The Rise and Spread
Of Islam
Aim: How did Islam become a
uniting and dividing force in the
Arabian world?
Muhammad
• Born in 570 C.E.
• Raised in Mecca, a center of worship to
polytheistic nomadic pilgrims (the Kaaba).
• 610 experienced a revelation that he believed
was from Gabriel which continued for many
years.
• Introduced to Allah.
• Merchants (ruling class in Mecca) were angered
by the prospect of losing the pilgrims’ business
b/c of Muhammad.
• Muhammad fled to Medina in 622 C.E. (hijrah)
THE KAABA
http://math.arizona.edu/~hermi/kaaba.jpg
• Muhammad organized his believers into a
community (the umma).
• 630 he returned to Mecca, captured the
city, and destroyed the idols.
• Islam- means submission to God’s will.
After Muhammad’s Death
MUSLIM HOLY BOOKS
• Quran (650 C.E.)
• Shariah (moral law)
• Hadith (Muhammad’s sayings)
From the Hadith:
" The strong man is not the one who is strong in wrestling,
but the one who controls himself in anger ."
Fordham.edu
The Five Pillars of Faith
1.Shahadah – Profession of Faith
-most important Pillar and is the foundation of all Muslim beliefs and practices
2.Salat – Ritual Prayer 5 times a day
-Arabic language is used and is Universal language
-Mosque is the place of worship, call to prayer by Muezzin from Mosque’s minaret
3.Zakah – Tax on the Community (giving Charity)
4.Saum – Fasting during Ramadan
-Islam uses lunar calendar, date of Ramadan is always changing by Gregorian Calendar
-Creates nearness to Allah
5.Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca
-Once in a lifetime for all Muslims who can afford to go
-Creates strong Muslim community
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam.htm (call
to prayer)
Islam is a universal religion (it is open to anyone).
Q: Why do you think Islam, like Christianity, appealed to women and the poor?
The Split in Islam
• Caliph- religious and secular leader
• Abu-Bakr became the first caliph after the death
of Muhammad (he was one of the original
followers)
• When the third caliph (Uthman of the Umayyad
family) was assassinated, Ali, the son in law of
Muhammad was appointed caliph.
• Controversy: Should the caliph be the strongest
member of the tribe (Sunni) or a descendent of
Muhammad (Shiite)?
The Umayyad Caliphate (661 C.E.750 C.E.)
• After the assassination of Ali
the Umayyad family came to
power in the Islamic world.
• Capital was in Damascus,
Syria.
• Soldiers dedicated to Islam.
• Bureaucratic structure.
• All cultures were tolerated as
long as they obeyed laws, paid
taxes, and did not revolt.
• Arabic became the language
of business, law, and trade.
http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/caliphate/umTerritory.html
The Abbasid Caliphate at its height – 750-1250 CE
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abba/hd_abba.htm
Major Achievements of the Abbasid
Caliphate
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Originally supported by Shiites but
became more accepting of Sunnis
too.
Converts could advance in society
Increase in trade (China)
Learning of Greeks, Romans, and
Persians preserved
Spread of Arabic numerals to
Western Europe
Algebra, geometry, trigonometry
Astrolabe (measured position of
the stars) improved.
Optic surgery, human anatomy
studied
Detailed maps of the world
produced
Calligraphy, arabesques (design)
used on pottery
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The use of images was forbidden
(idolatry), geometrical shapes
used instead
Minarets (towers) topped
mosques
Great literature (i.e. The Arabian
Nights) produced
Sufis (mystics) began missionary
work to spread Islam
House of Wisdom built in Baghdad
in 830, translated Greek and
Persian texts into Arabic.
Dar al-Islam refers to the areas
that share a common Muslim
culture as the basis of their
society. This became one of the
most powerful influences by the
end of the 15th century.
Muslim trade 1000 C.E.
• Carpets, linen,
brocade, ceramics
from Abbasid Empire
• Silk and porcelain
from China
• Rubies, silver,
dyestuffs from India
• Trinkets and slaves
from the Byzantine
Empire
Cairo- A Major Center of Trade
• Cairo (Founded 969 C.E. as Al-Qahira)
• Commercial center between Europe, Middle
East, and Africa
• Part of Islamic caliphates
• Islamic social structure
• Center of intellectual life
•Seljuk Turks conquered it in 1168
Decline of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Vast Empire
High taxes
Leaders became less popular
Independent kingdoms began to arise, local rulers called
themselves “sultans” (i.e. in Persia)
• Alliance between the Persian sultanate and Seljuks.
• 13th century- Abbasid dynasty ended when Mongol
invaders executed the Abbasid caliph.
Major Effects of the Spread of
Islam
• 711 Berbers from North Africa conquered the
Iberian peninsula.
• The advance into Europe was stopped at the
Battle of Tours (732).
• Caliphs preserved Greco-Roman culture.
• Caliphate of Cordoba built an impressive library
and offered free education in Muslim schools.
• Umayyad Caliphate moves to Spain when
Abbasids overthrow them
• Spanish art and architecture reflected Muslim
styles.
Front view mihrab, Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba
• Originally built in 784786 by the Umayyad
ruler Abd ar-Rahman
I
• Extended in the 9th
and 10th centuries
• Christian cathedral in
1236 (won by
Ferdinand III of
Castille)
http://www.infocordoba.com/spain/andalusia/cordoba/photos/mosque_2/pages/mosque_interior_106_jpg.htm
MUSLIM ECONOMIC
ACHIEVEMENTS
• TRADE
• AGRICULTURE
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Large trading networks across empire
(750-1350)
Established partnerships
Sold goods on credit
Formed banks to establish different
kinds of currency
•
Muslim farmers grew sugarcane,
cotton, medicinal herbs, fruits and
vegetables.
These were sold in world markets.
• MANUFACTURING
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Heads of guilds regulated prices,
weights, and measurements,
monitored quality
Steel swords produced in Damascus
Leather goods produced in Cordoba
Carpets produced in Persia
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The Seljuk takeover of Jerusalem caused the
Crusades in 1095.
Islam spread to Northern India (modern day
Pakistan)(Delhi Sultanate) and held control from
1206-1526.
Muslims were not popular with many Indians.
Some Buddhists and Hindus of lower castes
found Islam appealing.
Islam spread from conversion and commerce in
South and Southeast Asia (not really from war).
Successful conversion in the islands of the
Pacific. Hinduism and Buddhism continued to be
popular, but (i.e. in Malaysia and Indonesia)
Islam was accepted.
https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/id.html
The Spread of Islam
To Africa
BANTU MIGRATION
Encarta
The Bantu Migration
• Around 2000-1000
BCE the Bantu
people migrated and
lived in most of subSaharan Africa.
• Their population grew
and resources were
becoming scarce, and
they had to repeat
their migration.
Nok sculpture
(Nigeria 500 BC-200 AD)
Encarta
Bantu Achievements
• Around 1000 BCE the Bantus produced iron
tools which helped them to clear land for
farming.
• Around 500 CE the cultivation of bananas (which
came to Africa via Indian Ocean trade).
• The population increased from 3.5 million in 400
BCE to 22 million in 1000 CE.
• The Bantu culture provided a basis for African
indigenous languages and religions today.
• Islam had reached parts of North Africa
(including Egypt) in the 600s and 700s.
• Over the next few hundred years it spread
through the Sahara and to sub-Saharan
Africa.
• Islam was brought to Africa by Arab
traders.
Q: How does that map show that more than simply goods were
moved to and throughout the Africa?
historyteacher.net
THE SILK ROAD
“The Silk Road” is a special term which describes the trade route between
the Central Asia and China. In ancient times, Chinese people transported silk,
tea and other products to exchange for horses with small kingdoms in west of China.
The famous explorer Marco Polo opened this trade route to the Middle East, Western
Europe and North Africa.
Over time the Silk Road became one of the most important trade route linking China
and Europe.
The route is no longer used for international trade but much history and many stories
of the happenings on the Silk Road remain.
http://www.chinahighlights.com/map/images/ancient_silk_road_map1.gif
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Cities that sat along trade routes thrived.
Melaka (port city in Malaysia)
Hangzhou
Samarkand (Uzbekistan)
Baghdad
Kilwa
Venice
Timbuktu
Trade in Africa
Northward• Slaves
• Salt
• Ivory
• Animal skins
Southward• Glass
• Metalwork
• pottery
TIMBUKTU
• Founded in the 1000s by Tuareg nomads
• Later incorporated into the Mali and then
Songhay empires
• Located near the main trade routes across the
Sahara and close to the flood plain of the Niger
River
• Important city in the trading of gold and slat
• Many Muslims there went on the hajj
• Important center of Islamic culture-mosques,
palaces, and a university.
Mansa Musa
• http://www.history.com/classroom/unesco/t
imbuktu/mansamoussa.html
Long Distance Trade
• The Silk Road linked Eurasia through
trade.
• The Indian Ocean linked China, Southeast
Asia, India, Arabia and East Africa through
trade.
• The Mediterranean Sea linked Europe with
the Muslim world and Asia.
THE RISE OF EAST AFRICAN
CITY-STATES
• Since ancient times, Phoenician, Greek, Roman, and
Indian traders came to the east coast of Africa.
• 600s- Arab and Persian merchants set up Muslim
communities. Bantu speaking people migrated there and
adopted Islam
• Other immigrants (including Indonesian) migrate to East
Africa as well.
• By 1000 port cities like Mogadishu and Kilwa were
thriving.
• The blend of Arabic and Bantu cultures gave rise to a
new language, Swahili (written in Arabic script)
SWAHILI
http://www.lmp.ucla.edu
THE MYSTERIOUS DECLINE
• By 1500 Zimbabwe was in decline.
• Did excessive farming caused soil
exhaustion?
• Civil War?
• Decline of trade?
NOBODY KNOWS FOR SURE.
IBN BATTUTA
Ibn Battuta was a Muslim scholar born in
Tangier in North Africa in the year 1304. He
traveled widely in Asia, the Middle East and
Africa and left rich accounts of his journeys. In
1331 he traveled down the East Coast of Africa.
In 1352 he crossed the Sahara and traveled to
the Niger River in West Africa. His date of death
is uncertain. Various sources give it on dates
between 1354 and 1377.
Ibn Battuta's Account of
Mogadishu
Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) visited the East Coast of
Africa. He visited Mogadishu, which he
described as “a town of enormous size. Its
merchants are possessed of vast resources;
they own large numbers of camels, of which they
slaughter hundreds every day [for food], and
also have quantities of sheep. In this place are
manufactured the woven fabrics…which are
unequalled and exported from it to Egypt and
elsewhere.”
http://www.hist.umn.edu
Mogadishu, as seen by the sea
unesco.org
Welcome to Mogadishu!
Upon arrival in Mogadishu harbor, it was the
custom for small native boats… to approach the
arriving vessel, and their occupants to offer food
and hospitality to the merchants on the ship. If a
merchant accepted such an offer, then he was
obligated to lodge in that person's house and to
accept their services as sales agent for whatever
business they transacted in Mogadishu.
According to Battuta, "there is profit for them
[local people] in this custom."
wcupa.edu
THE REMAINS OF GREAT
ZIMBABWE
Great Zimbabwe, the largest ruins in Africa, covers
almost 1,800 acres. Sited on an open wooded plain
surrounded by hills, the ruins comprise the vast Great
Enclosure complex, and on a nearby kopje the Hill
Complex, a veritable castle of interlocking walls and
granite boulders, while all around in the valley lie a
myriad other walls. The ruins feature an array of…
herringbone and many other intricate patterns in its
walls, and the astonishing fact is that despite the drystone technique used in Great Zimbabwe's construction
(no mortar binds the stone blocks), the complex has
endured for seven centuries. The complex, which
wealthy Shona-speaking cattlemen built between the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, may have housed as
many as 40,000 people at its height.
[Zimbabwe, Globetrotters Travel Guide,
London: New Holland Publishers, 1994, 97.]
THE GREAT ENCLOSURE
postcolonialweb.org
HILL COMPLEX (TOP)
postcolonialweb.org
INSIDE THE WALLS
postcolonialweb.org
VIEW THROUGH ENTRANCE
GATE
postcolonialweb.org
• Q: Why did Europeans in the 19th century
speculate that the walls
• of Great Zimbabwe were built by either the
Arabs, ancient
• Phoenicians, Romans, Hebrews?
BUT THEY WERE WRONG!
• Archaeologist Gertrude Caton-Thompson's
excavations in 1932 proved that the
structures of Great Zimbabwe were less
than 1000 years old…
• And built by Africans.
BUT THINGS HAVE
CHANGED…
TANZANIA THEN…
The ruins of a palace at
Kilwa Kisiwani,
An island off of the
Southern coast of Tanzania
news.bbc.co.uk
EFFORTS TO PRESERVE
KILWA (1981)
Added to the List of World Heritage in
Danger:
The remains of two great East African ports
admired by early European explorers are situated on two
small islands near the coast. From the 13th to the 16th
century, the merchants of Kilwa dealt in gold, silver, pearls,
perfumes, Arabian crockery, Persian earthenware and Chinese
porcelain; much of the trade in the Indian Ocean thus passed
through their hands.
unesco.org
AND NOW…
• https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbo
ok/geos/tz.html
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The Rise and Spread