Pre-Islam Arabia
What was this region like?
•
•
•
•
Population:
Sparse
Gender Structure:
Patriarchal
Cities were centered around…
trade and religion
What role did Mecca play in this region?
• Commercial center
– many of the goods in the region moved through this
city
• Religious Center
– Ka’ba
– Center of an polytheistic religion
– Site of annual pilgrimage during which warfare was
suspended
• Religion and trade made some people very rich
– Quraysh tribe
• Settled city and dominated religiously and politically
Who was Muhammad?
•
•
•
•
Born 570
Orphaned at age 2 and raised by uncle Abu Talib
As a young man, worked in caravan trade
Married a wealthy Widow
– Khadijah
– With her supporting him, he could spend much of his time
meditating
– Lived an ordinary life until
• “The Night of Power”
– The angel Gabriel came to see him and Allah speaks to him through
Gabriel.
– Muhammad memorizes what will later become the suras of the Koran
• Many wives, four daughters
Muhammad vs. the Quraysh
• Why do they not like Muhammad?
– He is a threat to their status
• As a result of their disdain for him, what happens?
– The Hijra – 622 CE Muhammad and his followers to
Medina because of Quraysh threat
– 622 – 632 Known as the Medina Years
• What happens in 630?
– Muhammad and his 1000s followers to Mecca to retake
city
• Converts gained along the way
– Makes Ka’ba a monotheistic center
– Overtime, many Arab people convert to Islam
– Some people convert out of faith and some convert out
of seeing that Muhammad will “win”
• 632 – Muhammad dies
The Clash Commences
• Following Muhammad’s death, who is the clear
successor?
– No one
– People disagree as to who should lead
• Who are the possible leaders to follow?
– Ali – Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law
– Quraysh tribe – some feel they should be in power
because they had it before
– Abu Bakr – one of the 1st followers, suffered along with
Muhammad
• Abu Bakr emerges
5 Pillars of Islam
5 pillars of Islam
Shahadah
Salat
Saum
Hajj
Zakat
Profession of Faith
Prayer
Observance of Ramadan
Pilgrimage
Alms Giving
2.5%
1 god Allah &
Muhammad is his prophet
5 times a day
Fast of 1 month
Sunup to sundown
To Mecca
Set percentage of income
(Monotheism)
Face Mecca/Ka'b a
Suspension of violence,
sex, drinking of alcohol...
At least once in life
(if you can afford it)
What’s in a Name?
The difference between Islam and Muslim
• Islam
• The name of the
Religion
• Good Usage
– Muhammad founded
Islam
• Bad Usage
– He is an Islam
• Muslim
• A follower of the
religion or a part of
the religion of Islam
• Good Usage
– He established a
Muslim empire
• Bad Usage
– Muhammad founded
Muslim
Muslim Caliphates
The Umayyad and Abbasid
Abraham
Ismail
Adnan
Quraiysh
Qussaiy
Abdmanaf
Abdshams
Hashem
Adbelmuttalib
(Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas
Muhammad
Ummayah Dynasty
(661-750)
Abulahab Alhareth
Ali
Abbbassides Dynasty
(750-1258)
Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750
• Capital: Political center of Islam changed from
•
Mecca to Damascus
Mainly Arab city
• Focus: Principle concern was expansion of Islam
– Umayyad conquests brought material wealth to the caliphate
• Government: Mu’awiyah adopted Byzantine administrative practices
• Authoritarian
• Navy Founded
•
•
Bureaucracy isolated themselves from the general public
Saw themselves as “shadows of God on earth”
• Problems:
•
•
•
•
The Arab focus as emphasized by the Umayyad ruling elite caused dissension
The ruling elite equated Islam with Arab descent
Mawali (Non-Arab Muslims) were discriminated against
This ultimately contributed to the downfall of the caliphate and the rise of the
Abbasids
Pact of Umar: Rights of non-Muslims (dhimmi)
Abbasid Caliphate 750 - 1258
• Capital: moved to the new city of Baghdad
•
•
•
•
•
Population of 1 million in 9th Century
Became a center of trade and intellectual thought
Revived Greek classics
Arabic became the language of science and diplomacy
Religious tolerance flourished
}
Opposite of Europe
• Focus: Conquest was not stressed as it was in the Umayyad Caliphate
•
Came to power via shi’ite support but eventually changed to sunni
• The new stress was on development of administrative institutions, commercial
enterprise and a legal system
• Higher members of society were no longer warriors but now bureaucrats,
merchants, and judges
• Abandoned the Arab exclusivity
• Adopted a policy of Muslim equality
• The number of converts increased as conquered peoples now saw this as an
advantage
Abbasid Caliphate (cont’d)
• Government: First 150 years were marked by political stability
•
•
•
•
and prosperity (Abbasid Empire)
Placed political power in the hands of an absolute monarch
This worked until 945
At this time, regional dynasties with governors who reported to
Baghdad developed and took some of the power away from the
absolute rule of the Abbasid Caliphate
Examples: Delhi, Ghazna, Cairo, and Cordoba
• Problems:
• Power of empire was diminished
• 1258 – Abbasid Caliphate falls when Baghdad was sacked by the
Hugalu’s Mongol forces
Islam
Role of Women
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Islam and the world view
The Quran and women
Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance
Pre-Islam – women rights and slavery
Female infanticide
Waiting Period between separation and divorce
Inheritance Rights and economic status
Intellectually =
Man’s responsibilities vs Woman’s
Consultation for marriage
May obtain a divorce
Hijab
•
Islam is seen as oppressive because it is interpreted by our standards OR by
the media
– CNN
•
•
•
The Quran was intended to improve women’s status
Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance
Pre-Islam – women were bought and sold
– PROHIBITED!
•
•
Female infanticide ended because of the Quran
Waiting Period between separation and divorce
– Pregnancy, 3 months to work out differences
• Women were granted rights regarding
inheritance and economic status
– What she earns is hers (if she works) but what a man
earns is for the whole family
• Intellectually, women are equal
• The man is responsible for taking care of both
the children and his wife
– Her duty is to respect him
• Consultation for marriage
• May obtain a divorce
• Hijab (head covering/modesty) – required based
upon respect. Get to know them as the person
they are and not as how they look.
Islam
Islam’s Emergence as a power
and
The Shi’ite Sunni Split 680 CE
History of the Split
•
•
Power struggle following Muhammad’s death
The emergence of a caliph
•
Prominent Caliphs
– Successor to the prophet
– Head of the universal Islamic community
–
–
–
–
Abu Bakr – worked to restore breakaway tribes
Umar – worked to stop raiding of tribes from Byzantium and Sassanian Iran
Uthman – murdered by mutinous arabs
Ali – wanted to encourage = and chosen by many (believed to be preferred by M)
–
Becomes the caliph but it is challenged by Mu’awiya (EVENTUALLY MURDERED)
–
Rightly guided caliphs
» Personally connected to Muhammad
• These 4 are known at the rashidun
•
First 100 years
–
–
–
–
Reached India(East), Spain (West), North Africa
Most of the areas remain Muslim until 15th century
Not a big emphasis on conversions because Islam was an Arab religion
Mu’awiya – felt since Uthman was of his tribe, he was to be next Caliph
•
The meet in battle. ALI almost wins but M’s troops want to make a deal
–
Ali loses support for this action
• Umayyad Caliphate
– Differences between Mua and Ali – Fight and M’s troops put Koran's on spears. Ali
accepts arbitration. (M wouldve lost and seen as a weak move) but not what Ali
sees. Two negotiate (Ali rep – Abu Musa M – Amar. Decide that neither leaders
hsould rep and annoucne byt
The Split: The Role of
Husayn
• Mu’awiyah succeeded by his son
• Ali’s son (Husayn)faced Yazid I in the
Battle of Karbala
– Convinced to engage in battle by partisans (aka
shi’a)
– Shi’a claim he agreed and was motovated by his
desire to return Islam to a more pure form (non
secular)
• Martyrdom
– Husayn was killed and became a martyr
• This event was a symbol of the struggle for justice
and oppression of the Muham’s fam
Shi’ite
• Belief in religious purity
• Only descendents of Ali could be the imam or
rightful caliph
– Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law
• The first 11 caliphs were assassinated
• The 11th imam’s son disappeared and the
hereditary line ended (Muhammad al-Madhi)
• After this time, “twelver” Shi’ism began Leader
was divine
• They are looking forward to the appearance of the
madhi or the “rightly guided one”
• One of the largest holidays is the commemoration
of Husayn’s death on which people publicly weep
and flagellate themselves
Shi’ite
• Accounts for 16% of Islam
• Location
– mainly in Iran, Iraq and some in Pakistan and India
• Religious purity
– Wanted a caliph who represented Islam’s religious
interest and not imperial expansion
• ISLAM IS A RELIGION
Sunni
• Leader was pious but not a religious
figure
• Followers of the Prophet
• 83% of Islam
• look more to the letter of Koran
• Imam is an elected or chosen official
• ISLAM IS A WAY OF LIFE
Sunni – Shi’ite Differences
• Difference of Beliefs
– Conflict
• View of Allah – Sunni believe that Allah has a
“spiritual body” (people are not capable of
understanding his power)
• Shi’ite see Allah as a spiritual presence
• Shi’ite also see Ali and Fatima’s words as holy
• Sunni see ONLY Mohammad's as holy (others
are guidance but not holy)
• Shi’ite – Look more to the interpretation of
the Koran (the hidden meaning al-baten) while
Sunni take only what is written
Sufism
• Islamic mysticism
• Renounced worldly goods
• Dedicate themselves to prayer and
meditation in an effort to emulate the
prophet
• Many Muslims were against this but it led
to mass conversions
– Highly controversial in places like Afghanistan
under Taliban where it was outlawed
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board,
which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Modified by Ben Needle
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
• I. The Islamic Heartlands in the
Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
II. An Age of Learning and
Artistic Refinements
III. The Coming of Islam to South
Asia
IV. The Spread of Islam to
Southeast Asia
• I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
• Abbasid empire weakened, 9th-13th centuries - peasant revolts
• Al-Mahdi (775-785)
•
Shi-a unreconciled
The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak
•
succession not secure
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and
Late Abbasid Eras
A. Imperial Extravagance and Succession
Disputes
Harun al-Rashid
son of al-Mahdi
The Thousand and One Nights
Barmicides
Persian advisors
death followed by civil war
al-Ma'mun
B. Imperial Breakdown &
Agrarian Disorder
Civil unrest
Caliphs build lavishly
tax burden increases
agriculture suffers
The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and
Late Abbasid Eras
C. The Declining Position of Women in the
Family and Society
Seclusion, veil
Polygyny
D. Nomadic Incursions and the Eclipse of
Caliphal Power
Former provinces threaten Abbasids
Buyids, Persia
take Baghdad, 945
Sultans
Seljuk Turks
1055, defeat Buyids
Sunnis
Shi'a purges, defeat Byzantines, Egypt
E. The Impact of the Christian Crusades
1096, Western European Christian
knights
small kingdoms established
Muslims retake lands under Saladin
Last lands recovered in 1291
The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements
Urban growth
Merchants thrive
A. The Full Flowering of Persian Literature
Persian the court language
administration, literature
Persian was seen as a supple and
beautiful language
•
Arabic in religion, law, sciences
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calligraphy
Firdawsi – greatest Persian poet
Shah-Nama
epic poem
Sa'di
Omar Kayyan
Rubaiyat
• II. An Age of Learning and Artistic
Refinements
• B. Achievements in the Sciences
•
Math
•
build on Greek work
•
Chemistry
•
experiments
•
Al-Razi
•
Al-Biruni
•
specific weights
•
•
•
Medicine
hospitals
courses of study
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
C. Religious Trends and the New Push for
Expansion
Sufis
mysticism
Ulama – highly educated muslim scholars
conservative
against outside influence
Greek philosophy rejected
Qur'an sufficient
Al-Ghazali - sufi
synthesis of Greek, Qur'anic ideas
opposed by orthodoxy
pioneers being skeptical in thought
D. New Waves of Nomadic Invasions and the
End of the Caliphate
Mongols
Chinggis Khan
Hulegu
1258, Baghdad falls
last Abbasid killed
• III. The Coming of Islam to South
Asia
• A. Political Divisions and the First
Muslim Invasions
• First Muslims as traders, 8th
century
•
attacks lead to invasion
•
• Muhammad ibn Qasim
•
Umayyad general
•
takes Sind, Indus valleys
•
Indians treated as dhimmi
•
• B. Indian Influences on Islamic
Civilization
• Math, medicine, music,
astronomy
• India influences Arab
The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia
C. From Booty to Empire: The Second Wave of Muslim Invasions
10th century, Turkish dynasty established in Afghanistan
Mahmud of Ghazni
begins invasion of India
Ruled Ghaznavid Empire from 997 until his death
Muhammad of Ghur
Persian
state in Indus valley
thence to Bengal
his lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak
forms state at Delhi
Delhi sultanate rules for 300 years
D. Patterns of Conversion
Converts especially among Buddhists, lower castes, untouchables
also conversion to escape taxes
Muslims fleeing Mongols, 13th, 14th centuries
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia
E. Patterns of Accommodation
High-caste Hindus remain apart
Muslims also often fail to integrate
F. Islamic Challenge and Hindu Revival
Bhakti
devotional cults
emotional approach
caste distinctions dissolved
Shiva, Vishnu, Kali especially important
Mira Bai, Kabir,
songs in regional languages
G. Stand-off: The Muslim Presence in India
at the End of the Sultanate Period
•
•
Brahmins v. ulama
> separate communities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IV. The Spread of Islam to Southeast
Asia
Shrivijaya
A. Trading Contacts and Conversion
Trading leads to peaceful conversion
Sufis important
starting with Sumatran ports
Malacca
thence to Malaya, Sumatra, Demak
(Java)
Coastal cities especially receptive
Buddhist elites, but population
converts to Islam
•
•
•
•
B. Sufi Mystics and the Nature of
Southeast Asian Islam
Important mystical strain
Women in a stronger position
matrilineal
The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries
Africa During the Post classical Period
African Kingdom Similarities and Differences
• Common Elements in
African Societies
• Bantu migration
• Animism
• lineage important in
relation with god
• The Christian
Kingdoms: Nubia and
Ethiopia
Copts
• Egyptian Christians
• spread to Nubia (Kush)
• The Arrival of Islam in
North Africa
• Arrival of Islam (Spain,
by 711)
• Berber Almoravids
• Almohads
•
succeed Berbers, 12th
century
• Ethiopia
•
Empires of Africa
• Kingdoms of the
Grasslands
• Caravans
• Sahel - transfer point
• Mansa Kankan Musa
• Sudanic States
• Rulers sacred
• Islam
•
The Empire of Mali
• Malinke peoples from Ghana
• Agriculture, gold trade
• Sundiata (d.1260)
– the “Lion Prince”
• mansa (ruler)
• expanded state
– pilgrimage
– Ishal al-Sahili (Sp.
Architect)
– beaten clay architecture
Empires of the Western Sudan
African Kingdoms
• City Dwellers and
Villagers
• Jenne, Timbuktu
• thrive with
expansion
• Some merchants
– Religious
diffusion?
• Majority farmers
• The Songhay Kingdom (Capital:
Gao)
• Middle Niger valley
• Independent by 700
• Muslim by 1010
•
Sunni Ali (1464-1492)
•
Hausa states, northern Nigeria
• Muslim center
• Political and Social Life in the
Sudanic States
• Fusion of traditions
Swahili Coast
• The Swahili Coast of East Africa
• Trading ports
– Muslim influence
– Cultural diffusion and synthesis
• The Coastal Trading Ports
(*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi,
Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar)
– Don’t need to know, just be familiar
• Madagascar
– SEA imports
• Blended culture
The Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast (cont’d)
• The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili
Coast
•
Islam unifies
• Other Characteristics
• Egalitarian/homogenous to
cosmopolitan/diverse
• Key Exports & Imports
• Two distinct “trading seasons”
• Connection to China?
– When did this exchange with China end?
Africa During the Post classical Period
African Kingdom Similarities and Differences
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Common Elements in African
Societies
Bantu migration
one language base
Animism
cosmology
ethical code
lineage important in relation
with god
The Arrival of Islam in North
Africa
Part of Mediterranean
Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711)
Berber Almoravids
western Sahara, assist
conversion
Almohads
succeed Berbers, 12th
century
•
•
•
•
The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia
and Ethiopia
Copts
Egyptian Christians
welcome Muslims
spread to Nubia (Kush)
•
•
•
Ethiopia
heirs to Axum
King Lalibela
Empires of Africa
• II. Kingdoms of the
Grasslands
• Caravans across Sahara
• Sahel (grasslands)
•
transfer point
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A. Sudanic States
Rulers sacred
Islam
from 900s
supports state
B. The Empire of Mali and
Sundiata, the “Lion Prince”
Malinke peoples from Ghana
Agriculture, gold trade
Sundiata (d.1260)
mansa (ruler)
expanded state
• Mansa Kankan Musa
– pilgrimage to Mecca
• Floods land with gold
– brings back Ishal al-Sahili
– architect from Muslim
Spain
– beaten clay architecture
Empires of the Western Sudan
African Kingdoms
• City Dwellers and
Villagers
• Jenne, Timbuktu
• thrive with expansion
of Mali, Songhay
Mandinka juula
• Some merchants
– Religious diffusion?
• Farmers the majority
• The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao)
• Middle Niger valley
• Independent by 700
•
Muslim by 1010
•
Sunni Ali (1464-1492)
•
expanded territory
•
successors: askia
•
Defeated by Morocco, 1591
•
Hausa states, northern Nigeria
•
Kano becomes Muslim center
• E. Political and Social Life in the Sudanic
States
•
Fusion of Muslim, indigenous
traditions
Swahili Coast
• The Swahili Coast of East Africa
• Trading ports
– Muslim influence strong
– Rest of population remains traditional
– Significangt cultural diffusion and synthesis
• The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*, Mombasa,
Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar)
– Don’t need to know, just be familiar
• Madagascar
– southeast Asian immigrants, bring bananas, coconuts
• Blended culture
–
–
–
–
Bantu, Islamic
Swahili
spreads along coast
trade with Asia
The Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast (cont’d)
• The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili
Coast
•
Islam unifies along with Swahili
• Other Characteristics
• Egalitarian and homogenous to cosmopolitan
and diverse
• Key Exports
– Ivory, gold, iron, slaves, exotic animals
• Key Imports
– Textiles, Silks, porcelain (China and India)
• When during the year did this take place?
– Two distinct “trading seasons”
• What was the connection between the Swahili
Coast and China?
• When did this exchange with China end?
Descargar

Pre-Islam Arabia