Pre-Islam Arabia What was this region like? • • • • Population: Sparse Gender Structure: Patriarchal Cities were centered around… trade and religion What role did Mecca play in this region? • Commercial center – many of the goods in the region moved through this city • Religious Center – Ka’ba – Center of an polytheistic religion – Site of annual pilgrimage during which warfare was suspended • Religion and trade made some people very rich – Quraysh tribe • Settled city and dominated religiously and politically Who was Muhammad? • • • • Born 570 Orphaned at age 2 and raised by uncle Abu Talib As a young man, worked in caravan trade Married a wealthy Widow – Khadijah – With her supporting him, he could spend much of his time meditating – Lived an ordinary life until • “The Night of Power” – The angel Gabriel came to see him and Allah speaks to him through Gabriel. – Muhammad memorizes what will later become the suras of the Koran • Many wives, four daughters Muhammad vs. the Quraysh • Why do they not like Muhammad? – He is a threat to their status • As a result of their disdain for him, what happens? – The Hijra – 622 CE Muhammad and his followers to Medina because of Quraysh threat – 622 – 632 Known as the Medina Years • What happens in 630? – Muhammad and his 1000s followers to Mecca to retake city • Converts gained along the way – Makes Ka’ba a monotheistic center – Overtime, many Arab people convert to Islam – Some people convert out of faith and some convert out of seeing that Muhammad will “win” • 632 – Muhammad dies The Clash Commences • Following Muhammad’s death, who is the clear successor? – No one – People disagree as to who should lead • Who are the possible leaders to follow? – Ali – Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law – Quraysh tribe – some feel they should be in power because they had it before – Abu Bakr – one of the 1st followers, suffered along with Muhammad • Abu Bakr emerges 5 Pillars of Islam 5 pillars of Islam Shahadah Salat Saum Hajj Zakat Profession of Faith Prayer Observance of Ramadan Pilgrimage Alms Giving 2.5% 1 god Allah & Muhammad is his prophet 5 times a day Fast of 1 month Sunup to sundown To Mecca Set percentage of income (Monotheism) Face Mecca/Ka'b a Suspension of violence, sex, drinking of alcohol... At least once in life (if you can afford it) What’s in a Name? The difference between Islam and Muslim • Islam • The name of the Religion • Good Usage – Muhammad founded Islam • Bad Usage – He is an Islam • Muslim • A follower of the religion or a part of the religion of Islam • Good Usage – He established a Muslim empire • Bad Usage – Muhammad founded Muslim Muslim Caliphates The Umayyad and Abbasid Abraham Ismail Adnan Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem Adbelmuttalib (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Muhammad Ummayah Dynasty (661-750) Abulahab Alhareth Ali Abbbassides Dynasty (750-1258) Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750 • Capital: Political center of Islam changed from • Mecca to Damascus Mainly Arab city • Focus: Principle concern was expansion of Islam – Umayyad conquests brought material wealth to the caliphate • Government: Mu’awiyah adopted Byzantine administrative practices • Authoritarian • Navy Founded • • Bureaucracy isolated themselves from the general public Saw themselves as “shadows of God on earth” • Problems: • • • • The Arab focus as emphasized by the Umayyad ruling elite caused dissension The ruling elite equated Islam with Arab descent Mawali (Non-Arab Muslims) were discriminated against This ultimately contributed to the downfall of the caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids Pact of Umar: Rights of non-Muslims (dhimmi) Abbasid Caliphate 750 - 1258 • Capital: moved to the new city of Baghdad • • • • • Population of 1 million in 9th Century Became a center of trade and intellectual thought Revived Greek classics Arabic became the language of science and diplomacy Religious tolerance flourished } Opposite of Europe • Focus: Conquest was not stressed as it was in the Umayyad Caliphate • Came to power via shi’ite support but eventually changed to sunni • The new stress was on development of administrative institutions, commercial enterprise and a legal system • Higher members of society were no longer warriors but now bureaucrats, merchants, and judges • Abandoned the Arab exclusivity • Adopted a policy of Muslim equality • The number of converts increased as conquered peoples now saw this as an advantage Abbasid Caliphate (cont’d) • Government: First 150 years were marked by political stability • • • • and prosperity (Abbasid Empire) Placed political power in the hands of an absolute monarch This worked until 945 At this time, regional dynasties with governors who reported to Baghdad developed and took some of the power away from the absolute rule of the Abbasid Caliphate Examples: Delhi, Ghazna, Cairo, and Cordoba • Problems: • Power of empire was diminished • 1258 – Abbasid Caliphate falls when Baghdad was sacked by the Hugalu’s Mongol forces Islam Role of Women • • • • • • • • • • • • Islam and the world view The Quran and women Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance Pre-Islam – women rights and slavery Female infanticide Waiting Period between separation and divorce Inheritance Rights and economic status Intellectually = Man’s responsibilities vs Woman’s Consultation for marriage May obtain a divorce Hijab • Islam is seen as oppressive because it is interpreted by our standards OR by the media – CNN • • • The Quran was intended to improve women’s status Marriage, Divorce, Inheritance Pre-Islam – women were bought and sold – PROHIBITED! • • Female infanticide ended because of the Quran Waiting Period between separation and divorce – Pregnancy, 3 months to work out differences • Women were granted rights regarding inheritance and economic status – What she earns is hers (if she works) but what a man earns is for the whole family • Intellectually, women are equal • The man is responsible for taking care of both the children and his wife – Her duty is to respect him • Consultation for marriage • May obtain a divorce • Hijab (head covering/modesty) – required based upon respect. Get to know them as the person they are and not as how they look. Islam Islam’s Emergence as a power and The Shi’ite Sunni Split 680 CE History of the Split • • Power struggle following Muhammad’s death The emergence of a caliph • Prominent Caliphs – Successor to the prophet – Head of the universal Islamic community – – – – Abu Bakr – worked to restore breakaway tribes Umar – worked to stop raiding of tribes from Byzantium and Sassanian Iran Uthman – murdered by mutinous arabs Ali – wanted to encourage = and chosen by many (believed to be preferred by M) – Becomes the caliph but it is challenged by Mu’awiya (EVENTUALLY MURDERED) – Rightly guided caliphs » Personally connected to Muhammad • These 4 are known at the rashidun • First 100 years – – – – Reached India(East), Spain (West), North Africa Most of the areas remain Muslim until 15th century Not a big emphasis on conversions because Islam was an Arab religion Mu’awiya – felt since Uthman was of his tribe, he was to be next Caliph • The meet in battle. ALI almost wins but M’s troops want to make a deal – Ali loses support for this action • Umayyad Caliphate – Differences between Mua and Ali – Fight and M’s troops put Koran's on spears. Ali accepts arbitration. (M wouldve lost and seen as a weak move) but not what Ali sees. Two negotiate (Ali rep – Abu Musa M – Amar. Decide that neither leaders hsould rep and annoucne byt The Split: The Role of Husayn • Mu’awiyah succeeded by his son • Ali’s son (Husayn)faced Yazid I in the Battle of Karbala – Convinced to engage in battle by partisans (aka shi’a) – Shi’a claim he agreed and was motovated by his desire to return Islam to a more pure form (non secular) • Martyrdom – Husayn was killed and became a martyr • This event was a symbol of the struggle for justice and oppression of the Muham’s fam Shi’ite • Belief in religious purity • Only descendents of Ali could be the imam or rightful caliph – Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law • The first 11 caliphs were assassinated • The 11th imam’s son disappeared and the hereditary line ended (Muhammad al-Madhi) • After this time, “twelver” Shi’ism began Leader was divine • They are looking forward to the appearance of the madhi or the “rightly guided one” • One of the largest holidays is the commemoration of Husayn’s death on which people publicly weep and flagellate themselves Shi’ite • Accounts for 16% of Islam • Location – mainly in Iran, Iraq and some in Pakistan and India • Religious purity – Wanted a caliph who represented Islam’s religious interest and not imperial expansion • ISLAM IS A RELIGION Sunni • Leader was pious but not a religious figure • Followers of the Prophet • 83% of Islam • look more to the letter of Koran • Imam is an elected or chosen official • ISLAM IS A WAY OF LIFE Sunni – Shi’ite Differences • Difference of Beliefs – Conflict • View of Allah – Sunni believe that Allah has a “spiritual body” (people are not capable of understanding his power) • Shi’ite see Allah as a spiritual presence • Shi’ite also see Ali and Fatima’s words as holy • Sunni see ONLY Mohammad's as holy (others are guidance but not holy) • Shi’ite – Look more to the interpretation of the Koran (the hidden meaning al-baten) while Sunni take only what is written Sufism • Islamic mysticism • Renounced worldly goods • Dedicate themselves to prayer and meditation in an effort to emulate the prophet • Many Muslims were against this but it led to mass conversions – Highly controversial in places like Afghanistan under Taliban where it was outlawed *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. Modified by Ben Needle Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia IV. The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras • Abbasid empire weakened, 9th-13th centuries - peasant revolts • Al-Mahdi (775-785) • Shi-a unreconciled The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak • succession not secure • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras A. Imperial Extravagance and Succession Disputes Harun al-Rashid son of al-Mahdi The Thousand and One Nights Barmicides Persian advisors death followed by civil war al-Ma'mun B. Imperial Breakdown & Agrarian Disorder Civil unrest Caliphs build lavishly tax burden increases agriculture suffers The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras C. The Declining Position of Women in the Family and Society Seclusion, veil Polygyny D. Nomadic Incursions and the Eclipse of Caliphal Power Former provinces threaten Abbasids Buyids, Persia take Baghdad, 945 Sultans Seljuk Turks 1055, defeat Buyids Sunnis Shi'a purges, defeat Byzantines, Egypt E. The Impact of the Christian Crusades 1096, Western European Christian knights small kingdoms established Muslims retake lands under Saladin Last lands recovered in 1291 The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak • • • • • • • II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements Urban growth Merchants thrive A. The Full Flowering of Persian Literature Persian the court language administration, literature Persian was seen as a supple and beautiful language • Arabic in religion, law, sciences • • • • • • • • Calligraphy Firdawsi – greatest Persian poet Shah-Nama epic poem Sa'di Omar Kayyan Rubaiyat • II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements • B. Achievements in the Sciences • Math • build on Greek work • Chemistry • experiments • Al-Razi • Al-Biruni • specific weights • • • Medicine hospitals courses of study • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • C. Religious Trends and the New Push for Expansion Sufis mysticism Ulama – highly educated muslim scholars conservative against outside influence Greek philosophy rejected Qur'an sufficient Al-Ghazali - sufi synthesis of Greek, Qur'anic ideas opposed by orthodoxy pioneers being skeptical in thought D. New Waves of Nomadic Invasions and the End of the Caliphate Mongols Chinggis Khan Hulegu 1258, Baghdad falls last Abbasid killed • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia • A. Political Divisions and the First Muslim Invasions • First Muslims as traders, 8th century • attacks lead to invasion • • Muhammad ibn Qasim • Umayyad general • takes Sind, Indus valleys • Indians treated as dhimmi • • B. Indian Influences on Islamic Civilization • Math, medicine, music, astronomy • India influences Arab The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia C. From Booty to Empire: The Second Wave of Muslim Invasions 10th century, Turkish dynasty established in Afghanistan Mahmud of Ghazni begins invasion of India Ruled Ghaznavid Empire from 997 until his death Muhammad of Ghur Persian state in Indus valley thence to Bengal his lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak forms state at Delhi Delhi sultanate rules for 300 years D. Patterns of Conversion Converts especially among Buddhists, lower castes, untouchables also conversion to escape taxes Muslims fleeing Mongols, 13th, 14th centuries • • • • • • • • • • • • • • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia E. Patterns of Accommodation High-caste Hindus remain apart Muslims also often fail to integrate F. Islamic Challenge and Hindu Revival Bhakti devotional cults emotional approach caste distinctions dissolved Shiva, Vishnu, Kali especially important Mira Bai, Kabir, songs in regional languages G. Stand-off: The Muslim Presence in India at the End of the Sultanate Period • • Brahmins v. ulama > separate communities • • • • • • • • • • IV. The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia Shrivijaya A. Trading Contacts and Conversion Trading leads to peaceful conversion Sufis important starting with Sumatran ports Malacca thence to Malaya, Sumatra, Demak (Java) Coastal cities especially receptive Buddhist elites, but population converts to Islam • • • • B. Sufi Mystics and the Nature of Southeast Asian Islam Important mystical strain Women in a stronger position matrilineal The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries Africa During the Post classical Period African Kingdom Similarities and Differences • Common Elements in African Societies • Bantu migration • Animism • lineage important in relation with god • The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia Copts • Egyptian Christians • spread to Nubia (Kush) • The Arrival of Islam in North Africa • Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711) • Berber Almoravids • Almohads • succeed Berbers, 12th century • Ethiopia • Empires of Africa • Kingdoms of the Grasslands • Caravans • Sahel - transfer point • Mansa Kankan Musa • Sudanic States • Rulers sacred • Islam • The Empire of Mali • Malinke peoples from Ghana • Agriculture, gold trade • Sundiata (d.1260) – the “Lion Prince” • mansa (ruler) • expanded state – pilgrimage – Ishal al-Sahili (Sp. Architect) – beaten clay architecture Empires of the Western Sudan African Kingdoms • City Dwellers and Villagers • Jenne, Timbuktu • thrive with expansion • Some merchants – Religious diffusion? • Majority farmers • The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao) • Middle Niger valley • Independent by 700 • Muslim by 1010 • Sunni Ali (1464-1492) • Hausa states, northern Nigeria • Muslim center • Political and Social Life in the Sudanic States • Fusion of traditions Swahili Coast • The Swahili Coast of East Africa • Trading ports – Muslim influence – Cultural diffusion and synthesis • The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar) – Don’t need to know, just be familiar • Madagascar – SEA imports • Blended culture The Swahili Coast Swahili Coast (cont’d) • The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili Coast • Islam unifies • Other Characteristics • Egalitarian/homogenous to cosmopolitan/diverse • Key Exports & Imports • Two distinct “trading seasons” • Connection to China? – When did this exchange with China end? Africa During the Post classical Period African Kingdom Similarities and Differences • • • • • • • • • • • • • Common Elements in African Societies Bantu migration one language base Animism cosmology ethical code lineage important in relation with god The Arrival of Islam in North Africa Part of Mediterranean Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711) Berber Almoravids western Sahara, assist conversion Almohads succeed Berbers, 12th century • • • • The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia Copts Egyptian Christians welcome Muslims spread to Nubia (Kush) • • • Ethiopia heirs to Axum King Lalibela Empires of Africa • II. Kingdoms of the Grasslands • Caravans across Sahara • Sahel (grasslands) • transfer point • • • • • • • • • • • A. Sudanic States Rulers sacred Islam from 900s supports state B. The Empire of Mali and Sundiata, the “Lion Prince” Malinke peoples from Ghana Agriculture, gold trade Sundiata (d.1260) mansa (ruler) expanded state • Mansa Kankan Musa – pilgrimage to Mecca • Floods land with gold – brings back Ishal al-Sahili – architect from Muslim Spain – beaten clay architecture Empires of the Western Sudan African Kingdoms • City Dwellers and Villagers • Jenne, Timbuktu • thrive with expansion of Mali, Songhay Mandinka juula • Some merchants – Religious diffusion? • Farmers the majority • The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao) • Middle Niger valley • Independent by 700 • Muslim by 1010 • Sunni Ali (1464-1492) • expanded territory • successors: askia • Defeated by Morocco, 1591 • Hausa states, northern Nigeria • Kano becomes Muslim center • E. Political and Social Life in the Sudanic States • Fusion of Muslim, indigenous traditions Swahili Coast • The Swahili Coast of East Africa • Trading ports – Muslim influence strong – Rest of population remains traditional – Significangt cultural diffusion and synthesis • The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar) – Don’t need to know, just be familiar • Madagascar – southeast Asian immigrants, bring bananas, coconuts • Blended culture – – – – Bantu, Islamic Swahili spreads along coast trade with Asia The Swahili Coast Swahili Coast (cont’d) • The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili Coast • Islam unifies along with Swahili • Other Characteristics • Egalitarian and homogenous to cosmopolitan and diverse • Key Exports – Ivory, gold, iron, slaves, exotic animals • Key Imports – Textiles, Silks, porcelain (China and India) • When during the year did this take place? – Two distinct “trading seasons” • What was the connection between the Swahili Coast and China? • When did this exchange with China end?