Ch. 10: ISLAM
Section 1:
The Rise of Islam
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
Happy Ramadan ! • Locate and describe Arabia in the period before the rise of Islam.
Begins tomorrow! • Explain how the prophet Muhammad became the prophet and
how he began to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Islam.
• Identify the basic beliefs and practices of Islam.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Label your Packet Map on p. 2 using p. 1 as a guide
LABEL: Mecca, Medina, ARABIA, Arabian Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
• INTRODUCTION to new Unit: What do you know about Islam?
• DISCUSSION of
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read “Muhammad,” p. 21-26 in packet and do questions p. 27
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ISLAM?
Write these definitions on p. 3 in your packet:
ISLAM – the religion founded by Muhammad in Arabia around 630 C.E.
MUSLIM – a person who is a follower of the Islamic religion.
Allah – “God” in Arabic.
Insert Arabia map
Qur’an – the holy book of the Muslims.
(Koran)
• Medina
• Mecca
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See your
Textbook Map
p. 250-251
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WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ISLAM?
It is the fastest growing religion in the world.
In 1997, the percentage of humans who regarded
themselves as Christian rose only from 33.7% in 1970 to
33.9% in 1996. Its total number of adherents is growing
at about 2.3% annually.
Islam is currently spreading at a faster rate: about 3.9%
and is thus increasing its market share. Populations in
mostly Christian countries are remaining level and, in
some cases, declining. Consequently, the percentage of
Christians in the world is predicted to be at
approximately 25% of the world's population by 2025.
As a result of the extremely high rates of population
growth in their major nations, the proportion of Muslims
in the world continues to increase dramatically.
Islam will probably account for about 30% of the world's
population by 2025.
~ U.S. Center for Christian World Missions, 2000.
Christianity
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT ISLAM?
Holy Book ?
Jewish
TORAH
Christian
BIBLE
Taking the J / C / I Quiz
Mark each statement with a
J for Judaism
C for Christianity
I for Islam
5 minutes…
Islamic
KORAN
(Qu’ran)
PACKET, p. 5
Introduction to Islam: “The Qu’ran”
What does this Qu’ran passage
tell you about how Muslims view
the teachings of the Hebrew
prophets and Jesus?
What is one belief that Muslims,
Jews, and Christians all share?
How do Muslims view Jesus?
Insert transparency of Qu’ran quote
CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 234
The Prophet Muhammad
CAUSE
1. What were Muhammad’s revelations?
• He believed God spoke to him through the Angel Gabriel
• that he was the “last of the great prophets”
• now had to teach others that Allah was the one and only God
and all the other gods in Arabia had to be abandoned.
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 235
The Prophet Muhammad
EFFECTS
2. Why were Muhammad’s ideas unpopular in Mecca?
• Muhammad’s new idea of “one” God (monotheism) angered
those who, for centuries, had worshiped the many
traditional Arab gods.
• Mecca’s economy thrived on the pilgrimages of Arabs who came
to make frequent visits to shrines of the many gods.
If there was only one God, the visitors would stop coming, and so
would the lucrative trade income.
Not welcome in Mecca,
to what city
did Muhammad flee?
Textbook, p. 235
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Hijrah – Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina in 622.
map
• Medina
• Mecca
DID YOU KNOW?
The Islamic world begins its calendear Year 1 with this event.
In other words, our year 622 A.D. is their year 1 A.H.
This year, 2004 A.D., is year 1425 A.H. in the Islamic world.
To learn the formula for figuring the Islamic year, visit www.islam.com
CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 235
The Prophet Muhammad
EFFECT
3. In what way(s) was the Hijrah a turning point?
• Mecca’s opposition to Muhammad only brought attention to
his new religious message and he gained a wide following in Medina.
• Besides a religious leader, he now became a political leader –
uniting the various Arab tribesmen.
• He was also forced into a position as a military leader now in the
conflict between Mecca and Medina.
map
• Medina
• Mecca
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 235
The Prophet Muhammad
EFFECT
4. Why was Muhammad’s return to Mecca important?
• Muhammed used Mecca as a base from which to
work toward unifying the entire Arabian peninsula.
See the packet map on p. 1
Have you begun to Label your own map?
map
• Medina
• Mecca
Packet, p. 2
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
•Rome
•Constantinople
SPAIN
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE
Mediterranean
Sea
Alexandria
NORTH AFRICA
.
• Jerusalem
• Baghdad
R • Medina
e
d • Mecca
Label your own map
Packet, p. 2
S
Persian
Gulf
ARABIA
e
a
Arabian
Sea
What was Arabian
society like
before Muhammad
came on the
scene?
See Textbook
p. 233
CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p.
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
5. What does Islam teach its followers?
• Monotheism - There is only one God (Allah).
• Each person is responsible for his or her own actions.
• Allah will judge all people on a final judgment day.
B. More Definitions
Mosque – place of worship for Muslims
Minaret – prayer tower
Muezzin – prayer crier,
he cries out the time of prayer 5 times a day.
See textbook pic, p. 237 “Muslim Prayer”
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 236
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
B. More Definitions
The Five Pillars – five requirements of a Muslim’s life.
Let’s go
on
the hajj
!
See
Packet,
p. 7
The Hajj Climaxes here.
See Textbook, p. 259
Muslims circling around the
sacred Ka`aba in Mecca,
climax of the hajj pilgrimage.
CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p.
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
B. More Definitions
hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca all Muslims must make in their lifetime.
Sunna – Muhammad’s model for proper living.
shariah – a system of laws in Islam.
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 236
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
6. How does carrying out the Five Pillars and other laws of Islam
affect the daily lives of Muslims?
• Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life.
• Carrying out the Five Pillars daily as well as other customs ensures
that Muslims live their faith
while serving in the community.
A Muslim woman wears a hijab.
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 237
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
7. How did observing Islamic teachings help to create unity among
Muslims?
Because Muhammad wrote the Qu’ran in Arabic and all followers are
required to read it, that one language and that one religion created unity.
The SIGNIFICANCE of Muhammad is…
he single-handedly unified hundreds of nomadic tribes in Arabia who
spoke different languages and worshipped hundreds of different gods.
He did this with one tool: the Qu’ran !
Written in a COMMON LANGUAGE (Arabic)
+
providing a COMMON RELIGION (Islam)
=
he achieved Arabian UNITY.
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CH 10, Sec. 1: “The Rise of Islam”
Packet, p. 3
Textbook, p. 237
Beliefs & Practices of Islam
8. How did Islamic law affect Muslim attitudes toward Christians and Jews?
Shariah law required Muslims to extend religious tolerance to
Christians and Jews – the “people of the book.”
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Ch. 10: ISLAM
Section 1:
The Rise of Islam
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
Happy Ramadan ! • Locate and describe Arabia in the period before the rise of Islam.
Begins tomorrow! • Explain how the prophet Muhammad became the prophet and
how he began to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Islam.
• Identify the basic beliefs and practices of Islam.
AGENDA:
WARM-UP – Label your Packet Map on p. 2 using p. 1 as a guide
LABEL: Mecca, Medina, ARABIA, Arabian Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
• INTRODUCTION to new Unit: What do you know about Islam?
• DISCUSSION of
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read “Muhammad,” p. 21-26 in packet and do questions p. 27
Ch. 10: ISLAM
Section 1:
The Rise of Islam
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
Happy Ramadan ! • Locate and describe Arabia in the period before the rise of Islam.
• Explain how the prophet Muhammad became the prophet and
how he began to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Islam.
• Identify the basic beliefs and practices of Islam.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – REVIEW your notes from Friday for today’s QUIZ
• DISCUSSING READING, “Muhammad”, M. Hart (p. 21-27)
• QUIZ
NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
• Read CHAPTER 10 Section 2; Do p. 9 in packet.
• Skim over maps showing “The Spread of Islam” packet pp. 10-15
“THE 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons In History”
By Michael Hart
The Top 10:
• Muhammad
• Isaac Newton
Take out your
• Jesus Christ
weekend assignment,
• Buddha
packet p. 27
• Confucius
Let’s discuss why
• St. Paul
Michael Hart
• Ts’ai Lun
ranks Muhammad #1.
• Johann Gutenberg
• Christopher Columbus
• Albert Einstein
Ch. 10: ISLAM
Section 2:
The Spread of Islam
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe how Muhammad’s successors spread Islam.
• List sources of conflict within the Umayyad Muslim state that led to
the two major divisions / branches of Islam today.
• Identify on a map the major Muslim capitals / caliphates.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Examine maps on p. 10 – 11; “The Spread of Islam”
• Discussing CH 10,
• Take-Home Quiz
ASSIGNMENT:
• Do your Take-Home Quiz.
• Pre-A.P. – Complete work on Current Events Analysis I
•Rome
•Constantinople
SPAIN
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE
• Cordoba
Mediterranean
Sea
NORTH AFRICA
.
Alexandria
Cairo
• Damascus
.
• Jerusalem
• Baghdad
R • Medina
e
d • Mecca
Label your own map
Packet, p. 2
S
Persian
Gulf
ARABIA
e
a
Arabian
Sea
Islam
Section 2
Muhammad’s Successors Spread Islam
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 238
Death of Muhammad, ca. 632 C.E.
• Muhammad had not named a successor or instructed his followers
how to choose one.
• Relying on ancient tribal custom, the Muslim community elected
Abu-Bakr as the new leader and Muhammad’s first successor.
He had been a loyal friend of Muhammad,
accompanied him on the Hejirah, and a man respected
for his devotion to Islam.
Under Abu-Bakr,
the collection of Mohammad's revelations
were recorded in the Qur’an.
Illuminated Qur'an
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 238
• In 632, Abu-Bakr became the first
caliph (KAY•lihf), a title that means
“successor” or “deputy.”
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 238
1. What did the “rightly guided” caliphs use as guides to leadership?
The Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions in life.
“Rightly Guided” Caliphs
• Abu-Bakr and the next three elected caliphs—Umar,
Uthman, and Ali—all had known Muhammad and
supported his mission.
• They used the Qur’an and Muhammad’s actions as
guides to leadership.
• For this, they are known as the “rightly guided” caliphs.
• The region ruled by a caliph was called a caliphate.
What is the meaning of the word “caliph?”
Caliph means “successor”
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Rightly Guided” Caliphs
• Abu-Bakr had promised the Muslim
community he would uphold what
Muhammad stood for.
• For two years, Abu-Bakr used military
force to reassert the authority of
Muhammad’s successors in the
Muslim community.
• By the time Abu-Bakr died in 634, the
Muslim state controlled all of Arabia.
Abu-Bakar
Examine the maps in your packet
that show the “Spread of Islam”
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Rightly Guided” Caliphs
• Under Umar, the second caliph, swift
and highly disciplined armies
conquered Syria and lower Egypt,
which were part of the Byzantine
Empire.
• The next two caliphs, Uthman and
Ali, continued to expand Muslim
territory both eastward and
westward.
• By 750, from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Indus River, the Muslim Empire
stretched 6,000 miles—about two
times the distance across the
continental United States.
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 238
Rightly Guided” Caliphs
2. What changes did they make during their rule?
They mobilized highly-disciplined armies that conquered
Arabia, parts of the Byzantine Empire, and Persia.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 238
Rightly Guided” Caliphs
3. Why were they successful in their quest to expand the empire and
spread Islam?
• Muslims were willing to fight to extend and defend Islam.
• Armies were well-disciplined and expertly commanded.
• The Byzantine and Persian empires were weak at this time.
• People who had suffered religious persecution welcomed the
more tolerant Islamic empire.
Persecutions in Persia of those who did not practice
official Zoroastrianism, as well as persecution in the
Byzantine empire of those who did not practice official
Christianity, was widespread at this time.
The persecuted often referred to the Islamic invaders
as “liberators.”
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 239
Treatment of Conquered Peoples
• Many conquered peoples chose to accept Islam.
• They were attracted by the appeal of the message of
Islam, as well as by the economic benefit for Muslims
of not having to pay a poll tax.
• Christians and Jews, as “people of the book,” were
allowed to practice their faiths freely and even
received special consideration.
• Christians and Jews played important roles as officials,
scholars, and bureaucrats in the Muslim state.
• In practice, tolerance like this was extended to other
groups as well.
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 239
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
• The murder of Uthman in 656 triggered a civil
war, with various groups struggling for power.
• A family known as the Umayyad
(oo•MYE•yadz) came to power.
• They set up a hereditary system of succession.
The Umayyads
Umayyad Mosque
4. What ended the elective system of choosing a caliph?
When the Umayyads came to power after a
bloody civil war,
they set up a hereditary system of succession.
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CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 239
The Umayyads
5. What other changes did they make during their rule?
They moved the capital to Damascus.
They abandoned the simple life of previous caliphs, and
began surrounding themselves with wealth and ceremonies.
When you look
at the expanse of
the lands
conquered by the
Umayyad, what
logistical reason
might they have
had for
relocating the
capital to
Damascus?
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It’s time to Label
all the Caliphates
•Rome
•Constantinople
SPAIN
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE
• Cordoba
Mediterranean
Sea
NORTH AFRICA
.
Alexandria
Cairo
• Damascus
.
• Jerusalem
• Baghdad
R • Medina
e
d • Mecca
Label your own map
Packet, p. 2
S
Persian
Gulf
ARABIA
e
a
Arabian
Sea
Sunni–Shi’a Split
• In the interest of peace, the majority of
Muslims accepted the Umayyads’ rule.
• A minority did continue to resist, and around
some of these groups an alternate view of the
office of caliph developed.
• In this view, the caliph—the person most
responsible for spreading Muhammad’s
message—needed to be a relative of the Prophet.
Sunni–Shi’a Split
• This group was called Shi’a, meaning
the “party” of Ali.
• Those who did not outwardly resist
the rule of the Umayyads later
became known as Sunni, meaning
followers of Muhammad’s example.
• Another group, the Sufi (SOO•fee),
reacted to the luxurious life of the
Umayyads by pursuing a life of
poverty and devotion to a spiritual
path.
The Sufi
• They tried to achieve direct
personal contact with God
through mystical means, such as
meditation and chanting.
• In some ways they were similar
to Christian and Buddhist
monks.
• The Sufis played an important
role in keeping Muslims focused
on the Qur’an and tradition.
The Sufi
• Later, they became very active as
missionaries in newly conquered lands.
• Another religious development was the
growth of scholarship in various branches
of Islamic learning and law.
• The study of the traditions of Muhammad,
Arabic language, and the development of
schools of shari’a established standards of
Islamic conduct.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 240
The Umayyads
6. What led to the downfall of the Umayyads?
The division of Islam into Sunni, Shi’a, and Sufi branches.
The Sunni and Shi’a had different ideas about leadership;
and the Sufi practiced lives of extreme poverty and
religious devotion.
B. The 3 Different Branches or Sects Within Islam
Sunni – choose their caliph by election.
Approx. 80% Muslims are Sunni.
Shi’a – believe the caliph must be
a relative of Muhammad.
Approx. 17% Muslims are Shi’a.
Sufi – abandon material possessions,
live simple “monastic” life
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Umayyad mosque, Damascus.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 240
The Abbasids
• Vigorous religious and political opposition to the
Umayyad caliphate led to its downfall.
• Especially troubling to Muslims was the Umayyad
obsession with material wealth.
• Rebel groups overthrew the Umayyads in the year 750.
• The most powerful of those groups, the Abbasids
(AB•uh•SIHDZ), took control of the empire.
7. How did the Abbasids come to power?
They were the most powerful of the rebel groups that
overthrew the Ummayads.
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The Abbasids
The Abbasids’ strength lay in the former Persian lands –
including Iraq, Iran, and central Asia.
8. What changes did they make during their rule?
They moved the capital to Baghdad, developed a strong
government bureaucracy, created an efficient tax system,
and a strong trade network.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 240
Abbasids Consolidate Power
• A chancery prepared letters and documents.
• A special department managed the business of
the army.
• Diplomats from the empire were sent to courts
in Europe (for example, Charlemagne’s court),
Africa, and Asia to conduct imperial business.
• To support this bureaucracy, the Abbasids taxed
land, imports, and exports, and non-Muslims’
wealth.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 240
The Abbasids
8. What major problem did the Abbasids face?
They were unable to complete solid political control
over such an immense empire.
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2
The Umayyads
and the Abbassids
These powerful caliphates ruled the Islamic world, expanded the Arab empire,
and brought about a golden age in Muslim civilization.
UMAYYADS
ABBASSIDS
Set up dynasty that ruled until 750
Overthrew the Umayyads in 750
Moved capital to Damascus
Moved capital to Baghdad
Conquered lands from Atlantic to
the Indus Valley
Ended Arab dominance and helped
make Islam a universal religion
Relied on local officials to govern
the empire, while the Umayyads
themselves lived in great luxury.
Empire of the caliphs reached its
greatest wealth and power through
strong trade network.
Faced economic tensions between
wealthy and poor Arabs
Muslim civilization enjoyed a Golden
Age
Split in Islam occurs during their
reign – between Sunni, Shi’a, Sufi.
Difficulty controlling vast empire.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 240
Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands
• The Abbasid caliphate lasted from
750 to 1258.
• The Fatimid (FAT•uh•MIHD)
Dynasty, named after Muhammad’s
daughter Fatima, ruled in North
Africa and spread across the Red Sea
to western Arabia and Syria.
• Although politically divided, the
Abbasid Empire and the smaller
powers remained unified in other
ways. Religion, language, trade, and
the economy tied the lands together.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 241
Muslim Trade Network
• The two major sea-trading zones—
those of the Mediterranean Sea and
the Indian Ocean—linked the
Muslim Empire into a world system
of trade by sea.
• The land network connected the
Silk Roads of China and India with
Europe and Africa.
• Muslim merchants needed only a
single language, Arabic, and a
single currency, the Abbasid dinar,
to travel from Córdoba, in Spain, to
Baghdad and on to China.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 2: “The Spread of Islam” Packet, p. 9
Textbook, p. 241
Muslim Trade Network
• To encourage the flow of trade,
Muslim moneychangers set up banks
in cities throughout the empire.
• Banks offered letters of credit, called
sakks, to merchants.
• A merchant with a sakk from a bank
in Baghdad could exchange it for
cash at a bank in any other major city
in the empire.
• In Europe, the word sakk was
pronounced, “check.” Thus, the
practice of using checks dates back to
the Muslim Empire.
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B.
A.
C.
Ch. 10: ISLAM
Section 3:
Muslim Achievements
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Mr. Loessin’s
World
History
Room 167
Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50
TODAY’S OBJECTIVES:
• Describe Muslim society during the Abbasid caliphate.
• Explain how Muslims worked to preserve scientific learning.
• Give examples of Muslim advances in the sciences.
AGENDA: Begin Warm-up Immediately upon entering classroom !
• WARM-UP – Math Quiz !
• Discussing CH 10, Sec, 3; Packet p. 19
• Review for Test
• Pre-A.P. Current Events Analysis I Discussion Forum
ASSIGNMENT:
• TEST TOMORROW, study all section quizzes and your packet!
• See me at end of class if you want a Tutorial Pass!
Today’s Opening Quiz is a Math Quiz…..you have 3 minutes!
Solve the following simple equations:
1. V + II = _________________
Time is Up!
2. CM – L = _______________
Was it hard?
3. MCMLXXXV – XXX = ________
4. XXVI
X
III = __________________
5. CDXXV / V = _________________
Would you be
happier using
Arabic numerals
instead of
Roman numerals?
The ASTROLABE
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Art & Literature
Arabian
Nights
CH 10: Islam
Section 3
Muslim Achievements
IBN KHALDUN
Great Arab Historian
ARABIC NUMERALS
ALBEGRA (al-jabr)
Today’s Opening Quiz is a Math Quiz…..you have 3 minutes!
Solve the following simple equations:
1. V + II = _________________
1. 5 + 2 = ______________
2. CM – L = _______________
2. 900 – 50 = ___________
3. MCMLXXXV – XXX = ________
3. 1985 – 30 = __________
4. XXVI
X
III = __________________ 4. 26
5. CDXXV / V = _________________
x
3 = ____________
5. 425 / 5 = ___________
The ASTROLABE
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Art & Literature
Arabian
Nights
CH 10: Islam
Section 3
Muslim Achievements
IBN KHALDUN
Great Arab Historian
ARABIC NUMERALS
ALBEGRA (al-jabr)
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 242-243
1. Muslim society
There were Four social classes:
Those who were
• Muslim by birth
• Converts to Islam
• of other religions (the protected “people of the book”)
• Slaves
______________________________
• Muslim women - at this particular time actually had
more rights than women living in Medieval Europe.
Razia Sultana [1205-1240]
Razia Sultana was the first female Muslim ruler of South Asia.
She was a talented, wise, just and generous woman. She was a
great administrator and well-versed in governmental affairs. She
was not only a good leader in the battlefield but herself was also
an excellent fighter. The capable son of King Iltutmush died during
his own life, and the rest of his sons were incompetent to govern,
so Iltutmush nominated his daughter, Razia Sultana, as his
successor on the throne of Delhi India.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 244
2. Medicine, math, and science
• Arabic numerals, the importance of zero (10 digits)
• Developed algebra, trigonometry in astronomy
Al-Kwarazini (Mohammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi)
was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived.
He was the founder of several branches of mathematics. He not
only initiated the subject of algebra in a systematic form but he
also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of
linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the
founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived
from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Mfuqabilah. His arithmetic
synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and contained his
own contributions to mathematics and science. He explained the
use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by
the Arabs. Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of
numerals 'algorithm' or 'algorizm' is named after him. In addition to introducing the
Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals), he developed at
length several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions. It was
through his work that the system of numerals was first introduced to Arabs and later to
Europe, through its translations in European languages. He developed in detail
trigonometric tables containing the sine functions.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 244-245
2. Medicine, math, and science
• Arabic numerals, the importance of zero (10 digits)
• Developed algebra, trigonometry in astronomy
• Charted stars, comets, and planets / constellation charts
• The astrolabe
The Astrolabe played a pivotal role in history.
The astrolabe was highly developed in the Islamic world by
800 and was introduced to Europe from Islamic Spain
(Andalusia) in the early 12th century. It was the most popular
astronomical instrument until about 1650, when it was
replaced by more specialized and accurate instruments.
It is doubtful the European explorers could have ever
launched the great Age of Discovery without this device.
Astrolabes are still appreciated for their unique capabilites and
their value for astronomy education.
See Textbook, p. 245
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 244
2. Medicine, math, and science
• Arabic numerals, the importance of zero (10 digits)
• Developed algebra, trigonometry in astronomy
• Charted stars, comets, and planets / constellation charts
• The astrolabe
• Wrote medical reference books – Rhazes (al-Razi) and Ibn Sina
Avicenna, or Ibn Sina wrote two important
works: The Book of Healing and
The Canon of Medicine.
The first is a scientific encyclopedia covering
logic, natural sciences, psychology, geometry,
astronomy, arithmetic and music.
The second is the most famous single book in
the history of medicine.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 244
2. Medicine, math, and science
• Arabic numerals, the importance of zero (10 digits)
• Developed algebra, trigonometry in astronomy
• Charted stars, comets, and planets / constellation charts
• The astrolabe
• Wrote medical reference books
• Produced a book on optics that would lay the groundwork for the
later development of the telescope and microscope
Alhazen wrote The Book of Optics (Kitab al-Manazir), probably the
most thoroughly scientific in method of all medieval works. In it,
Alhazen developed a broad theory that explained vision by using
geometry and anatomy. He rejected the theory of Euclid and Ptolemy
that vision results from a ray leaving the eye and reaching the object.
Instead he postulated, correctly, that each point on a lighted area or
object radiates light rays in every direction, but only one ray from each
point strikes the eye perpendicularly, "and is transmitted there by the
transparent body [the lens]." So profound and seminal was this
Alhazen
explanation that it led George Sarton to call Alhazen "the greatest
965-1040
Muslim physicist and one the greatest students of optics of all time." PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 244-245
2. Medicine, math, and science
• Arabic numerals, the importance of zero (10 digits)
• Developed algebra, trigonometry in astronomy
• Charted stars, comets, and planets / constellation charts
• The astrolabe
• Wrote medical reference books
• Produced a book on optics that would lay the groundwork for the
later development of the telescope and microscope
• Muslim scholars were re-introducing the Greek
(Aristotle’s) understanding of the importance of
proper scientific observation and experimentation.
Why is it that so many ancient Greek texts survive only in Arabic
translations? How did the Arabs, who had no direct contact
with the science and learning of Classical Greece, come to
be the inheritors of the classical tradition? The answer
appears to be the Umayyad dynasty located in Damascus.
They had an interest in things Greek, employed educated Greekspeaking civil servants extensively, and sought to preserve Greek science.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
B.
A.
D.
C.
Pull out your
Section 2
Take Home Quiz
The Caliphates
•Rome
•Constantinople
SPAIN
BYZANTINE
EMPIRE
• Cordoba
Mediterranean
Sea
NORTH AFRICA
.
Alexandria
Cairo
• Damascus
.
• Jerusalem
• Baghdad
R • Medina
e
d • Mecca
Packet map, p. 2
S
Persian
Gulf
ARABIA
e
a
Arabian
Sea
Which Muslim dynasty
was in power in A.D. 732
when Arab forces were
defeated at the Battle of
Tours by the Frankish
armies of Gaul led by
Charles Martel, thus
halting Arab expansion
in Europe?
About how many years
did the Abbasid dynasty
last?
Muslims split into two
main sects – Shi’a and
Sunni – after a revolt led
by Hussein in what year?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p.
The House of Wisdom
A Great Center of Learning
During Abbasid Rule
In Baghdad
The House of Wisdom was actually
a group of learned Arabic men –
including the great mathmetician al-Khawarizmi,
the Bana Musa brothers (Mohammed Jafar ibn
Musa, Ahmad ibn Musa and al-Hasan ibn Musa),
and Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Sabbah alKindi
- to whom was entrusted the task of
translating Greek manuscripts into Arabic.
Abbassid Castle in Baghdad
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 246
3. Philosophy and History
• Translated the works of Greek philosophers into Arabic.
• Ibn Khaldun wrote a study of World History.
Ibn Khaldun's chief contribution lies in philosophy of history and sociology.
He wrote the first world history aimed at an analysis of historical events.
This volume, commonly known as Muqaddimah or 'Prolegomena',
was based on Ibn Khaldun's unique approach and became a masterpiece in
literature on philosophy of history and sociology. The chief concern of this
monumental work was to identify psychological, economic, environmental
and social facts that contribute to the advancement of human civilization and
the currents of history. He analyzed the dynamics of group relationships and
Ibn Khaldun
showed how group-feelings, al-'Asabiyya, give rise to the ascent of a new
1332-1395
civilization and political power and how, later on, its diffusion into a more
general civilization invites the advent of a still new 'Asabiyya in its pristine form.
He identified an almost rhythmic repetition of rise and fall in human civilization,
and analyzed factors contributing to it. His contribution to history is marked by the
fact that, unlike most earlier writers interpreting history largely in a political
context, he emphasized environmental, sociological, psychological and economic
factors governing the apparent events. This revolutionized the science of history
and also laid the foundation of Umraniyat (Sociology).
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 246
4. Literature and the Arts
• The Qur’an – a great work of literature.
• Poetry
• Legendary stories such as the Arabian Nights
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Nights:
The Arabian Nights
The Story of the Merchant and the Genie
The Story of the First Old Man and the Hind
The Story of the Second Old Man and the Black Dogs
The Story of the Fisherman
The Story of the Greek King
The Story of the Husband and the Parrot
The Story of the Vizir Who was Punished
The Story of the Young King of the Black Isles
The Story of the Three Kalandars
The Story of the First Kalandar
The Story of the Second Kalandar
The Story of the Envious Man
The Story of the Third Kalandar
The First Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Second Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Third Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Fourth Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Fifth Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Sixth Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Seventh and Last Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor
The Little Hunchback
The Story of the Barber's Fifth Brother
The Story of the Barber's Sixth Brother
The Adventures of Prince Camaralzaman
Noureddin and the Fair Person
Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp
The Caliph of Bagdad
The Story of the Blind Baba-Abdalla
The Story of Sidi-Nouman
The Story of the Merchant of Baghdad
The Enchanted Horse
The Story of the Jealous Sisters
Art & Literature
Arabian
Nights
1001 Nights...?
Do you know the story?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 246
4. Literature and the Arts
• The Qur’an – a great work of literature.
• Poetry
• the Arabian Nights
• Arabesque art
In the visual arts and architectural
design, Arabesque art is a linear
decoration based on plant forms.
Arabesque motifs are complicated,
intertwined, flowing designs first found
in ancient Arabic art – hence the term.
They are a feature of ancient Greek and
Roman art, and are particularly common
in Islamic art.
Check out more examples
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p. 246-247
4. Literature and the Arts
• The Qur’an – a great work of literature.
• Poetry
• the Arabian Nights
• Arabesque art
• Calligraphy
The beautiful handwriting
called calligraphy played an
important artistic role in a
culture like the Muslim society
where human representation
was not considered proper.
Click here to see several unique
styles of calligraphy.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p.
QUIZ TIME!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 10, Sec. 3: “Muslim Achievements” Packet, p. 19
Textbook, p.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
TEST DAY
Answer question # 1. – 40. on Scantron.
# 32.
A.
C.
B.
BONUS:
According to Section 1 in Chapter 10, who were the ulama ?
For Monday: Skim Chapter 11 Section 1; p. 269
Look over important names and terms.
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