Taiwan
• Forced treaty ports in
China
• In 1904 took control
and annexed Korea
(protectorate for 35yrs)
• Began modernizing it’s
empire
Economic Imperialism in
South America
• *Colonial effects
– Created a ruling elite
– Unequal trading
– Regionalism
– Church controlled huge tracts
of land and privileges
– Foreign capital built mining,
ranches, ports and railroads
U.S. claims all of the Americas
• *Monroe Doctrine — James
Monroe 1823
– “The American continents are
henceforth not to be
considered as subjects for
future colonization by any
European power.”
• *Roosevelt Corollary late
1800's
– U.S. claimed “international
police power” to protect U.S.
interests
Yankee Imperialism
• Cuba liberated 1901
• Panama Canal opened 1914
– revolt against Colombia
Summary
Use at least four sentences to summarize your
notes up to this point.
*Impact of Imperialism
• Global economy emerged dominated by the
industrial nations
• Money economy replaced the barter system
• Economic dependency — colonies produce the
raw materials
– Colony’s rose and fell with the price of the materials
– Did not produce enough food – famine
• Modernization
– Banking system
– New technology
– Invested huge amounts of capital
*Cultural Impacts
• Modernization and westernization are the same
• Schools and hospitals
– Undermined local healers and herbalists
• Religion
– Christianity spread world wide
– Not much in areas of Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism
• Urbanization
– Hurt village life
• Columbian Exchange expands
– Brazilian coffee, Sir Lankan tea, Honduran bananas, & rubber So E
Asia and So America
• History uncovered
– Many ancient civilizations unearthed
*European powers teetered on
the brink of war
• Interlocking
treaties
• Military growth
• National
ambitions
Stay Tuned World War One
Is Coming
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Nationalism and Imperialism