The New Imperialism
(1800–1914)
New Imperialism
1
Define Imperialism:
Examples:
Imperialism” = By the 1800s,
Europeans, by their new economic and
military strength, aggressively expanded
their empires and influenced the lives of
the people of these conquered lands.
“New
1
Causes of Imperialism
ECONOMIC INTERESTS
POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTS
SOCIAL INTERESTS
1
The Successes of Imperialism
Western imperialism succeeded for a number
of reasons:
1.
2.
3.
"Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple
act of accumulation and acquisition…
Out of imperialism, notions about culture were
classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected."
Culture and Imperialism, Edward W. Said.
1
Forms of Imperial Rule
COLONIES
Methods of Managing:
1. Direct
2. Indirect
PROTECTORATES
SPHERES OF
INFLUENCE
1
Assessment
The European belief that conquest was a way of
improving the human species was an example of
a)
b)
c)
d)
colonization.
imperialism.
Social Darwinism.
nationalism.
The United States claimed Latin America as
a) its colony.
b) its sphere of influence.
c) its protectorate.
d) part of its territory.
Africa - Geography
Rivers
Nile
Congo
Niger
Climate
Deserts
• Sahara
• Kalahari
• Sahel
Tropical Rain Forest
Savana
Mediterranean
Religion
1. Animism 2. Mansa Musa - Leader of Mali who brought
Islam from Saudi Arabia to Timbuktu on
Niger River
3.Jungle prevents spread of Islam
History - Before Imperialism
2
A. West African
Trading Kingdoms
B. Early 1400-1800s:
“Dark Continent”
because it was
unexplored
C. By 1850, slave
trade ENDED
D. Missionaries
2
Imperialism in Northern Africa
(Sahara Desert to Mediterranean Sea)
1. Why take over
northern Africa?
A.Seen as a
short cut to
Asia
B.France builds
Suez Canal
Why North Africa?
England buys canal
England takes over
Egypt to protect Suez
Canal
England takes over Nile
to protect Egypt
War almost breaks out
as France wants to
stop England from
taking it all
2
A Scramble for Colonies
King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the
Congo River & arranged trade treaties with Africans
King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a
scramble among other European nations.
At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed
on how to claim African territory without fighting.
European powers partitioned almost the
entire African continent.
2
1884 - Congress of Berlin
The Partition of Africa
Imperialism in Sub-Saharan Africa
Imperialism in Sub-Saharan Africa
Dutch Boers first settle
in Southern Africa
Mediterranean climate
Good farmland
Use Africans as slave
laborers
Only part of Africa
taken for colonization
only
The Great Trek
British take over
southern Africa
as a port on the
way to India
Boers move
north from
Cape Colony
2
African Resistance
The Zulus in southern
Africa battle the Boers
and the British.
Shaka’s innovations:
1.
2.
3.
1898 Boer War
Boers discover diamonds
and gold in new lands
Boer War
Dutch and British fight
British win
Boers allowed to control
government
Boers separate Africans
with APARTHEID
Government policy
separating whites from
non-whites
Apartheid in South Africa
White minority
gov controlled
South Africa
Separated
Africans from
whites
No good jobs
Could not vote
Poor land
Need passports
to travel
Results of African Imperialism
Civil Wars
1960 Nigeria
independent
Biafran Civil War
Causes: Ethnic split
three tribes forced to
live within British
controlled Nigeria
Millions die as northern
tribes are starved by
blockades on Niger
River
Hausa-Fulani
Yoruba
Igbo
Results Continued
Cash crops replace subsistence
farming
Coffee, banana plantations replace
small farms
Exploitation of natural resources
Railroads, electricity, hospitals
“White Man’s Burden”
• African’s forced to change their culture
Gain independence after WWII
2
Assessment
European missionaries urged Africans to
a) reject their own traditions.
b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim
world.
c) seek independence.
d) attend the Berlin Conference.
Which of the following African nations was
able to preserve its independence?
a)
Congo
b)
Algeria
c)
Egypt
d)
Ethiopia
European Challenges to the
Muslim World
3
What were sources of stress in the
Muslim world?
What problems did the Ottoman empire
face?
How did Egypt seek to modernize?
Why were European powers interested
in Iran?
Assessment
What happened when governments pushed to
grow more cash crops for export?
a) These countries had a surplus of food
b) These countries had to import food to feed
their populations.
c) These countries became increasingly
wealthy.
d) These countries were able to produce
adequate food in addition to the cash crops.
What Were Sources of Stress in the
Muslim World?
3
By the 1700s, all three Muslim
empires were in decline.
In the 1700s and early 1800s,
reform movements sprang up
across the Muslim world. Most
stressed religious piety and strict
rules of behavior.
The old Muslim empires faced
western imperialism.
3
Ottoman Empire
By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges.
Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had
increased their power.
As ideas of nationalism spread from Western
Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic
Ottoman empire.
European states sought to benefit from the
weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands
under Ottoman control.
Attempts at westernization by several Ottoman
rulers increased tensions. Many officials objected to
changes that were inspired by foreign cultures.
A reform group called the Young Turks overthrew
the sultan.
Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of
the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern
mountains of the empire.
Egypt Modernizes
3
Called the “father of modern Egypt,” Muhammad Ali
introduced political and economic reforms. Before he died in
1849, he had set Egypt on the road to becoming a major
Middle Eastern power.
During his reign, Muhammad Ali:
improved tax collection and reorganized the
landholding system
backed large irrigation projects to increase farm
output
expanded cotton production and encouraged local
industry, thereby increasing Egyptian participation
in world trade
brought in western military experts to modernize
the army
conquered Arabia, Syria, and Sudan
Iran
3
Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into
Central Asia.
Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India.
For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of
influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south.
The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened
foreign interest in the region.
Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant
them concessions, or special economic rights given to foreign
powers.
Section 3 Assessment
3
The Suez Canal linked
a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
c) the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.
d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
Which nations set up spheres of influence in Iran?
a) Britain and France
b) France and the United States
c) Britain and Russia
d)
Russia and Germany
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