Chapter 35 South Asia & The Middle East By: Cherease Street Section 1: Nations of South Asia Since the 1800’s Indian nationalists had demanded independence. After World War II, Britain finally agreed to these demands. As the long awaiting dream approached a new issue surfaced. What would happen to the Muslim minority in a Hindu dominated India? Independence and Partition Two States Muhammad Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League, insisted that Muslims have their own state, Pakistan. The disputes between Hindu’s and Muslims helped convince Britain to partition (divide) the subcontinent. In 1947 British officials drew borders to create Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. Pakistan was made up of vastly separated areas that had a large Muslim population. Tragedy Unfolds That same year millions of Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders of India and Pakistan in both directions.During the mass migration northern India plunged into savage violence. Muslims slaughtered Hindu neighbours. As many as one million , mostly Muslims, died. Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. In India, he is recognized as the Father of The Nation. Horrified at the partition and violence Gandhi turned to satygraha (soul force). on January 30, 1948, he was shot and killed by a Hindu extremist. Gandhi’s death discredited the extremists and helped end the worst violence. World’s Largest Democracy India based its government and system of law on Britain’s systems. Even though Indians united behind the Congress party in its drive to independence, the new nation was still deeply divided. Indian spoke a variety of languages and dialects. Although most Indians were Hindu, millions were Muslim, Christian, Sikh, or Buddhist. India’s constitution set up a federal system, similar to the one of the United states. The governments powers were divided between a strong central government and smaller local governments. The Nehru Dynasty For 40 years after independence India was led by the Nehru family. As prime minister from 1947- 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru worked to build a modern secular state dedicated to promote social justice. After he died, his daughter Indira Gandhi, and later Rajiv Gandhi became the new leaders of India. Both were popular, energetic leaders, but their high-handed politics sometimes eroded goodwill. Economic Growth After independence India wanted to expand their agriculture and industry. India’s government adopted the socialist five year plan to set economic goals and manage resources. Industrial Growth While under British rule India had a basic transportation network. After their independence, Nehru had dams built to produce hydroelectric power and poured resources into heavy industries such as steel. In a few decades, India was on the verge of becoming an industrial power. Despite the progress India lacked oil and natural gas, which were two resources essential to economic growth. As a result, India had to rely on expensive imported oil. Green Revolution Desiring India to be self-sufficient in food production, Nehru took advantage of the Green Revolution. New seeds, chemical fertilizers, and irrigation methods boosted crop output. Only farmers with enough land and money benefited from the new crops. Most farmers depended on the seasonal monsoons and produced enough to survive with few surplus. Education India’s government built schools and universities needed to educate the work force to support an industrial economy. India’s literacy rate climbed, although mostly for boys because they were more likely to attend school. Children of poor families often got little schooling because they were needed to work. The Population Issue Rapid population growth hampered efforts to improve conditions for most people. India’s population has almost tripled since independence. Food output increased, but so did demand. More than a third of Indians live below poverty level, eating only one meal a day. As population boomed and the Green Revolution eliminated many agricultural jobs, millions of people streamed into cities to find work. Many of the cities did not have enough jobs to eliminate the rising unemployment rate. The government encouraged family planning, but did not impose harsh population control measures as china did. Economic Reforms An economic slowdown and pressure from foreign lenders forced India’s government to impose new reforms. India formed their economic reforms after the Asian Tigers. Privatizing industries and making foreign investments easier were one of the first reforms. These steps helped India to take a major role in textiles, software production, and other industries. Social Changes India’s constitution banned discrimination against Untouchables. The government set aside jobs and universities for these groups that were long mistreated.Violent protest by the upper caste Hindu’s forced the government to back off of its plans. Women gained the right to vote. A few educated women won elected offices or entered professions. Still many girls of poor families received schooling. In rural areas women made up a majority of the work force, but few received wages for their labors. Indian women formed organizations like the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) which created opportunities for women. Women’s groups also protested violence against women, dowry laws, and environmental protection. Enduring Issues In the early 1990’s the Bharata Janata party (BJP) won growing support and wanted a government guided by Hindu principles. In 1992 the BJP called for the destruction of the Ayodhya Mosque. In 1983, Sikh separatists occupied the Golden Temple in Amritsar to push the demands of their own state. When talks failed Indira Gandhi sent troops to clear the temple. Thousands of Sikhs died and a few months later Gandhi was killed by her own Sikh bodyguards. Pakistan’s road to Modernization West and East Pakistan were separated by a huge chunk of India. As tension between the Bangalis and the Punjabis flared the Bangalis broke away. In 1971 they declared independence for Bangladesh. A civilian politician Ali Bhutto became president. He promised to rebuild Pakistan, but was later overthrown and executed by the military. 1988 Bhutto’s Benazir Bhutto daughter became the first woman to head a modern Muslim state. Two years later she was dismissed on charges of corruption. Economic Choices Pakistan moved to improve agriculture. It distributed unused land to landless farmers, experimented with new high yield crops, and financed irrigation projects. Building dams and clearing land helped to boost food output, but at high cost to the environment. South Asia and the World Distrust has always been a part of Pakistan’s and India’s relationship. At independence, border conflicts sparked war over Kashmir. Kashmir was a princely state signed over to India by a Hindu prince. Kashmir’s Muslim majority wanted to be part of Pakistan. The Cold War In 1974 when India tested a nuclear device Pakistan began to feel threatened. During the Cold War Pakistan and India parted and went their separate ways. In India Nehru welcomed economic aid from the Soviet Union and the United States, but still kept their neutrality. Pakistan feeling threaten by India and the Soviet Union accepted the US military aid. Afghanistan In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded and set up a puppet government. The US funneled weapons to help aid the Afghan guerillas based in Pakistan. The guerilla attacks eventually forced the Soviets to withdraw. Sri Lanka The Tamil-speaking Hindu minority made efforts to win equality. When their efforts failed, Tamil rebels waged war to set up a separate nation. India initially supported them,but later rejected them. Rajiv Gandhi sent troops to suppress the rebels, but their attempts failed. His action outraged the Tamil extremists, who assassinated him in 1991. Section 2: Forces Shaping the Modern Middle East The Middle East in this chapter refers to the region from Egypt in the west to Iran in the east and from Turkey in the north to the Arabian peninsula in the south. Middle Eastern people speak more than 30 different languages. The Muslims in the region share the same faith,but belong to different national groups. Nationalism and Independence Iraq won freedom from Britain in 1932. After WWII British and French mandate territories became independent. Pan-Arabism survived and united the Arab state. The Arab league, which promoted Arab unity in times of crisis and worked for the common economic goals. After independence many Arab nations depended economically on the west. Westerners owned banks and industries. Ending western domination was a goal of the governments in the middle east. Britain and France had drawn borders to serve their own interests. Arab nations inherited these borders. This led to disputes because within these borders were various groups who were hostile to one another. The Birth of Israel Jewish migration to Palestine, which began in the late 1800’s accelerated after WWII. In the US the horrors of the Holocaust created a strong support for the Jewish homeland. In 1947 the UN set up a partition plan, but the Arabs rejected it. To them it was a plan to relocate European Jews on ancient Arab land. In 1948 the Jews proclaimed the independence of the State Israel. The US and the USSR recognized the new nation. Arab states however assembled a military and attacked Israel. In the end Israel almost doubled its territory. The nation developed quickly. American aid and high taxes gave Israel the money to invest in industry and agriculture. Israelis built factories and developed methods to farm their arid land. Kibbutzim or collective farms, produced crops to export. The Impact of Oil The 1973 OPEC oil embargo showed that oil could be a powerful diplomatic weapon. Oil rich nations like Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were able to build roads, hospitals, and schools. Poor countries lacked money that was necessary to develop. Political and Economic Patterns Most middle eastern nations developed authoritarian governments. Jordan and Saudi Arabia were ruled by a hereditary monarchs. In Iraq and Syria, a single party won power. Dictators like Iraq’s Saddam Hussein brutally suppressed opponents, but enjoyed some popular backing because their social and economic policies improved life for many. Only Israel and Turkey formed a multi-party democratic system. In the 1950’s Arab nations turned to socialism because it was the best way to end foreign economic control and modernize rapidly. They nationalize their banks, oil, and factories. Despite their efforts they still depended heavily on the industrial world for their technology. Governments raised money from foreign loans. They used the funds to finance industry and agricultural projects, especially irrigation improvement projects. Keep the Water Flowing In the later 1980’s Turkey began building dams to harness the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The goal of these massive projects were to turn the once arid region into a bread basket. Water is a vital resource for people all over the world. Nowhere is it more vital than in areas like the middle east where rainfall is limited and water is scarce. Growing population and rising standard of living increased demands for water. Farmers in the middle east can produce good crops if they got sufficient water. In these regions farming accounts for 80% of the water usage. Dam building also sparked conflict over water rights because many rivers in the middle east run through more than one country. Islamic Revival As in the past the Muslim Quran and Sharia provide guidance in all aspects of life. During the age of imperialism westerners urged Muslims to modernize. Some middle eastern leaders adopted the western models of government, and promise economic progress and social justice. After failed development many Muslim leaders and writers called for a return to the laws of the Sharia. Islamic reformers did not reject modernization, but they did reject westernization. They believed that return to the old Muslim ways was the only way out of their predicament. Across the Muslim world the Islamic revival sparked debate between reformers and secularists. Women In The Middle East Since the 1950’s women in most countries have won the right to vote and equality before the law. They attend schools and universities. Middle and Upper-class women have entered professions such as law, engineering, and medicine. In various countries many urban women gave up the old practices of wearing a hejab or cover. In recent times however many educated Muslim women returned to wearing a hejab. Women who returned to the hejab saw it as an expression of sincere loyalty to Muslim values and practices. Under Sharia law women held a powerful role in the family and in economic decision making. However in other countries women’s rights were limited by law. Many women spoke out against these treatments and the need for women to be recognized as full contributions to national life. Section 3: Nation Building In The Middle East Turkey Turkey had been an independent republic since the 1920’s. Kemal Ataturk pushed to built a modern secular state modeled after the west. The Soviets tried to expand southward into Turkey to gain control of the Bosporus. With US aid Turkey held off the threat. In the 1950’s Turkey joined NATO and remained a key ally in the Mediterranean. In times of unrest the military seized power. Later Turkey will have a multi-party democratic government. Turkey transformed its economy, building dams, and expanding industry. They even sought to join the European Union, so they exported crops to Europe. The EU agreed to form closer ties. Conflicts In Turkey Turkey tried to force the Kurds within its borders to abandon their identity. They were forbidden to speak, broadcast, or publish books in their language. Kurdish revolts were fiercely suppressed. Gradually the Turkish government agreed to end laws against the Kurdish people. Turkey also had a waging conflict with the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean. There were numerous conflicts between the Greek majority and the Muslim minority on this island. Egypt: A Leader In The Arab World Egypt has ties with both Africa where it is located and the Arab world the source of their main religion. Egypt’s location between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean has always been important. It is the most populated Arab state and controls the Suez Canal. It is a rich agricultural region. Gamal Abdel Nasser emerged as a towering figure in the middle east. Nasser was a military officer who came to power after the overthrow of a ruler who led foreigners to dominate his country. He was determined to modernize and at the same time end foreign domination. Britain and France threatened to invade, but his defiance boosted his prestige in the Arab world. He later formed a union with Syria, as a step toward a Pan-Arab goal. He was an outspoken enemy of Israel he waged two wars against the state , but lost both. Economic Development Nasser turned to Socialism . He nationalized banks and businesses and undertook sweeping land reforms. Nasser built a huge dam on the upper Nile, called the Aswan High Dam. The massive dam created a reservoir, lake Nasser and 2 million acres of new farmland. It made year round irrigation for farming possible. After Nasser’s death the new president Anwar Sadat turned to the policy of infitah or opening. His goal was to encourage foreign investment and private business. Sadat moved away from the Soviets and closer to the US. 1979 was the year he became the first Arab leader to make peace with Israel. Sadat made promises, but did not improve the lives of Egyptians. In 1981 Sadat was assassinated. Unresolved Issues Sadat’s successor was Hosni Mubarak. Farm output expanded, but it could not keep up with the population boom. Many families that streamed to Cairo ended up living in crowded slums. Islamic organizations developed schools, medical services and relief for the poor. Iran: Goals for the Revolution The discovery of vast oil fields made Iran a focus for British, Soviet and US interests. In 1945 Muhammad Reza Pahlavi was backed by the west, but faced opposition from groups at home. Iranian parliament voted to nationalized the oil industry. He used oil wealth to build roads and industries. He granted women rights and redistributed some land to the peasants. He reduced the power of the Ulama or Islamic Scholars, teachers and legal experts. Unrest grew and his Savak or secret police arrested, tortured or executed opponents, especially members of the left wing groups. In the 1970’s Shiites rallied leaders like Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. He accused the government of violating Islamic law. The Ulama returned to guide leaders of a new Islamic republic that would restore the Sharia to the center of Iranian life. The revolutionaries banned western books, music and movies. He also abolished all previous legislature favoring women. Section 4: The Middle East and the World During the Cold War, the United States fought communist threats in Turkey and backed the anti-communist Shah of Iran, while the Soviet Union found allies in the four Middle Eastern countries of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Libya. The Arab Israeli Conflict In 1967, Israel won the Golan Heights from Syria, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Gaza strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. Israel refused to give up these territories until Arab nations recognized Israel’s right to exist. Meanwhile, the Palestine Liberation Organization waged guerrilla war against Israelis both at home and abroad. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the peace process was accelerated because with soviet aid some Arab governments accepted the need for negotiation with Israel. In 1993 a historic agreement was signed between Israel and the PLO. People on both sides criticized the agreement as world leaders worked hard to bring peace to the region. Civil War in Lebanon In Lebanon, the government depended on a delicate balance among Maronites (a Christian sect), Sunni and Shiite Muslims, Druze (a sect derived from Islam) and others. When Muslims began to outnumber Maronites, unrest spread. In 1975, civil war broke out in Lebanon. Not until 1990 did Lebanese leaders finally restore some order. Two Wars In The Persian Gulf In the Persian Gulf, tensions were fed by Border dispute, oil wealth, foreign intervention and ambitious rulers. Then, in 1980, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein attacked Iran. The war lasted eight years and both sides suffered heavy casualties. Hussein again acted aggressively in 1990, when he sent Iraqi troops into Kuwait. United States President George Bush organized American, European, and Arab forces to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. For years after the war, UN economic sanctions stopped Iraq from selling its oil abroad. The goal was to force Hussein to cease his chemical and nuclear program. Section 4 Review of Terms and Places Yitzhak Rabin Israeli prime minister who signed an agreement giving Palestinians limited self-rule PLO Organization that waged guerrilla war against Israelis Intifada Uprising of Palestinian youths Yasir Arafat Leader of the PLO Questions 1 and 2 The main course of the Arab-Israeli conflicts from 1948 to 1973 was the clash between 1. 2. 3. 4. Islamic Fundamentalism and Orthodox Judaism Arab socialism and Israeli capitalism Arab nationalism and Jewish nationalism Israeli technology and Saudi Arabian economic goals In Iran, the Revolution of 1979 and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism resulted in 1. 2. 3. 4. an increase in woman’s rights the westernisation and modernization of the nation a return to many traditional customs the introduction of a democratic form of government Questions 3 and 4 Israel is a country that has 1. 2. 3. 4. an abundance of oil a democratically elected government Islam as its official religion friendly ties to Jordan The 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran was a reaction to the failure of Shah Reza Pahlavi to 1. 2. 3. 4. modernize the nation’s economy meet the social and political needs of the people establish political ties with western nations supply the military with advanced weapons technology Question 5 The actions of most Islamic fundamentalists show that they support 1. 2. 3. 4. a Zionist movement equal rights for women traditional Muslim teachings a renewed attempt at modernization Answers 1-3 Question 1: Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The Arab-Israeli conflict stems from the division of Palestine by the United Nations in 1947. Separate Jewish and Arab states were created. The Jews accepted this plan, while the Arabs did not. Shortly after, the Jews created the state of Israel, which caused all of the neighbouring Arab nations to attack. There has been nearly constant warfare in this region since the creation of Israel. Question 2: Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: The revolution of 1979 ended the westernisation and modernization of Iran, and set up a traditional government and society based upon the Koran. Question 3: Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Israel’s government is a Parliamentary Democracy. Answers 4-5 Question 4: Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Shah Reza Pahlavi westernised and modernized Iran. However, he ruled as a dictator, often violating his people’s civil rights in an effort to stay in power. This ultimately led to the revolution that removed him from power. Question 5: Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Islamic fundamentalism is a movement to reject westernisation and return to a more tradition society based upon the Koran.