UNIT 2 600 CE – 1450 CE Unit 2: 600 CE – 1450 CE • BIG PICTURE: – Older belief systems, such as Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Buddhism came to become more important than political organizations in defining many areas of the world – Two nomadic groups, the Bedouins and the Mongols, had a huge impact on the course of history during this era, not to mention the influence of others such as the Vikings. – A new religion - Islam - began in the 7th century and spread rapidly throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, Europe, and Southeast Asia Unit 2: 600 CE – 1450 CE – Whereas Europe was not a major civilization area before 600 CE, by 1450 it was transformed economically, socially, and politically • some of its kingdoms were beginning to assert world power. – Major empires developed in both South America (the Inca) and Mesoamerica (the Maya and Aztec.) Unit 2: 600 CE – 1450 CE – China grew to have cultural and political hegemony over many other areas of Asia as it reunified and experienced a commercial revolution that helped it become one of the largest and most prosperous empires of the time. – Long distance trade continued to develop along previous routes, but the amount and complexity of trade and contact increased significantly. Rise of Islam • The Rise of Islam – followers called Muslims: “one who surrenders” • Islams? – God transmitted words through Muhammad – Recorded words in Qur’an/Koran – Salvation: through submission to God’s will via 5 pillars 1. confession of faith 2. prayer fives times/day 3. charity to the needy 4. fasting during the month of Ramadan 5. pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime – Hajj Rise of Islam – Common heritage with Judaism and Christianity • God, Allah, Yahweh • Shared prophets – Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, etc. – Key difference from Judaism/Christianity: Jesus considered a prophet, not son of God. • Early on split into two sects: Shia and Sunni – disagreement on who should succeed Muhammad Life of Muhammad • Allah Be Praised: Islam Takes hold – 570 CE Muhammad born in Mecca • Exposed to lots of religions growing up – 610 at age of 40 has “visions” and visitations • His preaching lead to conflict with leadership of Mecca – Hijra » flees to Medina in 622 – 630 returned to Mecca • destroyed pagan shrines except Ka’ba (Kaaba) – 632 Muhammad dies Chapter 11: Rise of Islam • Women and Islam: For Better, for Worse – historically: • women in Arabia low status – Qur’an, 651-652, changed this • women remained subservient but got some rights – women considered equal before Allah like men – man divorces woman, dowry goes back to woman’s family – infanticide strictly forbidden • still a man’s world – men permitted to have as many as four wives – women had to be faithful to one man » protect line of descent; no question of paternity – women’s testimony only given half weight to man’s – women veiled in public (not in Qur’an … from Persia) • Over time became more and more patriarchal – Qur’an helped to preserve some basic rights Chapter 11: Rise of Islam • Arabic became the official language • gold and silver coins official money unit • conquered subject “encouraged” to convert or pay tax • Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem • time marked by growing question of succession – Shia (Shi’ite): » all leaders should come from line of Ali, M’s son in law – Sunni: » all leaders should be drawn from a broad base of people Chapter 11: Rise of Islam • The Fall of the Islamic Empire: The Mongol Menace – Internal struggles and pressure • civil war, etc. – Externally pressure • Persians, Europeans, and Byzantines – Most distant enemy does them in: • The Mongols – 1258 overrun Baghdad and destroy it. » Remember Hulagu? » An estimated 1 million slaughtered » Baghdad doesn’t recover until 20th century … why? Chapter 11: Rise of Islam • ANALYSIS: – ASSESS the key events and/or processes in the development of Islam from the time of Muhammad through to the fall of Baghdad in 1258. • Construct a timeline and plot 5-10 events to represent this. – COMPARE Islam (including its treatment of women) to Christianity (1), Buddhism (2), Confucianism (3), and Hinduism (4) • First row compares Christianity with Islam, etc. – CLASS DISCUSSION: Islam spread more rapidly than any other major world religion. Why do you think this was? What aspects of the religion made it appealing? How was the cultural climate conducive to the rapid expansion of Islam?