The Rise of Islam
600 C.E. -1200’s C.E.
Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
The Eastern Mediterranean
By this time,The lands of Rome had been overtaken by the
Goths and Vandals and the East Roman Empire (Byzantine)
was spreading its influence into northern territories.
The Sasanid Empire (224-600 C.E.), which was led by
warrior elites, main purpose was to serve as military
strongpoints protecting long distance trade. The Silk
Road brought many new crops to Mesopotamia and the
Sasanid’s again reestablished Zoroastrianism as the faith
of the empire. 2nd Persian Empire
The proclamations of both Zoroastrianism and
Christianity as official faiths marked the emergence of
religion as an instrument of politics both within and
between empires.
This politicization of religion greatly affected the
culture of the Silk Road and would shape governments
to follow.
The Byzantine Empire
During the Reign of Justinian
Trade Routes of the Ancient World
Islam emerges
Bedouin Arab named Mohammed
born ca. 570 A.D.
Merchant family, Hasimites
Qurayshis tribe, who dominate Mecca
– controlling much of the religious
pilgrim trade
raised by relatives
-father and mother died by age six
-raised by an impoverished uncle
formal education ?? We don’t
–Normally only the Poets of the
Tribes could read and write
commercial agent for a wealthy
– Khadijah
– supervising caravans from Mecca, north
to Jerusalem
– contact with both Jews and Christians
Mohammed, con’t
He seems to have made an impression on his
boss, because of his reputed honesty
– married her and retired from commerce
– to devote himself to religion
– and to making society more fair and
Mohammed, con’t
monogamous until his wife died
eventually married nine wives and
had assorted concubines
last marriage at 53 to Aishah,
daughter of a friend
wives: widows of friends or political
• Women alone in such a world were
considered very vulnerable
Origins of Mohammed’s
periods of unconsciousness are indicated:
– revelations from Allah by holy trances, spoken
to by Gabriel
– epilepsy or a similar neurological
– mental illness or hallucinations ?
Mohammed’s explanation:
– revelations from God
– Very unpleasant and painful for him
The Quran
Record of revelations received
during visions
Committed to writing c. 650 CE,
compiled (Muhammad dies 632)
–Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn
Tradition of Muhammad’s life:
Historical Origins of
His Ideas
Arab polytheism
Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to
Abraham, by tradition
Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian,
Manichaeism: a mixture of Zoroastrianism,
Christianity, Judaism, and so forth
Beginning of His
at about age 40, after a number of
began to preach publicly
continued to receive revelations until
– usually related to current problems or
– Religious, political, social, economic
Early religious career
not particularly successful
threatened the social, political, and
religious structure, with his doctrine of
social equity
threatened the economic basis of Mecca as
a center of religious pilgrimage
particularly the Black Rock
– sacred to the chief deity of the Arabs
run out of town, or at least encouraged
to leave
– Went to the desert with his family and lived for
about a year
The Hijra
flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina)
-tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina
622 A.D.
beginning of the Islamic calendar
forms the umma (community)
welcomed, then resisted
Mohammed becomes an absolute theocrat
Muhammad’s Return to
Attack on Mecca, 630 -- jihad
Conversion of Mecca to Islam
Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with
– Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance
of Mecca
– Approved as pilgrimage site
holy war against Mecca
ten year blockade
a deal was made
The Deal
Mecca preserved as a holy city and place
of pilgrimage
– to preserve the economic prosperity
the Ka’aba preserved as the central shrine
– idols and icons destroyed
– story of its origins emphasized the role
of Abraham in its placement
– pilgrimage as an act of faith, at least
once in your life
The Ka’aba in
The Religion: the Koran
the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed
recounting of Allah’s teachings
written down by his followers after his death
– from notes and memories, on “stones and
Short: 114 chapters
– arranged from longest to the shortest
– not by subject or chronologically
– length is the criterion of order for the text
The Koran, con’t
some “Old” and “New” Testaments
– but sometimes the story seems a bit
different to Jews and Christians
parables and fables
political polemic and prophecy
“non-religious” subjects
– not dissimilar to Jewish and Christian
scriptures in some ways
Five Pillars of Islam
uniqueness of God
–‘There is no god, but God….’
prayer five times a day
observe the month of Ramadan
give alms to the poor
pilgrimage to Mecca
–If possible, once in your life
Additional teachings
dietary laws
no gambling or drinking
no sexual irregularities, as defined by
tradition and custom
no faulty weights or usury
no infanticide
elaborate rules concerning inheritance
and property
improvement in the status of women and
Changing Status of
Qu’ran improves status of women
– Outlawed female infanticide
– Brides, not husbands, claim dowries
Yet male dominance preserved
– Patrilineal descent
– Polygamy permitted, Polyandry
– Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian
Similarities to Judaism
and Christianity
monotheism (defined a bit differently)
insistence on the responsibility of human
final judgment and rewards
angels and spirits
practice of virtues: truthfulness,
compassion, etc.
an emphasis on compassion and mercy
alms giving moderate
heaven conceived a bit differently
no priests or sacramental system
easy conversion: the Shahadah
– ‘There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his
Islamic Law: The Sharia
Codification of Islamic law
Based on Quran, hadith, logical
schools of analysis
Extends beyond ritual law to
all areas of human activity
–This is the basis the idea of an
“Islamic republic” for instance
Expansion of Islam
early victories
backsliders (tribes) punished
–Apostasy = treason = death
assaults on:
–the Byzantine (East Roman) empire
–the Sassanid (Persian) Empire also
known as Eranshahr or “Empire of
the Aryans (Persians)”
Early Problems
Succession ?
– Mohammed had no surviving male children
– Daughter: Fatima
– Son-in-law: Ali, child of his uncle
generated a permanent split in the Islamic
– Sunnis
– Shi’as
Sunnis or “Sunnah”
considered themselves the “orthodox”
followers of Mohammed
consider the Shi’as to be “dissenters”
issue: who leads after Mohammed ??
the Caliph (or “leader”)
went successively to followers
-Abu Bakr, then Oman
-then Uthman and
Rahisdun Caliphate
The Islamic Empire
The Rashidun Caliphate ( ‫ )الخالفة الراشدية‬or
Rashidun Empire, was the first of the
four Arab caliphates.
It was controlled by the first four
successors of Muhammad, known as the
"Rightly Guided" caliphs.
Founded after Muhammad's death in 632,
the empire lasted until 'Ali's death in 661.
At its height, the power of the Rashidun
Caliphs extended throughout North
Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the
Iranian highlands.
Dome of the rock Begun
The Four Caliphs
- 632–634
- 634–644
- 644–656
- 656–661
Abu Bakr
Spread of Islam
Muslim Arab Victories
Syria: 635 A.D.
Palestine: 636 A.D.
Persia: captured in one battle
–expansion into India
–expansion to the borders of China
Egypt: help by local Christians
North Africa: the Berbers
Expansion and Defeat
Spain 711-720 A.D. (Franks)
Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D.
– Charles Martel (Carolingian Family)
Siege of Constantinople: 717-718
– Leo III of Byzantine Empire
– Greek fire
beginnings of Christian reconquest
of former Roman/Christian
territory (Holy Lands)
Reasons for success
exhaustion of Rome and Persia
– End of a 400 year war
nationalist sentiments in Egypt and Syria
arguments among Christian factions
speed and size of Muslim armies
simplicity and uncomplicated nature of
acceptance of the Old and New Testament
– People of the Book
Consequences of
loss of the oldest and most central lands
of Christendom
aided the ascendancy of the bishop of
virtual collapse of Zoroastrianism as a
major religion
radically altered the balance of power
between the Roman Empire and the East
disruption of the Mediterranean economic
Abu Bakr 632-634 [1st]
not particularly popular with
the Muslim community
allowed raid, then invasions of
Byzantine and Persian territory
subjugated any dissident
elements or tribes
disposed of any “new prophets”
Success = strain
success introduced luxury and change
– From original caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs
new ideas and new ethnic groups
– with their own customs and heritage, to
try to assimilate
rise of a sort of “revivalist element”
– Islam had strayed from its original path
and purity
– Muslims were being led back to paganism
– caliphs were becoming idle, corrupt,
Uthman 644-656 [3rd]
murdered: warfare broke out
Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed
originally passed over as too young
contested the succession
Uthman supported by the Umayyad clan
– early enemies of Mohammed
– refused to accept Ali’s claims
Ali 656-661 [4th]
Disagreements over selection of caliphs
Ali passed over for Abu Bakr [1st]
Ali would eventually serve as caliph from
656-661 CE, then he is assassinated along
with most of his followers
Remaining followers organize separate
party called “Shia”
– Traditionalists: Sunni
Islamic Caliphates
 Umayyad
7-8th Century
 Abbasid 8-13th Century
 Fatimid 11-13th Century
 Ottoman 15-20th Century
Umayyad Caliphate
successful in the war of succession
Ali assassinated in 661 A.D.
– by the Kharijites
beginning of the Umayyad Dynasty
Non-Muslim replaced by believers
and the Introduction of Arabic as
the language of government
Damascus then later Cordoba
Great Mosque at Cordoba
(Spain), eighth to tenth
Center of learning
Cordoba from Damascus/
Spanish Umayyads/ later
Abbasids controlled
Great Mosque of
Damascus (Syria),
Roman square
Left: Main entrance
to the prayer hall
of the Great
Mosque of
Below: Spandrel
mosaic from the
Great Mosque of
“Triumphal arch” mosaic from
the Great Mosque of
Policy toward
Conquered Peoples
Favoritism of Arab military
rulers causes discontent
Limited social mobility for nonArab Muslims
Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims
Umayyad luxurious living causes
further decline in moral
Dome of the Rock [Process]
Sunni and Shi’as dominant
originally political
–Eventually the differences became
dogmatic in emphasis
Shi’as become a party of
religious dissent
Sunni: conservative, in favor of
the “status quo”
–consensus is the guiding principle
Shi’as: defenders of the
oppressed, critics of privilege
and power
–obedience is required only as long
as it can be forced, and no longer
Umayyad Empire
Atlantic Ocean (Iberian ) to India
Syria: center of the Islamic World
Secular, monarchy?
Civil war between various Islamic
Eventually displaced by the Abbasids
and Fatimids [Saladin]
– an Arab family claiming decent from
Dome of the Rock,
Temple Mount Jerusalem
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Fatimid Dynasty
Fatimid Dynasty
Fatimid Empire
Arab Shia Empire eventually replacing
the Umayyad Empire in the Magreb, Egypt,
and the Levant
Founded the city of Cairo and
consolidated the Caliph. Islam was
briefly united under one caliph.
Promoted religious tolerance to Sunnis,
Jews, and Coptic Christians
Established a massive trade network in
the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and
East Asia during the Song Dynasty of
Fatimid Decline
Like elsewhere, the Fatimids gave select groups
governorship positions. These groups mainly the
Zirids in North Africa would eventually declare
themselves independent of the Fatimids.
Turkish invaders especially in the Levant and the
Crusaders would capture even more land.
For their political system, they had moved
toward military rule and eventually a nephew of
one of the generals, a man named Saladin would
take control
The Sunni Ayyubid Dynasty (Kurdish) under
Saladin would rule the lands of modern -day
Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and western Saudi Arabia.
Crusades had little effect on Fatimids and
Ayyubid Dynasties
Abbasid Caliphate
750 - 1258
Abbasid Dynasty
The Abbasid Dynasty
Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia,
non-Arab Muslims
Seizes control of the Levant, Persia and
Defeats Umayyad army in 750
– Invited Umayyads to banquet, then
massacred them
– Only Spain remains Umayyad
– North Africa is disputed territory,
ultimately Fatamid and later Ayyubid
under Saladin.
Nature of the Abbasid
Diverse nature of administration (i.e.
not exclusively Arab)
Militarily competent, but not bent on
imperial expansion
Dar al-Islam- House of Submission
which was all the lands ruled by
Islamic rule
Growth through military activity of
autonomous Islamic forces
Golden Age of Islam-Cauldron of
Abbasid Decline
Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid
Provincial governors assert regional
Dissenting sects, heretical movements
Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian
Later, Seljuk Turks influence, Sultan real
power behind the throne
Almost all of their buildings are now lost
to time
Rise of the Turks
Seljuks to the Delhi
Turkish Migrations
Consolidation of Tang Dynasty (7th-8th
C) pushes nomadic peoples of inner Asia
westward just like the Han did to the
Huns and others
Nomadic peoples begin to convert to
Islam as a result of contact with Muslim
scholars and mystics
The Turkish-speaking people gained
control of Bukkara and Samarqand and
began to sponsor the development of the
Turkish language and a Turkish-Islamic
Turkish Migrations
One of the Turkish-speaking groups
was the Seljuks who entered
Central Asia and conquered
Afghanistan and Iran.
The Seljuks defeated the Abbasid
Caliph but left them on the throne
and ruled in their name.
They titled themselves sultans,
claiming authority over the secular
side of government while leaving the
administration of religious affairs in
the hands of the caliph.
Assault from within and
The role played by Turkish Mamluks in the
decline of Abbasid power established an
enduring stereotype of the Turk as a
ferocious, unsophisticated warrior.
The Sunni Seljuks would go onto conquer
the lands of Syria and Anatolia.
By the early 12th Century, unrepaired
damage from floods, fires, and civil disorder
had reduced much of the Empire into ruins.
Baghdad would lose a substantial number of
its population during this time and would
never regain its geographical importance.
Islam spreads to India
While conquerors brought Islam to the
Sind (Indus River), Muslim merchants took
their faith to coastal regions in both
northern and southern India.
These long lasting business ties and the
intermarriage of many Muslim men made
the introduction of Islam more gradual.
Islam also spread a third way to India
with the migrations and invasions of
Turkish-speaking peoples from Central
Turkish invasions
Some of the Muslim Turks entered into
the Abbasid realm as mercenaries or
migrated into Byzantine Anatolia, while
others moved into Afghanistan where
they established an Islamic state.
The Turks soon turned to rich lands of
the south and between 1001 and 1027
mounted seventeen raids into India.
The Mahmud Turks demolished Hindu and
Buddhist sites and hastened the decline
of Buddhism in India. They frequently
built mosques on the sites of destroyed
Ottoman Empire
A Short Preview
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire,
also called Osmanian
Empire or Uthmaniyah
Empire (1299–1922)
was a multi-ethnic and
multi-religious Turkishruled state.
The state was known as
the Turkish Empire or
Turkey by its
contemporaries and
was succeeded by the
Republic of Turkey,
which was officially
proclaimed in 1923
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was at the
centre of interactions between the
Eastern and Western worlds for six
The Ottoman Empire was, in many
respects, an Islamic successor to
earlier Mediterranean empires —
namely the Roman and Byzantine
Osman I (Othman): 1299-1326
Osman I (r. 1299-1326)
Declared independence
from Seljuk Turks in
Mongol invasions
pushed many groups
westward into
Byzantine Empire
Continuous war with
Byzantine Empire
Warriors for the faith
or Ghazis
The Golden Age of the Ottomans
Ottoman Conquest and the
In the century after the death of Osman I,
Ottoman rule began to extend over the
Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans.
After defeat at the Battle of Plocnik, the
Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovo
paved the way for Ottoman expansion into
With the extension of Turkish dominion into
the Balkans, the strategic conquest of
Constantinople became a crucial
Tamerlane (1336-1405)
or “Timur, the Lame
Mehmet I: 1413-1421
Mehmet I (r. 1413-1421)
After the defeat of
the Ottomans by
the TurkoMongol/Tatar
Tamerlane, the
Ottoman Empire
went into a period
of chaos and civil
The disorder ended
with Mehmet I
emerged and
restored Ottoman
Mehmet II: 1444-1445; 1451-1481
”The Conqueror”
Mehmet II, The
Mehmet I’s grandson
reorganized the
structure of both the
state and military and
Constantinople in
The city became the new
capital of the
Ottomans and Mehmet II
assumed the title of
Kayser-I-Rum or Roman
Attempt after his death
to take Rome failed
Golden Horn – 15c
The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
The End of the Byzantine
Europeans vs. Turks
Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia - interior
The Ottoman Bureaucracy
Heads of
Religious Millets
Social / Military
Local Administrators
& Military
Landowners /
Tax Collectors
Ottoman Society
Few conflicts with
Rival Muslim
groups had claims
to dynastic rule
Multiethnic army
Christian children
for army (devsirme)
Arabic and
Created a separate
class with
allegiance to
Palace schools
and governors or
Turkish and Mongol
South Asia
The Sultanate of Delhi
During the late 12th Century, Mahmud’s
successors mounted a more systematic
campaign to conqueror India and place it
under Islamic rule.
By the early 13th Century, they had
conquered most of the Hindu kingdoms
and established an Islamic state known
as the Sultanate of Delhi.
The sultans established their capital at
Delhi and ruled India at least in name for
more than three centuries, from 1206 to
Delhi Sultanate
During the 14th Century the sultans of Delhi
commanded an army of 300,000 and their state
ranked among the most powerful in the Islamic
They had no permanent bureaucracy or
administrative apparatus and their authority was
limited to the lands around Delhi.
Even though they imposed a presence of Islamic
political and military authority, their ability was
dependant upon the goodwill of Hindu kings to
carryout their policies.
Many of the sultans in fact had been assassinated
but nevertheless,the sultans prominently
sponsored Islam and helped to establish a secure
place for their faith in India.
Delhi Sultanate
Islamic influence in India would
continue for several hundred years
under various Muslim kingdoms.
India did not generate the large-scale,
centralized, imperial state that guided
the fortunes of postclassical
societies in the Eastern Mediterranean,
SW Asia, or China
On the basis of trade, common social
structures, and inherited cultural
traditions, a distinctive society would
emerge in India.
Islam in East Africa
The Swahili Coast
Swahili coast
1800 miles long
Diffusion from
Indian, Arab,
Chinese, and
Islam perhaps
most enduring
Swahili Coast
While the Swahili Coast had kingdoms,
it was not controlled by just one
The region was a center hub of trade
and commerce in east Africa.
The introduction of various traditions
such as Islam helped to shape the
character of the Swahili Coast.
Swahili Coast
While trans-Saharan caravan traffic linked
west Africa to the larger trading world,
merchant mariners sailing in the sea lanes of
the Indian Ocean formed a similar service for
coastal east Africa or the Swahili Coast.
Swahili is an Arabic term meaning “coasters.”
The Swahili dominated the east African coast
from Mogadishu in ht north to Kilwa, the
Comoro Islands, and Sofala in the south.
Swahili Coast
By the tenth century, Swahili society
attracted increasing attention from
Islamic merchants.
From the interior regions of east Africa,
the Swahili obtained gold, slaves, ivory,
and exotic local products.
In exchange, the Swahili city-states
received pottery, glass, and textiles that
the Muslim merchants brought from
Persia, India, and China.
Swahili City-States
By the 11th and 12th Century, trade had
brought tremendous wealth to coastal
east Africa.
Mogadishu, Lamu, Malindi, Mombasa,
Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mozambique, and Sofala
were some of the trade centers that
eventually developed into powerful citystates governed by a king who supervised
trade and organized public life in the
Wood structures to Coral and stone
based structures
Islam under attack:
Crusades and the Mongols
Enemies from beyond…
The Seljuk Turks (Abbasid) were best by
internal quarrels when the first
crusading armies reached the Holy Land.
The Crusades had little long lasting
impact of Islamic lands
Muslims would eventually rise up and
face the European enemy in the midtwelfth century
The Mongol invasions especially their
destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in
Baghdad in 1258, shook the world of
First Crusade 1095-1099
Second Crusade 1147-1149
Third Crusade 1189-1192*
Fourth Crusade 1202-1204
Children’s Crusade 1212
5th-8th Crusades 1218-1291
Crusaders driven from SW Asia
Mongol Empire
Islam on European
Inquisitions -Spanish and Portuguese
Keepers of the Ancients- Greece,
Persia, and Rome
Writing, Scholars, Mathematics, etc.
Dark Ages were over and Europe would
benefit from fall of Muslim Empires
Islamic Cultural
Formation of an Islamic
Cultural Tradition
Islamic values
– Uniformity of Islamic law in Dar al-Islam
– Establishment of madrasas (Schools)
– Importance of the Hajj
Sufi missionaries
– Asceticism, mysticism
– Some tension with orthodox Islamic
– Wide popularity
Cultural influences on
Persia (Iran)
– Administration and governance
– Literature
– Artwork (Justinian and Hagya Sophia)
– Mathematics, science, medicine
• “Hindi” numbers brought back to Europe
– Philosophy, esp. Aristotle
– Greek medicine
Cultural Importance of
Law, Dogma, Medicine, Mathematics
Distribution throughout the
Muslim world (Dar al-Islam)
Converts and Cities
Role of Women
Atlantic Ocean to Oceania
Trade, trade, trade….
Introduction and reintroduction
of these ideas to medieval Europe
–Through Spain & Spanish Jews
IslamAn Abrahamic
 Muslims are strict monotheists.
They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call
Muslims believe that the Torah
and the Bible, like the Qur’an,
is the word of God.
Peoples of the Book
Abraham’s Genealogy
12 Arabian
12 Tribes of
The Prophetic Tradition
 The call to prayer by the
muezzin in the minaret.
Pray in the mosque on Friday.
Eid Mubarak
End of the Ramadan holiday.
The Great Mosque of
 The pilgrimage to Mecca.
Must be done at least once in a
Muslim’s lifetime.
2-3 million Muslims make the
The Hajj
 Those who complete the
pilgrimage can add the title
hajji to their name.
The Dar al-Islam
The World
of Islam
The Mosque
 The Muslim place of worship.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in
Mount Moriah Rock
where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Islamic Art and
Islamic Art and
Islamic Art and
Islamic influence today
Southwest Asia
Balkan Peninsula and
North Africa and Swahili Coast
South Asia and Southeast Asia
East Asia and Oceania
The Rise of Islam
600 C.E. -1200’s C.E.

Islam - Phillipsburg School District