Africa- Shaped by its History
Section 1- African beginnings
• Key Terms
– Domesticate- to adapt wild plants and animals and
breed them for human use
– Civilization- a society that has cities, a central
government, and social classes and usually has writing,
art, and architecture
– Migrate- to move from one place to settle in another
– Ethnic group- a group of people who share the same
ancestors, culture, language, or religion.
 What skills did early
humans need to survive?
 Food
 Water
 Shelter
 Hunting & Gathering
 early humans were
hunters and gathers
 They would hunt for
wild game
 They would gather
berries and other
eatable herbs & plants
 Farming in Africa probably began in North Africa
 Domesticating plants and animals allowed
 People to have better control in their food supply
 People to settle in one place
 people to store surplus items
Civilizations on the Nile
Egyptian Civilization
Nubian Civilization
• The Nile used to flood each
 Nubia
summer leaving fertile silt
• Egyptians began farming
along the Nile about 5000
• Ancient Egypt was ruled by
Pharaohs and Queens
• Hieroglyphs- picture writing
Bantu Migrations
 One of the largest migrations that has ever taken place
 Migrate-to move from one place to settle in another
 Bantu migrations mainly spread across Central and
South Africa
 As Bantu speaking Africans spread across the region
their language also spread
Section 2- Kingdoms, City-States, &
 Key Terms
 Swahili- Bantu language spoken in much of East Africa;
a mixture of Arab and African languages; also an ethnic
 City-states- a city that is also an independent state, with
its own traditions, government, and laws
 Pilgrimage- a religious journey
East African Trading Civilizations
 East African civilizations used trade with
 East Asia
 Arabia
 India
 The Red Sea & the Indian Ocean helped with trade
Aksum Kingdom
• Aksum- African kingdom located in what is now
Ethiopia and Eritrea
• African & Arab traders began to settle along the Red
Sea and over time Aksum controlled the Red Sea area
• Ideas and goods were shared along these trade routes
– People became Christians
– Early Ethiopian Christian Church started here
Cities of Trade
 Used seasonal winds to plan trading
 Brought Muslim religion of Islam to Africa
 African traders took, ivory, gold, other metals & animal
 Traders brought back cotton, silk, and porcelain
 Swahili language- combined African & Arab languages
 Most widely spoken Bantu language
 Bantu Kingdom’s city-states began along these trading
 City-states usually control much of the surrounding
 Malindi, Mombasa, Great Zimbabwe, & Kilwa were
powerful East African city-states
North African Trade
 The Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Coastline
are the boundries
 Carthage (Tunisia) became rich with the trade of
textiles, metals, slaves and food products
 May have been the wealthiest city in the world at that
 Carthage fell to the Roman Empire in 146 B.C.
More North Africa
 Romans ruled North Africa until its collapse in 476
A.D. Bringing Christianity into the region
 Arabs took control of Egypt in 600 A.D. and continued
west, spreading Islam
West African Kingdoms
 West Africa Kingdoms
 Ghana
 Mali
 Songhai
 West needed salt in hot
 Had plenty of gold
 North Africa
 Plenty of salt in the
 No other resources to
Mansa Musa
 King of Mali in about 1312
 Mansa means “emperor”
 Mansa Musa traveled to the holy city of “Mecca”
 Pilgrimage- (religious journey) Musa took about
60,000 Muslims and 80 camels with 300 pounds of
gold on each one. He set up new routes for trade
Section 3- European Conquest of
 Key terms
 Cape of Good Hope- the point of land at the southern
tip of Africa
 Plantation- a large farm where cash crops are grown
 Colonize- to settle an area and take control of its
European Trade
 Europeans traded for gold from the empires of Mali
and Ghana.
 Why do you think the first contacts with Africans took
place in North Africa?
European/African Trade
Europeans Traded
Africans Traded
 Copper
• Gold
 Brass
• Cotton
 Clothing
• Ivory
 Corn
• Animal skins
 Cassava
• Metals
 yams
• Pepper
• Okra
• Watermelon
• Rice from Asia
Portuguese Traders
 The Portuguese traders sailed south around the Cape
of Good Hope and then north along the eastern coast
of Africa
 They liked what they saw and came back later with
three ships to seize the riches
 The Portuguese ruled for over 100 years
 The English, French, & The Dutch all followed the
Portuguese and set up settlements
The Atlantic Slave trade
 Slavery was a common part of African society long
before the Europeans came to their continent
 The Europeans had established colonies in the
Americas and in the Caribbean.
 Slaves in Africa could usually win their freedom after
working for a few years
 Europeans rarely released their slaves
Competition between
 The race to colonize Africa led to the 1884 conference
in Berlin, Germany
 They set rules for which countries could claim African
Critical Thinking
 Are there things that should not be sold?
 Did anything good come of the European slave trade?
 How did the slave trade affect Africa today?
Writing Activity
 Write two brief editorials about the 1884 European
 One from the point of view of an African leader
reporting back to his people
 One from the point of view of an European leader
reporting back to his people
Section 4- Independence and
its Challenges
 Key Terms
 Nationalism- a feeling of pride in one’s homeland
 Pan-Africanism- the belief that all Africans should work
together for their rights and freedoms
 boycott- a refusal to buy or use certain products or
 Democracy- a government over which citizens exercise
Growth of Nationalism
 Most European rulers did not view Africans as equals
 The new African nations needed to build pride in
being African
 Many ethnic groups were old rivals
 A spirit of unity had to be built
 Early Political Parties
 1912- South African Native National Congress {today
called the African National Congress ANC}
 1920- National Congress of British West Africa
 Both parties fought for the equal rights of Africans
Africa and WWII
 WWII inspired many people in Africa to want their
own independence
 Great Britain, France, & the U.S., formed a group
called “the Allies.”
 Allies fought against Germany, Italy, & Japan
 German and Italian forces invaded North Africa, which
was under British or French rule. Italian forces also
invaded Ethiopia
Support from Africa
 Liberia and Belgian Congo supplies the allies with
rubber and other needed resources
 Allied planes were allowed to use African airfields to
move supplies into Asia
 Many thousands of Africans fought and died in WWII
 About 170,000 West Africans & 280,000 East and
Southern Africans fought for the British Army
 After the war they only wanted the freedom that others
Map exercise- page 60
 The map indicates each country’s year of
 Which country was the first to win its independence?
South Africa 1910
 Which countries were never colonized?
Ethiopia & Liberia
 according to the legend, after what year did most
countries gain their independence?
 What was the last country to win its independence?
Eritrea 1993
Other effects of WWII on
 European allies were financially weakened by the war
 People began to speak out against colonialism
 (the practice of settling in an area and taking over its
 European countries began to give up African colonies
 Some were peaceful turnovers (Ghana from Britain)
 Some were violent (Algeria from France)
Fight for Independence
 Kwame Nkrumah organized protest against British
rule in the early 1950’s. He was arrested several times
for holding peaceful strikes and boycotts. However,
the boycotts continued and the country of Ghana was
born. Nkrumah became its first president.
 Algerians and the French people disagreed about
whether or not independence was necessary.
 The fought for 8 bloody years
10,000 French
100,000 Alegerians
 Algeria won its independence in 1962
 Most African countries had been under European rule
for a very long time, therefore they had no real
understanding of how to run a government.
 New leaders were not prepared to govern
 Governments were very unstable
 Some military leaders took control by force
Section 5-Africa today
 Key terms
 Commercial farming- a large-scale production of crops
for sale
 Hybrid- a plant that is created by breeding different
types of the same plant.
 Literate- able to read and write
 Life expectancy- the average length of time a person is
expected to live.
Economic Issues
 Africa has very limited manufactured goods.
 Farming is the most important economic activity in
 About 60% of African workers are farmers.
 Subsistence and commercial farming are the two types
of farming practiced in Africa
 Cash crops grown in Africa
 Coffee
 Cacao
 Bananas
Mining Exports
 Many African nations have rich mineral resources;
 Nigeria- oil & coal
 Democratic Republic of the Congo- copper
 Zambia- copper
 South Africa- gold & diamonds
 Because South Africa produces about half of all the
gold mined in the world why then are African nations
so poor?
Economic Challenges
 A specialized economy is one in which the country
depends on exporting one or two products.
 Gambia- peanuts
 Zambia- copper
 African nations are especially sensitive to the rise and
fall of the world prices.
 A sudden drop in prices may hurt the economy
depending on the sale of one crop or mineral.
 African nations are now trying to diversify their
economies. (add variety)
Farming Improvements
 Development of hybrid plants
 African rice & Asian rice are being combined to create
more rice for West Africa
Social Issues
 Education
 Education is very important
to many Africans, but some
children are expected to work
 Many schools are
overcrowded and there is
“standing room only.”
 There is a vast different from
country to country as to the
literacy rate. There have
been great improvements in
literacy in many African
 Health
 Life expectancy is the average
length of time a person can
expect to live.
 The life expectancy varies
from country to country.
Morocco= 67-72 yrs
Southern Africa=less than
50 yrs
Botswana= 32 yrs
 Childhood diseases are the
main reason for early death
The Environment
 Soil problems
 Wind and rain without cover to prevent soil erosion
 Without enough farmland, many Africans face
 Scientific solutions
 Irrigation improvements
 Hybrids
 Plants that hold water in the ground
 Planting yams and trees that hold the soil in place in

Chapter 2