Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
Modern World History Unit 3
Unit Enduring Understandings
The motives of competition and profit often prompt people and
groups to expand into new areas of opportunity.
Changes in technology and exchange during the 18th and 19th
centuries led to the social and economic changes around the
world that are still relevant today.
Technology, transportation and communication enabled
European nations to become the dominant world powers in the
19th century.
Centers of global economic and political power shift over time.
Technology and industrial advancement can alter existing social
and economic systems.
Unit Essential Questions
How can nationalism be a unifying and a
divisive force? How does a state gain or lose
power over others?


How should resources and wealth be
distributed?

Why do political revolutions occur?
Romanticism
Assignment:

Read the article and answer the following questions on a
separate sheet of paper.





After reading the opening paragraphs, list 4 characteristics that
generally define Romanticism.
How is nationalism connected to folklore, therefore making it
an aspect of Romanticism?
What is the most popular emotion celebrated by Romantics?
How has this emotion played an influential role in the history
of the world?
How does individualism connect with 18th Century
Romanticism? What class gained a strong individual nature?
What is the paradox (contradiction) created with the romantic
focus on nature during the Industrial Revolution?
#1: Romantic or Realism?

“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it
was an age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it
was the epoch or belief, it was the epoch of
incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the
season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was
the winter of despair, we had everything before us,
we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to
heaven, we were all going the direct other way-in
short, the period was so far like the present period,
that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on being
received, for good or for evil, in the superlative,
degree of comparison only.”
#2
#3
#4


“On an afternoon in October, or the beginning of November — a fresh watery
afternoon, when the turf and paths were rustling with moist, withered leaves, and the
cold blue sky was half hidden by clouds — dark grey streamers, rapidly mounting from
the west, and boding abundant rain — I requested my young lady to forego her
ramble, because I was certain of showers. She refused; and I unwillingly donned a
cloak, and took my umbrella to accompany her on a stroll to the bottom of the park: a
formal walk which she generally affected if low-spirited — and that she invariably was
when Mr. Edgar had been worse than ordinary, a thing never known from his
confession, but guessed both by her and me from his increased silence and the
melancholy of his countenance. She went sadly on: there was no running or bounding
now, though the chill wind might well have tempted her to race. And often, from the
side of my eye, I could detect her raising a hand, and brushing something off her
cheek. I gazed round for a means of diverting her thoughts. On one side of the road
rose a high, rough bank, where hazels and stunted oaks, with their roots half exposed,
held uncertain tenure: the soil was too loose for the latter; and strong winds had
blown some nearly horizontal. In summer Miss Catherine delighted to climb along
these trunks, and sit in the branches, swinging twenty feet above the ground; and I,
pleased with her agility and her light, childish heart, still considered it proper to scold
every time I caught her at such an elevation, but so that she knew there was no
necessity for descending. From dinner to tea she would lie in her breeze-rocked cradle,
doing nothing except singing old songs — my nursery lore — to herself, or watching
the birds, joint tenants, feed and entice their young ones to fly: or nestling with closed
lids, half thinking, half dreaming, happier than words can express.”
#5
#6
Industrial Revolution
Assignment

Look closely at the word cloud pictured on the
screen. Complete the chart by listing embedded
words that fit the categories listed in the chart.
Countries/
Locations
Social
Words
Economic
Words
Descriptive
Words
5 Largest in
Size
After analyzing the information presented in the word cloud, write a
sentence summarizing what you might expect the Industrial Revolution
to be about.
Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution Overview
 A time of greatly increased output of
machine-made goods drastically changing
the way people lived and worked
 Began in ENGLAND but quickly spread
through Europe and to the US
Industrial Revolution

Causes
 Agricultural Revolution
 ENCLOSURES
 Forced small farmers off
land to create large farms
 Done to INCREASE
PRODUCTION as
population increased
 Forced small farmers to the
cities
 Crop Rotation
 Rotation of crops to different
fields each season produced
HIGHER crop amounts
Industrial Revolution

Causes
 Scientific Revolution
 Scientific
discoveries, new
machines, printing
press, exploration,
etc.
Industrial Revolution

Why England?


Large population of workers due to enclosure
Abundant natural resources


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

Water power
Coal and iron ore
Rivers for inland trade
Many harbors for international trade
Political/Economic Stability




Isolated from European wars
Parliamentary system successful for hundreds of years
Parliament monetarily supported entrepreneurs
Financially successful colonies with abundant resources
England 1701 & 1911
Industrial Revolution

Effects
 Greater need to move
goods
TRANSPORTATION
rapidly improved
 Better roadways,
canals, tunnels, etc.
 Steam engine
 Steam boats
 Railroads
 Extensive systems
become necessity
 Factory engines
Locomotives
Industrialization
Industrialization

Industrialization Overview
 Process of SOCIAL and ECONOMIC
change that modernizes a human group
 Social change and economic development
are closely related with
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
Urbanization
Urbanization
Industrialization

Effects of Industrialization
 GROWTH OF INDUSTRIAL CITIES
 Factories for efficient production
 Urbanization: rapid movement to cities

POOR LIVING CONDITIONS
 Small cities became too big too fast
 Poor sanitary conditions
 Insufficient housing, education, security
 Air and water pollution
Living Conditions: Tenements
Slums of Urbanization
Industrialization

Effects of Industrialization (cont.)
 POOR WORKING CONDITIONS
 14 hour days, 6 days/week, poor pay
 Workers had to keep up with machines
 Child Labor
Child Labor
Poor Working Conditions
Industrialization

Effects of Industrialization (cont.)

Class Tension

Rise of middle class



Upper-middle class factory owners and merchants grew
wealthy and influential in politics
Lower-middle class factory foremen, skilled tradesmen,
supervisors lived comfortably
Many living in extreme poverty and working class begins to
replace peasant class

Aristocracy resents upper-middle class


Being pushed out of power
Workers resent upper-middle class

Gap between classes getting larger
Assignment

Write a one-page letter that captures “a day in the
life of” a worker living in England during the
Industrial Revolution. Your letter can be written
from one of the following perspectives:



Upper-Class: A landowner/aristocrat that formerly
occupied the top position in British society.
Middle-Class: An skilled
worker/professional/businesspeople/wealthy farmer
that has greatly benefited from one of the following: a
new industry in London; the iron-smelting centers in
Birmingham or Sheffield; or the textile industries in
Leeds and Manchester
Lower-Class: A factory worker working in horrible
conditions
YOUR LETTER MUST COMMENT ON THE CLASS
TENSIONS OPERATING DURING THIS TIME!
Use pages 258-262 to aid you…
Global Impact of Industrialization
Global Impact of Industrialization

Global Impact of Industrialization
 Moved through Europe and to the US
(West)
 More demand for products motivated
colonization to gain raw materials
IMPERIALISM
Global Impact of Industrialization

Global Impact of Industrialization (cont.)


Global Inequality
 Industrialized WEST vs. “ALL THE REST”
 Great economic and military inequalities
Transformation of Society
 Great economic power of EUROPE
 More wealth overall
 Better opportunities for education and democracy
Global Impact of Industrialization

Global Impact of Industrialization (cont.)
 Emergence of new political and economic
ideologies
 Business leaders encouraged gap between
rich and poor
LAISSEZ-FAIRE: “hands-off” economy
Promotion of CAPITALISM
 Reformers encouraged governments to play a
more active role in bettering conditions
 Emergence of SOCIALISM and
COMMUNISM
ECONOMIC SYSTEM: policies of production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services
Political and Economic Ideologies
Political and Economic Ideologies

Capitalism



Economic system in which money is invested in business
ventures with the goal of making a profit, economic liberty
guarantees economic progress
ADAM SMITH Father of modern capitalism
Other capitalists included
 Malthus
 Wars and epidemics necessary to reduce excess population
reduce number of poor
 Ricardo
 Permanent underclass always poor
 Wages forced down as population increase SUPPLY AND
DEMAND
Political and Economic Ideologies

Socialism
 Factors of production are owned by
public and operate for the welfare of all
 Government actively plans economy
 Other socialist ideas include
 Bentham
 UTILITARIANSIM judge ideas,
institutions and actions on the
basis of their utility or usefulness
 Government should provide the
greatest good for the greatest
amount of people
Political and Economic Ideologies

Karl Marx
 Believed that economic forces controlled
society
 Wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848)
calling for “workers of the world unite” and
overthrow the “bourgeoisie”
 Radical socialism called Marxist
 Gap between rich and poor too wide and will
widen
 More control over economy will
reduce class conflict
Marxism
Factories
drive small
artisans out
of business
Small # of
manufacturers to
control wealth
Large
PROTELTARIAT
would revolt &
seize factories
Marxism
Proletariats
would produce
what was
NEEDED
Workers
would share
profits
Creation of
economic
equality
Marxism
Workers would
control gov’t in
“Dictatorship of
the Proletariat”
Create cooperative
living and
education
The
state/government
would wither
away = classless
society
Political and Economic Ideologies

Karl Marx (cont.)
 Marx’s final phase would become

COMMUNISM
 Complete form of socialism in which the means of
production owned by the people
 No private property
 Classless society
 All goods and services shared equally
Political and Economic Ideologies

Karl Marx (cont.)
 Marx’s ideas of communism didn’t have much appeal
until 20th century
 Lenin’s Russia
 Mao’s China
 Ho Chi Minh’s Vietnam
 Castro’s Cuba
 Most of Marx’s predictions never occurred proving
that society is not just controlled by economic forces
but also by religion, nationalism and political forces
Imperialism
IN WHAT WAYS DO YOU BELIEVE IMPERIALISM
CONNECTS TO INDUSTRIALIZATION?
Imagine for a moment…
That you are at home engaged in one of your favorite activities;
playing a game, listening to music, or reading. So far the day
is as any other. Then all of the sudden a group of individuals
arrive at your front door demanding that you stop what ever
you are doing. These individuals tell you that your way of life
is wrong. They inform you however that they have come to
your house to correct your way of life. They say it is their
responsibility to change your way of living for the better. You
find out that this has happened not only to you but your
neighbors as well. Over time your way of life does change.
These individuals, who you do not even know, have changed
your government, religion, and other cultural practices, and
remember these individuals told you this was for your own
good. What is your reaction?
Let’s refresh our memories…



What is a colony? Example…
What is nationalism? Example…
What occurred during industrialization?
These are all components that will materialize
in our discussions of Imperialism…
Industrialization Imperialism

INDUSTRIALISM STIRRED AMBITIONS IN
MANY EUROPEAN NATIONS. THEY
WANTED MORE RESOURCES TO FUEL
THEIR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION. THEY
COMPETED FOR NEW MARKETS FOR
THEIR GOODS. THEY LOOKED TO AFRICA
AND ASIA AS SOURCES OF THE RAW
MATERIALS AND MARKETS FOR CLOTH,
PLOWS, GUNS, AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL
PRODUCTS.
Imperialism Focus
 Africa
 India
 China
 Japan
Imperialism

Imperialism Overview
 The conquering of a country or territory by a stronger
nation with the intent of dominating it politically,
economically, socially and culturally
 Central-core of empire is a nation-state
 Ex. Great Britain, France, United States
 Politically?
 Economically?
 Socially?
 Culturally?
“The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
Imperialism

British Imperialism
 British dominated 19th century
imperialism
 Reached it’s height under Queen
Victoria
 Jump start due to early
industrialization
 Originally about economics PRIDE
 Glorified imperialism in stories,
newspapers, poetry
 Ex. Kipling’s White Man’s Burden
 Major Rivals:
 France
 Germany
 Belgium
RHODES COLOSSUS

Cecil Rhodes, shown
standing astride of Africa,
in a cartoon from Punch
magazine; Rhodes had
built the trans-Africa
railway, and is the man
after whom the nation of
Rhodesia was named
(now Zimbabwe). The
cartoon is a play on the
old Colossus of Rhodes,
which was one of the
“Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World.”)
“We [the British] happen to be the best in the world, with the
highest ideals of dependency and justice and liberty and
peace, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is
for humanity.”
Imperialism: Perspective
“Our whole existence has been controlled by
people with an alien attitude to life, people
with different customs and beliefs. They
have determined the form of government,
the types of economic activity, and the
schooling which our children have…A man
who tries to control the life of another does
not destroy the other any less because he
does it, as he thinks, for the other’s benefit.
It is the principle which is wrong, the
principle of one man governing another
without his consent.”
-Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
Imperialism

Motives Driving Imperialism
 Nationalism
 Viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness
 “All great nations in their fullness of their strength
have desired to set their mark upon barbarian lands”
 Economic Competition
 European Racism
 Idea that the white race was superior to others
 Social Darwinism those that were fittest for survival
enjoyed wealth and successes and were considered
superior to others
Imperialism

Motives Driving
Imperialism
 Missionary Impulse
 Desire to Christianize
people
 Believed European
rule was the best way
to end evil practices
(i.e. slave trade)
Imperialism
External Factors
- Maxim gun
- Railroads/Steamships
- Cure for malaria
Internal Factors
- Variety of cultures and
languages
- Low level of technology
- Ethnic strife
Racism
Racism
Before Reading:
Define the term race in your own words. When you
think of the word race, what comes to mind? Record
a bulleted list of words and/or characteristics that
you associate with the idea of race. Add in bullet
points as needed.



Is race real? Does it exist? Justify your answer in the
space below.
Racism
Post-Reading:
How did your idea of race change?
Do you agree with the ideas listed in these handouts?
Why or why not?
What was the most surprising statement? Why?
How might this new understanding change the way
you think about others?





Assignment: White Man’s Burden by Rudyard
Kipling
Take up the White Man’s burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.
According to Kipling, what is the “White Man’s
burden”?
The white man’s burden- The Journal,
1899
Detroit
Berlin Conference
Assignment

Based on the cartoon pictured, discuss with the
person sitting next to you the following two
questions
1. According to this
cartoon, which
European countries
were fighting for a
position in Africa?
1. How did the Berlin
Conference lead to
the situation shown
in the cartoon?
Imperialism

Berlin Conference (1884-85)



European conference that met to lay down rules for the
division of Africa
Agreement Any European country could claim land in
Africa by notifying other nations of their claims and
showing they could control the area
No African ruler attended meetings
Berlin Conference Simulation
Welcome to the Berlin Conference of 1884-85!
Background: In the late 1800s a meeting of European powers was held to
divide Africa among those nations represented. During this time they agreed
that any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other
nations of their claims and showing they could control the area.
You will simulate this exercise and work in groups of four (4) to partition the
African continent. Each individual will be assigned two (2) countries below;
your task is to negotiate with those other countries around you and reach an
agreement as to how Africa should be divided. You are seeking to gain as
much territory as possible while still meeting the goal(s) listed below.
This exercise requires extensive negotiation and discussion. Each group will
produce and submit a copy of the completed African map. It must clearly
show the division of the African continent and, more importantly, the
territorial holdings of each major European power. Please label and color
(lightly) each territory. At the end of the exercise you will then compare your
map to the actual map of 1914 Africa. Good luck!
Please refer to pages A14 and A15 in your textbook’s atlas, as well as page
308 when answering the reflection questions.





Imperialism: Partition of Africa
Forms of Imperialism
Forms of Imperialism
Forms of Imperialism
Characteristics
Example
Colony
A country of region
governed internally by a
foreign power
Somaliland in East Africa
was a French colony
Protectorate
A country or territory with
its own internal
government but under the
control of an outside
power
Britain established a
protectorate over the
Niger River delta
Sphere of Influence
An area in which an
outside power claims
exclusive investment of
trading privileges
Liberia was under the
sphere of influence of the
United States
Economic
Imperialism
Independent but less
The Dole Fruit company
developed nations
controlled pineapple trade
controlled by private
in Hawaii
business interests rather
than by other governments
Forms of Imperialism
Indirect Control
Direct Control
Local government officials were
Foreign officials brought in to rule
used
No self-rule
Limited self-rule
Goal: assimilation
Goal: to develop future leaders
Government institutions are based
Government institutions are based
only on European styles
on European styles but many have
local rules
Examples:
British colonies such as Nigeria,
India, Burma
U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands
Examples:
French colonies such as
Somaliland, Vietnam
German colonies such as
Tanganyika
Portuguese colonies such as
Angola
Outcomes of Imperialism
Imperialism

Outcomes of Imperialism
 Benefits
 Reduced local warfare
 Improved sanitation, transportation &
communication
 Provided better medical care
 Consequences
 Lost control
 Lost customs & traditions
 Famines due to cash crops
 Unnatural division of continent
Imperialism

Geopolitics
 An interest in land for strategic location or product;
often leads to conflict
 European nations interested in specific resources in
specific places but not always interested in taking over
entire country
 Examples: canals, oil, water access
Outcomes of Imperialism

Ottoman Empire Loses
Power



Unsuccessful vied for power
over territories with Europe
Many former Ottoman
territories gained
independence (i.e. Greece,
Serbia, Romania,
Montenegro, Cyprus, Bosnia,
Herzegovina, and land in
Africa)
Result Countries initiated
political and social reforms to
block European domination
of their land (Persia, Egypt)
Egypt and the Suez Canal
Persia and Oil
Great
Britain and
Russia
divide
Persia and
have access
to oil-rich
lands
Imperialism in India
Imperialism in India

Imperialism in Asia
 India was the largest
and most lucrative
colony of the entire
British Empire.
 1600’s British East
India Co. began trading
in India; over time
gaining more economic
and POLITICAL
control
 “Jewel in the
crown” the most
valuable of all the
British colonies
Imperialism in India

Long-Term Effects of Colonization in India
 Resurgence of nationalism against GB
 Creation of:
 Indian National Congress-1855
 Mix of all Indians
 Muslim League-1906
 Just Muslim Indians
 Goal: push for independence and protection of
Muslim rights
Strong tension continues to develop between
Hindus and Muslims as nationalism is on the
rise
Jungle Book: Lively stories filled with talking
animals

Rudyard Kipling wrote the famous children’s
book, The Jungle Book, in 1893. It was written at
the height of British imperialism around the
globe. Kipling is known for his great pride in
Britain and his support of British imperialism.
However, remember, he was a realist in his
views. Many of his written works portray this in
his characters. The Jungle Book is no exception.
The story is set in the jungle of India. Although it
is a children’s book, the characters symbolize
much of what Kipling believed was right about
the British colonization of India.
Assignment

How do the characters in the movie, The Jungle
Book, reflect the actions and intentions of British
imperialism in India in the 19th Century?


Pay attention to the messages given by each character and
how they each may symbolize elements of imperialism.
Select THREE characters you feel most comfortable
supporting and present your analysis in a threeparagraph essay. Be sure to provide examples from the
film to support your analysis.
List of Characters
Mowgli
 King Louie
 Baloo
 Kaa
 Colonel Hathi
 Shere Khan
 Bagheera
 Vultures

Imperialism in China
Imperialism in China

Imperialism in China
 Chinese had firm traditions stable & secure
 Looked down at outsiders
 Had strong agricultural economy
 Foreign traders brought new products – foods – led
to population boom in 18th Century
 Strong mining and manufacturing
 Many natural resources – salt, tin, silver, iron ore
 Produced fine silks, cottons, porcelain
Imperialism in China

Tea/Opium Connection


Chinese self sufficient  did not need to trade WITH
West but did trade TO West
British wanted to find a good (product) Chinese would
want to buy to improve trade balance
OPIUM!
Used as pain reliever in Chinese medicine
Highly addictive
Over 12 million were hooked by 183
Imperialism in China

“By what right do they (British Merchants) …use the
poisonous drug (opium) to injure the Chinese
people?...I have heard that the smoking of Opium is
strictly forbidden by your country…Since it is not
permitted to do harm to your own country, then even
less should you let it be passed on to the harm of
other countries.”

Lin Zexu, quoted in China’s Response to the West
Imperialism in China

Opium War





The British refused to stop
trading OPIUM
China begins naval battle
with British to stop sale of
Opium
China easily DEFEATED
Effects:
Effects

HONG KONG given to G.B.

Special rights given to G.B. –
exempt from trade laws at
ports
Imperialism in China

Issues in China




POPULATION had grown dramatically
Food supply lacking
Government CORRUPTION
Opium use INCREASING
WHAT’S A NATION TO DO?
Overthrow the government, of
course!
TAIPING REBELLION &
BOXER REBELLION
Self Strengthening Movement

Effects of Instability in China





Foreigners import resources for
MILITARY
China loses control of
QUALITY and in trade balance
Increasing WESTERN
INFLUENCE
Public not overly supportive of
program
Foreigners attack


Other countries capitalize on
China’s weaknesses
Resulting treaties lead to
“FOOTHOLDS”—spheres of
influence
Assignment

Use pages 335-339 in text to provide an overview of
the causes, effects, and policies that affected China in
the 1800s and 1900s. Fill out corresponding graphic
organizer!
Causes
Events/Policies
Opium War
Taiping Rebellion
Self-Strengthening
Movement
Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
Effects
Imperialism in Japan
Assignment

Use pages 339-343 in text to provide an overview of
the causes, effects, and policies that affected Japan in
the 1800s and 1900s. Fill out corresponding graphic
organizer!
Causes
Events/Policies
Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Era begins
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Annexation of Korea
Effects
Assignment: Japan Cartoon



Create a 4 frame comic strip of Japanese
History using Chapter 12-2.
Your strip should tell the story of the
Japanese and Imperialism.
On the back of your cartoon, write a
summary of this topic in no more than 3
sentences.
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Industrial Revolution and Imperialism