Africa During the Post classical
Period
African Kingdom Similarities and
Differences
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Common Elements in
African Societies
Bantu migration
Animism
lineage important in
relation with god
The Arrival of Islam
in North Africa
Arrival of Islam (Spain,
by 711)
Berber Almoravids
Almohads
succeed Berbers,
12th century
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The Christian
Kingdoms: Nubia and
Ethiopia
Copts
Egyptian Christians
spread to Nubia (Kush)
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Ethiopia
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Empires of Africa
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Kingdoms of the
Grasslands
Caravans
Sahel - transfer point
Sudanic States
Rulers sacred
Islam
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Mansa Kankan Musa
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pilgrimage
Ishal al-Sahili (Sp.
Architect)
beaten clay architecture
Empires of the Western Sudan
The Empire of Mali
Malinke peoples from
Ghana
Agriculture, gold trade
Sundiata (d.1260)
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the “Lion Prince”
mansa (ruler)
expanded state
African Kingdoms
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City Dwellers and
Villagers
Jenne, Timbuktu
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thrive with
expansion
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The Songhay Kingdom
(Capital: Gao)
Middle Niger valley
Independent by 700
Muslim by 1010
Sunni Ali (1464-1492)
Hausa states, northern
Nigeria
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Some merchants
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Religious
diffusion?
Majority farmers
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Muslim center
Political and Social Life in the
Sudanic States
Fusion of traditions
Swahili Coast
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The Swahili Coast of East Africa
Trading ports
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The Coastal Trading Ports
(*Mogadishu*, Mombasa, Malindi,
Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar)
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Don’t need to know, just be familiar
Madagascar
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Muslim influence
Cultural diffusion and synthesis
SEA imports
Blended culture
The Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast (cont’d)
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The Mixture of Cultures on the
Swahili Coast
Islam unifies
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Other Characteristics
Egalitarian/homogenous to
cosmopolitan/diverse
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Key Exports & Imports
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Two distinct “trading seasons”
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Connection to China?
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When did this exchange with China end?
Africa During the Post classical
Period
African Kingdom Similarities and
Differences













Common Elements in
African Societies
Bantu migration
one language base
Animism
cosmology
ethical code
lineage important in
relation with god
The Arrival of Islam in North
Africa
Part of Mediterranean
Arrival of Islam (Spain, by 711)
Berber Almoravids
western Sahara, assist
conversion
Almohads
succeed Berbers, 12th
century







The Christian Kingdoms:
Nubia and Ethiopia
Copts
Egyptian Christians
welcome Muslims
spread to Nubia (Kush)
Ethiopia
heirs to Axum
King Lalibela
Empires of Africa
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II. Kingdoms of the
Grasslands
Caravans across Sahara
Sahel (grasslands)
transfer point
A. Sudanic States
Rulers sacred
Islam
from 900s
supports state
B. The Empire of Mali and
Sundiata, the “Lion
Prince”
Malinke peoples from Ghana
Agriculture, gold trade
Sundiata (d.1260)
mansa (ruler)
expanded state

Mansa Kankan Musa
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pilgrimage to Mecca
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Floods land with gold
brings back Ishal al-Sahili
architect from Muslim
Spain
beaten clay architecture
Empires of the Western Sudan
African Kingdoms


City Dwellers and
Villagers
Jenne, Timbuktu






thrive with expansion
of Mali, Songhay
Mandinka juula
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



Some merchants



Religious diffusion?
Farmers the majority
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
The Songhay Kingdom (Capital: Gao)
Middle Niger valley
Independent by 700
Muslim by 1010
Sunni Ali (1464-1492)
expanded territory
successors: askia
Defeated by Morocco, 1591
Hausa states, northern Nigeria
Kano becomes Muslim
center
E. Political and Social Life in the Sudanic
States
Fusion of Muslim, indigenous
traditions
Swahili Coast


The Swahili Coast of East Africa
Trading ports




The Coastal Trading Ports (*Mogadishu*,
Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar)


Don’t need to know, just be familiar
Madagascar
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Muslim influence strong
Rest of population remains traditional
Significangt cultural diffusion and synthesis
southeast Asian immigrants, bring bananas,
coconuts
Blended culture
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Bantu, Islamic
Swahili
spreads along coast
trade with Asia
The Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast (cont’d)
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The Mixture of Cultures on the
Swahili Coast
Islam unifies along with Swahili
Other Characteristics
Egalitarian and homogenous to
cosmopolitan and diverse
Key Exports
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Key Imports
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Textiles, Silks, porcelain (China and India)
When during the year did this take place?
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Ivory, gold, iron, slaves, exotic animals
Two distinct “trading seasons”
What was the connection between the
Swahili Coast and China?
When did this exchange with China end?
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Africa During the Post classical Period