APWH REVIEW Boundary 2 600-1450 Why do changes occur in Boundary 2? • 1. mass migrations: significant numbers of people left one are and traveled to another • 2. imperial conquest: an empire of country deliberately conquers territory outside its borders • 3. cross-cultural trade and exchange: widespread contact among regions brings new goods, ideas and customs Major events in Boundary 2 • Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Buddhism came to become more important than political organizations and defined regions of the world • The Mongols had a huge impact on the people they came into contact with • Islam began in the 7th century and spread rapidly throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, Europe, and Southeast Asia • Europe became connected to major trade routs, and some of its kingdoms were beginning to assert world power by 1450 • China grew to have hegemony over many other areas of Asia and became one of the larges and most prosperous empires of the time (Tang, Song, Yuan, early Ming) • Long distance trade continued to develop along previous trade routes, but the amount and complexity of trade and contact increased significantly The Growth of Islam • Muhammad died in 643 CE, but by that time Islam had spread over much of the Arabian Peninsula. • The government set up a caliphate (ruled by a caliph) selected by the leaders of the umma. • Abu-Bakr, one of Muhammad’s close friends, became the first caliph. • By the middle of the 8th century Muslim armies had conquered land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River, and the caliphate stretched 6000 miles east to west. • Muslim commanders used effective war tactics and the armies were efficiently organized. • The Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak so the Muslim armies were aided by the weakness of the empires they sought to conquer • The Qur’an forbid forced conversions, so conquered people were allowed to retain their own religions. Muslims considered Jews and Christians superior to polytheistic people because they were monotheistic and people of the book. Many people converted because of the appeal of Islam, and the fact that they did not have to pay a poll tax. Sunni/Shi’ite split • When Ali died in 661 a civil war started. The Umayyad family emerged to take control but there was a division. • 1. Sunni: leader should be selected by the leaders of the Muslim community • 2. Shi’a: caliph should be a relative of the Prophet, and they rejected the Umayyads’ authority. The Changing Status of Women in Arabia due to Islam • Patriarchal in structure, but women in Arabia had some rights that were not found in other regions such as inheriting property, divorcing husbands, and engaging in business ventures. • The Qur’an outlawed female infanticide and provided dowries go directly to brides. • It reinforced male dominance and recognized descent through the male lines to ensure legitimacy of heirs. • The Qur’an allowed men to take up to four wives and adopted a custom of veiling women and women could only venture outside the house in the company of servants or chaperones. Art, Science, and Technology in Arabia • Since Islam was a missionary religion the ulama, and the qadis (judges) helped to bridge cultural differences throughout the Islamic lands (dar alIslam.) • Higher education schools (madrasas) appeared in the 10th century and were established by the 12th century. • The madrasas were supported by the wealthy and attracted scholars from all over. • Persian became the principle language of literature, poetry, history, and political theory. • They adapted mathematics form the people they conquered and mad the “Arabic numerals.” Muslims are also credited with the development of algebra. • There was an interest in Greek philosophy, science, and medical writings. • Nasir al-Din studied and made a heliocentric model for the solar system that was later used by Copernicus. Interregional Networks and Contacts • Contacts between societies in the M.E., India, and Asia increased significantly. • Europeans are first involved through Venice and Genoa. • Trans-Saharan trade became more vigorous as major civs. developed south of the Sahara. • The Med. Sea and the Indian Ocean linked the Muslim Empire and Arabic sailors dominated trade where they set up banks throughout the caliphate and the cities on the trade routes became very cosmopolitan. African Societies and Empires • Around 640, Islam spread into the northern part of Africa and brought the unifying forces of religious practices and the law (the shari’a) • Many African rulers converted to Islam and centralized states began to form. • Some African peoples retained their identities and tribal loyalties although they adopted the new religion. This allowed for a nonviolent spread of Islam that was good for trade, especially since Africa had gold. Major Empires in West Africa • Ghana: By the 700’s Ghana was growing rich from taxing the goods that traders carried through their territory. Their most important asset was gold that they traded for salt. Ghana’s king had exclusive rights to the gold and kept the price high. The king had an impressive army and the empire thrived. Many of Ghana’s rulers and elites converted to Islam, but most of the regular people retained their native religions. Ghana is conquered in the 11th century. • Mali: By the 13th century the Mande-speaking people south of Ghana made a larger, more powerful, and richer society than Ghana had been. Wealth was based on gold and new deposits were found and this became the basic commodity in long distance trade. • Mali’s first great king was Sundiata who defeated surrounding kingdoms and was very effective. • Mansu Musa, a 14th century ruler traveled on the hajj to Mecca and expounded the city of Timbuktu as a center for world trade, education and sophistication. • The Swahili city-states: Trade cities along the eastern coast of Africa that provided an important link for long distance trade. • These cities are not united, but were well developed and sophisticated. Most of the people were Muslim and their sailors were renown for their ability to maneuver their small boats through the Indian Ocean to India. The Crusades • In 1095 Pope Urban II called for the Christian Crusade to defend the Christian Middle East (the Holy Lands,) and the Eastern Mediterranean. • In 1453 Constantinople was taken by the Muslims and renamed Istanbul. • The Crusades brought Europe into the major world trade circuit. • The societies of the M.E. were much rich than European kingdoms, and the knights encountered more sophisticated cultures here. (Created “want” for silk, spices, gold) The Mongols • Pastoralists who were organized loosely into kinship groups called clans. • Around 1200 CE Temujin (Genghis Khan) took the title (universal leader) and used horseman ship and military skills to conquer vast amounts of land. • They used generals who were either kinsmen or trusted friends, and surprised tactics, catapults, and gunpowder. • The Mongols stopped in Eurasia when Ogodai (G.K.’s son) died. • The Mongols were also contained by the Mamluk armies of Egypt. • The Mongol invasion disrupted major trade routes, but they worked hard to recover them through organization. • The Mongols defeated an area through brutal tactics, but were usually content to extract tribute from them and allowed the conquered people to keep many of their customs. Two Travelers (1200-1300) • Marco Polo: late 1200’s left Venice and traveled to China. Met with the Chinese ruler Kublai Khan (G.K.’s g.s.) who showed him around China. He stayed for 17 years before he tried to return and was imprisoned in Genoa. • Ibn Battuta: 1300’s traveled throughout the Islamic Empires. From Morocco and traveled to Mecca, Kilwa (African coast), India, the Black Sea, Spain, Mali, and central Asia. He wrote about the customs and practices of these societies. China • During boundary 2, China is the richest and most powerful empire in the world and was extended over most of Asia. • The Han Dynasty fell in the 3rd century CE and China went through a period of chaos. • The Sui Dynasty (589-618) lasted for a very short time, but was able to restore centralized imperial rule. • They were responsible for building the Grand Canal (an enormous waterworks project.) It helped with internal trade an contact. The Tang Dynasty (618-907) • Three major accomplishments: • 1. A strong transportation and communication system: The Grand Canal, an advanced road system with established cities • 2. The equal-field system: the emperor tried to ensure that land distribution was fair and equitable. Caused problems later b/c he limited the land to rich families (In 900 the rich will start to get land back and will cause an end to the dynasty) • 3. Merit-based bureaucracy: developed during the Han, but more efficient b/c they recruited well educated, loyal, and efficient gov. officials • Tang China extracted tribute from neighboring realms and people • In 688 Tang China conquered Korea. • Mahayana Buddhism was popular during Tang China and Empress Wu (690-705) was a strong supporter of Buddhism by giving lots of money to monasteries and art. • Buddhism ran into problems with Confucian and Daoist thought because Buddhism encourages supporters to withdraw from society and encouraged personal meditation while C. and D. thought emphasized a personal duty to one’s society, obedience, and hierarchy. • In the 800’s Confucian scholar-bureaucrats convinced emperors to take land away from the monasteries during the equal-field system. Confucianism will emerge as the central ideology of Chinese civilization. Song Dynasty • The Song dynasty was invaded by nomadic groups. • In 960 a military commander emerged to reunite China and began the Song Dynasty. • The Song Emperors emphasized civil administration, industry, education, and the arts. • They did not have hegemony over as much land, but this was a “golden age” in Chinese history as it was a time of prosperity, sophistication, and creativity. • They encouraged the bureaucracy based on merit and pushed Confucian philosophy. Problems Under the Song • Finances: The expanding bureaucracy made expenses skyrocket. They raised taxes and the peasants rebelled. • Military: They needed a strong military b/c of the nomadic invaders. The Juchens (N.) overran northern China and captured the Song capital. • The southern part of the Empire was taken over by the Mongols in 1279. Economic Changes in the Tang and Song • Increasing agricultural production: China had produced wheat and barley, now they can grow rice (b/c southern areas.) Used new equipment (heavy plows, and water buffalo) • Increasing Population: growth b/c of agricultural revolution, and the Grand Canal brought food and supplies to far regions. • Urbanization: Cosmopolitan cities with markets, public theatres, restaurants, and craft shops opened. Farmers could grow fruits and vegetables instead of only rice. • Technological Innovation: Tang craftsmen produced lighter, thinner, more beautiful porcelain (china.) Produced better quality iron and steel. Between the 9th and 12th centuries gunpowder, movable type printing, and seafaring aids were invented and used. • Financial inventions: copper became scarce, so they developed paper money. They also let “flying cash” (checks.) Neo-Confucianism • During the Song period Neo-Confucianism helped with the tension between Buddhism and Confucianism. • The Neo-Confucianism used the social and political structure of Confucianism while adopting the idea the nature of the soul, the individual’s spiritual relationships, and the universal spirit found in Buddhism. Women in the Tang and Song • Patriarchal societies so women’s status low and confined to the home. • Foot binding became very popular proving that they did not need women to work. • Peasants and middle class women did not bind their feet b/c they needed to be able to walk but the practice shows their subservience to their male guardians. The Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Kan (G.K.’s g.s.) captrued the capital of the Song Empire and moved the new capital to Beijing (Khanbaluk.) • China was unified and its borders grew significantly. • Mongols replaced the top bureaucrats, but the lower Confucian officials remained in place and they respected Chinese customs and innovations. • Trade flourished, but merchants had a much lower status than scholars in the beginning, but as more land was conquered the status of merchants also rose which upset Confucian bureaucrats. • The Mongols increased tributes and established “tax farming” where middle men were responsible for collecting taxes because it was expensive to have such a vast empire. • Tax farming led to corruption, rural poverty grew, and a plague spread devastating the population. • A conspiracy was developed among the Confucian scholars, they overthrew the Mongols and established the Ming Empire in 1279.) APWH REVIEW Boundary 3 1450-1750 Why is B. 3 important? • 1. For the first time in history the western hemisphere is in contact with the eastern hemisphere. This is due to technological innovations, strengthened political organization, and economic prosperity which altered world trade patterns. • 2. Sea-based trade is going to gain control and prestige over land-based systems. • 3. European nations emerge as a world power. • 4. Nomadic power dwindled as sea-based trade became more important. They continued to cause some problems with the land-based empires. • 5. Labor systems are changed with the acquisition of colonies in the Americas. The mita, encomienda, and African slave labor are all used. In addition indentured servitude will be used in N. America by the British. • 6. “Gunpowder Empires” emerge in the Middle East and Asia. These empires used new weapons and technology to gain strength, but will have problems with communication, defense, and financial stressors so their power will decline by the end of this boundary. (Safavid Empire, Mughal Empire, Ottoman Empire) Exploration • In the end of boundary 2 (~1400) Ming Emperor Yongle sent Zheng He and his treasure ships (junks) to regain hegemony over surrounding areas. • Yongle wanted to convince other civilizations that China had regained their power and they also wanted to reinstitute tribute. • ~1450 European monarchs wanted to establish trade routes that benefited themselves, and wanted to spread Christianity. • Portugal and Spain were the first European nations to explore seriously. Portugal already dominated the Indian Ocean Trade but wanted to expand, while Spain wanted a piece of the maritime trade pie. • Portugal and Spain, upon finding the Americas, split up the land with the Pope’s permission in the Treaty of Tordesillas. • In the 1500’s Portuguese power will decline while Spain will continue to take more land in the Americas. Hernan Cortes will have a huge effect when he conquers the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan in 1519. In the 1520’s Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca. • The French and English took control of North America, did not clash over land until the 1700’s. Consequences of the Americas • Great Circuit: connects N. America, S. America, Europe, and Africa. This is a significant change. • Columbian Exchange: the exchange of foods, animals, and disease along the Great Circuit between the four continents. • These goods had tremendous results on diet and health, but disease had devastating results on populations. How did this Maritime Revolution Happen? • Guns and gunpowder: adapted from Chinese invented explosives, these two items intimidated Native Americans • Ships technology: deep drafts and round hulls allowed for sailing on the Atlantic • Compass: technology taken from the Arabs, needed for accurate location • Astrolabe: technology taken from the Arabs needed for accurate location • Cartography: art of mapmaking is taken more seriously and accurately. • Mercator Projection: relatively accurate map for lands around the equator • Chart: p. 94: Compare and Contrast Colonial Political and Social Structures of Spain and England The Gunpowder Empires • This is a time of growth for Islamic civilization and a prosperity for Muslim Empires. • Each of the three Muslim Empires (Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal) were founded by Turkic nomads, but there was political division and military clashes between them. • They all had courts modeled on earlier Islamic dynasties. Similar problems • Inadequate transportation and communication systems to support such a large land-based empire. • Military leadership operated independent from the government while the bureaucracies were weak and unable to control the warrior elite population. • European countries that were smaller in size (territory and population) could mobilize easier and the Muslim Empires focused too much on one another and left Europe to new discoveries and reform. Patronage in the Islamic Empires • The emperors in the Islamic Empires competed to attract the best scholars, literary writers, artists, and architects to their courts. • Suleyman the Magnificent built a religious complex in the Ottoman Empire. • The Safavid Empire, Isfahan, was very beautiful architecturally. • In the Mughal Empire, Emperor Shah Jahan, dedicated the white marble mosque and tomb, the Taj Majal, to the memory of his wife Weakened Ming Dynasty • Changes in the climate brought uncontrollable weather which led to drought and famine. • The 1500’s saw the reemergence of the Mongols who bestowed the leader of Tibet the title dalai lama for supporting him. • Korea, a tributary state of China, was attacked by Japan and needed to be supported militarily. • Sea trade is becoming more important and pirates began stalking Chinese and Japanese ships. This also brings an end to the Silk Road and the economic security it once brought. • The emperors in the Forbidden City were completely cut off from the unhappy population. The Early Qing Dynasty • The Manchu overthrew the Ming in 1644 and called the empire Qing (pure) because they saw themselves as returning China to glory. • They were not truly viewed as Chinese, however, because they were from the North and were “outsiders” like the Mongols. • They adopted the mandate of heaven, which they used as justification for taking over the Ming. • They kept their ethnic identity and forbid marriage between Manchus and Chinese. • They outlawed the Chinese from learning Mandarin, and required Chinese men to shave their heads and grow long queues as the back of their heads as a sign of submission. • Until the late 1700’s, China is in a golden age where two leaders have long, prosperous reigns (Kangxi and Qianlong) • Kangxi was a brilliant ruler who was a Confucian scholar, poet, supporter of education, and a conquering warrior. • In the early Qing days, China was so prosperous it cancelled taxes several times because the government simply did not need the money. • Contact with the West is going to increase during the early Qing period. • The Jesuits are going to be very aggressive about going into China. Matteo Ricci impressed the Chinese with his education, brilliance, and respect for Chinese culture. They also showed off their skills in science and technology. • The Jesuits had little success converting the people, and when the Pope denied ancestor worship, Kangxi ordered an end to the Jesuit ministries. • The Europeans, in the mean time, had become hooked on silk, tea, porcelain, wallpaper, and other decorative items. • The European elite boasted Kangxi as a philosopher king, and he in turn created the Canton system. • All trade was supervised and the Chinese were very wary of the Europeans. Cultural and Intellectual Life in China • The Ming and early Qing emperors looked to Chinese traditions to strengthen cultural and intellectual life. • New-Confucianism becomes very strong and numerous Confucian schools are founded by emperors to reinforce beliefs. • The civil service exams were maintained, and Chinese literature, philosophy, and histories are written during this time. • The printing press makes popular novels available to literate businessmen and books are now being put in the hands of more than just the scholars. Tokugawa Japan • Until the early 1600’s,the Japanese daimyos (regional lords) operated independently from the shoguns. • In the early 1600’s the daimyos became united under the very powerful Tokugawa family. • The Tokugawa Shogunate was honored in ceremony and a capital was placed at Edo. Daimyos were forced to attend council at Edo every other year which gave them less time to work on their armies back home. This ensured safety to the Shogunate. • The Japanese are wary of Christian missionaries due to their observation of the Spanish conquest of the Philippines. • They were also worried that some daimyos might conspire with the Europeans to overthrow the T.S. • In the 1630’s Japan was closed to foreign trade and forbid all Japanese from going abroad and expelled all Europeans form Japan. • They carefully controlled trade with other Asians. The policies were very strict, but hard to control at great distances. The Russian Empire • By the 1600’s, while China is in a golden age, Russia has expanded almost to its present borders. • They shared problems with China, including attacks by nomads. • Peter the Great looked westward for guidance in strengthening a growing empire. • Russia’s early days had been shaped by the Byzantine Empire, but the tsar power faded when Byzantium fell at the hands of the Ottomans in 1453. • Before Peter, Russia had almost no contact with Western Europe and it lacked the warm water ports to participate in seabased trade. • The feudalistic structure meant czars had a hard time controlling boyars (Russian nobility) who often plotted against them. • The tsars practiced absolutism which was backed by a divine right to rule granted by the Russian Orthodox Church. • Peter the Great was intrigued by Europeans at a young age and turned his country more western by imitating western ways through a variety of reforms. • 1. He built an army by offering better pay and drafted serfs to serve as professional soldiers. • 2. He organized roads and communication systems through the development of infrastructure. • 3. Gained territory along the Baltic Sea from the Swedish, and tried unsuccessfully to gain territory along the Black Sea from the Ottomans. • 4. He created a system for the government to more effectively tax the citizens. Peter replaced the boyars as tax collectors and hired merit based employees which eventually did away with the titles of nobility. • 5. He moved the capital and his court from Moscow to St. Petersburg which had European architecture. • Catherine the Great will further strengthen the Russian Empire during her reign. African Kingdoms • Songhay was the largest and most organized empire in Africa (NW.) It was earlier controlled by Mali, and brought trade to Timbuktu and Jenne. • The cities were beautiful and prosperous. Islam was the religion supported by the elite. • They did not have guns and were defeated by Moroccan forces in 1591. • The Swahili city-states were also captured by the Portuguese in the 1500’s. • The Kingdom of Kongo in central Africa and the Atlantic Ocean was a centralized state in the 1300’s. The Portuguese traded with them in the 1400’s and converted the king to Christianity. • The Portuguese traded textiles, weapons, advisors, and craftsmen for gold, silver, ivory, and slaves. • The African slave trade existed before the Great Circuit, but the number increased dramatically as a result of the founding of the Americas. Slaves were captured during conflict between tribes. The Slave Trade • The Americas valued strong male slaves to work the plantations. • The Middle East and India valued women for wealthy harems, or household duties. Some males were desirable as well to serve in the armies for the Gunpowder Empires. Trade in the Americas • The Great Circuit involved 3 legs • 1. Europe to Africa: hardware, guns, Indian cotton • 2. Africa to Americas: middle passage carried slaves • 3. Americas to Europe: plantation goods Labor Systems in the Americas • Early on the Spanish and Portuguese used the Native Americans for slave labor in the mita and the encomienda. • In the Inca mita every male worked 1/7 of his life working for the state at a few months each year. The Spanish used this with the silver mines, but found too many Amerindians were dying. • The encomienda was in use during the 16th century for agricultural work. • From 1750 on most slaves went to the Caribbean for sugar cane cultivation. There was a strong demand for tea from China and sugar from the Americas. • In North America tobacco plantations will require intense labor although the climate is generally more suitable for maintaining health and even population growth. • As plantations spread south other crops, such as cotton, kept the slave trade alive. Major Shifts in Demographics • 1. European population rising: due to new foods and lack of plague • 2. Population in Americas decreasing: due to Amerindian death • 3. No population decrease in Africa: some areas reflected population losses, but overall the population was on the rise Cultural/Intellectual Developments • Trade, as a result of the Crusades, made some city-states very wealthy (Venice, Genoa, Florence.) • Wealthy families will become patrons for artists during the Renaissance (Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.) • The Renaissance is an attempt to revive the values of the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean (Greece and Rome.) • There was an emphasis on the capabilities of humans rather than God (humanism.) • This interest also sparked a new interest in math and science. • Mathematical traditions had been preserved and built upon by Muslim scholars. • Copernicus will us Nasir al-Din’s calculations and conclude a heliocentric model which was not published until after his death. • Galileo Galilei built on C.’s model while Johannes Kepler calculated the movement of planets in an elliptical orbit. • In the late 17th, early 18th century, Isaac Newton formulated a set of mathematical laws for the force of gravity. • The printing press, used first in 1454 inspired writers and creative interests throughout Europe. The Protestant Reformation • The Catholic Church will be loosing power during B.3 • Scientists and literary writers are beginning to challenge the church, and the Pope’s political power was compromised as centralization of government gave more authority to kings. • The Catholic Church was very rich by the early 1500’s and many kings resented the amount of land that was owned by the Church. • Martin Luther believed that Christians who have faith form a strong bond with God. • He believed that the church practice of accepting indulgences directly contradicted the notion that a true believer naturally does good works. He did not like the fact that the church was offering promises of salvation for a price. • Luther’s writings became widely accepted in Germany where Protestantism took a firm hold. • John Calvin will start up Calvinism in Scotland. Calvinism focuses on predetermination/predestination. • King Henry VIII of England will also provide the Catholic Church with a blow when he starts the Anglican Church in defiance to The Pope. • These religious movements lead Europe Christian but deeply divided feeding into more competition between the European nations. The Early Enlightenment • During the 17th century, the Sci. Rev. began to be applied to social and political areas of life: the Enlightenment. • Enlightenment philosophers were inspired by the scientists and the Reformation, and believed that there were laws that governed social and political behavior. • In England, the English Civil War resulted in the decapitation of the king, political authority going to the Parliament, and John Locke reconsidering the nature of the government. • He argued that the right to rule came from the consent of the governed, not by God. If monarchs overstepped their boundaries the people should rebel. Boundary 4 (1750-1914) • Europeans dominate long-distance trade throughout the world • The Industrial Revolution gives huge economic and political advantages and creates a dichotomy based on economics • Inequality increases due to imperialism • Political revolutions are inspired by democracy and a desire for independence • The I.R. altered communication and contact. The Suez and Panama canals are built • Migration to the Americas from Europe and Asia • Serf and slave systems became less common • Italy and Germany become nations • The West (Europe, U.S. and Australia) dominate the world The Industrial Revolution • Began in England in the late 18th century. • Substituted hand labor with machine labor and was helped by the following factors: • 1. The Agricultural Revolution: the enclosure movement fenced off private land and farmers began crop rotation. Jethro Tull’s seed drill planted seeds more effectively. Less farmers needed, so population moves to the city. (end of b.3) • 2. Technological Revolution: inventions of mass production, mechanization, and interchangeable parts speed up human nature. • 3. Natural Resources: large, accessible supplies of coal and iron • 4. Economic Strength: solid middle class that had experience with trading and manufacturing. Banks and loans were available • 5. Political stability: No wars on British soil, and the government was not seriously questioned. By 1750, the Parliament’s power exceeded the kings. New Inventions • • • • • The flying shuttle (John Kay) The spinning jenny (James Hargreaves) The water frame (Richard Arkwright) The spinning mule (Samuel Crompton) The power loom (Samuel Crompton) Transportation Improvements • Steam Engine (James Watt) 1790’s • Railroad engine connected the British • 1. Manufacturers had a cheap way to transport materials and finished products • 2. New jobs for rr workers and miners • 3. New industries and inventions and increased productivity • 4. Transported people for work and leisure The IR Spreads • By 1800’s it had spread to the rest of Europe, the United States, Russia, and Japan • British entrepreneurs and gov. officials forbade the export of machinery and technology • Industry developed in the U.S. in the 1820’s b/c of labor shortages. Then slowed due to the Civil War. During the 1870’s there was a lot of expansion to the West. • In the late 1800’s industry spread to Russia and Japan at the hands of the government. (By 1900 Russia can reach both sides of it’s vast country, and Japan is the most industrialized nation in Asia. Patterns of World Trade • Industrialization increased the economic, military, and political strength of the societies that embraced it. • Countries with government support did the best in industrializing. • An international division of labor resulted: people in industrialized countries produced manufactured products, and people in less industrialized countries produced manufactured products, and people in less industrialized countries produced the materials necessary for that production. • Many countries in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and SE Asia became highly dependent on one cash crop such as sugar, cotton, and rubber. This earned L.A. countries the nickname “Banana Republics.” • The division of labor in countries increased the use of raw materials, manufacture goods, and the volume world trade End of the Slave Trade • The American and French revolutions spurred a strong abolitionist movement. • Olaudah Equiano: a west African recounted his experience as a slave taken from Africa to the New World • In the Caribbean, a revolution, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture resulted in the liberation of slaves in Haiti and the creation of the first black state in the Americas. • Manufacturers started looking at Africa as a place for raw materials. • Slave trade had been abolished by 1820 in Britain, the U.S., France, the Netherlands, and in 1847 Spain. • Britain pressured the government to send patrol ships to the west coast of Africa to search and seize violating ships. • The British abolished slavery in 1833, France in 1848, and the U.S. in 1865. • The last country to abolish slavery in the Americas was Brazil. Immigration to the Americas • European and Asian immigrants traveled to North America and Canada to work in factories, railroad construction sites, and plantations. • Migrants to Latin America went to work on agricultural plantations. • Birth rates will decline in industrialized nations. Children are no longer as useful in industry/farming and supporting a large family is hard in an industrialized society. Environmental Changes • Deforestation is a problem as farmers clear forests and soil becomes depleted. • Large cities will grow in industrialized countries. Working Conditions • Most industrial jobs were boring, repetitious, and required long days with few breaks. Family Life • People now left their homes for work and did not return home until late in the day. • Husband and wife worked away from home as did older children. • In early industrialization women held jobs as domestic servants. • Industrialists encouraged women to bring their children to work so that they could work also. Changes in Social Classes • Wealth was increasingly based on money and success in business enterprises, although the status of inherited titles of nobility based on land ownership remained in place. • Most members of the middle class were not wealthy, but had comfortable lifestyles and higher social status than factory workers. • The urban poor were at the mercy of the business cycles (the swings between hard times and times of growth) • Unemployment was difficult and recurrent unemployment could lead to drunkenness and fighting. • The middle class will push for sobriety thrift, industriousness, and responsibility. • Social Darwinism develops where Spencer argues that human society operates by a system of natural selection, whereby individuals and ways of life automatically gravitate to their proper station. Forces for Political Change • The Enlightenment: more humanistic approach to the creation of a better government. John Locke wrote of a social contract. Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau spread new ideas to France where the king and queen epitomized absolutism. • The Bourgeoisie: commercialization of the economy meant the growth of the middle class is size and wealth. Revolutions • The American Revolution: American colonists resented Britain’s attempt to raise taxes and to tell them where they could live. • The French Revolution: The French people (97%) of the population held little of the land (5%) and paid 100% of the taxes. They called for a National Assembly and wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. • Reaction to the F.R.: conservative Napoleon Bonaparte promised stability and conquest. He was defeated at Vienna in 1815 and the Congress of Vienna (Britain, Austria, and Russia) sought to restore the balance of powermonarchies restored and France kept in check. • Hatian Revolution: Rebellion in 1791 b/c the slaves wanted equal rights and carried out a successful insurrection. It was declared free in 1804. Revolutions in Latin America • Brazil: Portugal’s royal family fled to Brazil when Napoleon stormed Portugal. He instituted reforms, etc. but returned to Portugal in 1821. His son Pedro declared Brazil’s independence and established a constitutional monarchy. • Mexico: Hidalgo led a rebellion that led to independence in 1821. Zapata and Villa worked for equality in 1910. • Spanish South America: the “junta” were local governments who wanted to overthrow the colonial power. The two centers of junta power were in Venezuela (Caracas-Simon de Bolivar) and Argentina (Buenos Aires-Jose de San Martin) • Chart on page 140 compares constitutional experiements in North and South America. Ideological Consequences of Revolutions • Conservatism: wanted a return to absolute monarchy, but came to accept constitutional monarchy • Liberalism: supported republican democracy, or a government with an elected legislature who represented the people in political decisionmaking. Supported liberty more than equality • Radicalism: advocated drastic changes in government that supported equality more than liberty. Reform Movements • Women’s Rights: especially strong in North America, Britain, and France. • Conservative Reactions to Reform: scientific racism and social darwinism • Maxism: Karl Marx believed that conditions in capitalist countries would eventually become so bad that the workers would join together to overcome the bourgeoisie. Nationalism • A feeling of identity within a common group of people • Especially connected to the rise of western dominance between 1750 and 1914 that created a world of “have nots” and “haves” New European Nations • Italy and Germany • Spurred more competition between European nations Eurasian Empires • Russian Empire: Catherine the Great built upon Peter the Great’s rule. She was closely connected to the West and Enlightenment ideals. Russians were defeated in the Crimean War (against the Ottomans) and Tsar Alexander II emphasized industrialization by emancipating the serfs. • The Ottoman Empire (The Sick Man of Europe) • Problems with economics (tax farmin was corrupt) • Problems with the Janissaries: operated separately from the sultan’s court and were brutal and corrupt • Revolts in the Balkans and Greece b/c of ethnic nationalism Types of Imperialism • Colonial Imperialism: virtual complete takeover of an area, with domination in all areas: economic, political, and socio-cultural. • Economic Imperialism: allowed an area to operate as its own nation, but the imperialist nation almost completely controlled its trade and other business (China) • Political Imperialism: country may have had its own government with natives in top political positions, it operated as the imperialist country told it to do. (late Qing China) • Socio-cultural Imperialism: dominating country deliberately tried to change customs, religions, and languages in these countries. (British India) Imperialism in Africa • Muhammad Ali and his grandson Ismail led Egypt to be the strongest Muslim state of the 19th century, rich from cotton export, but this market collapsed. • Starting in the 1850’s Europeans began exploring the interior of Africa and by 1914 there were only 2 free countries. • Belgium established Belgian Congo and this set off the Scramble for Africa where Britain, France, Germany, and Italy competed with Belgium for land in Africa. • The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 allowed European diplomats to draw lines on maps and carve Africa into colonies. Imperialism in India • The Mughal emperor, in a declining state, made agreements with the British East India Company that took advantage of the collapsing state. • The British “Raj” (1818-1857): The BEIC was in a strange position because depended on the people of India to support them, and they abided by Indian customs and rules but administered governmental affairs and initiated social reforms that reflected British values. • In 1857 the Sepoy Rebellion caused the British government to intervene on behalf of the BEIC. • British officials began pouring into India and controlled its trade b/c it was important for trade with China (opium.) The British worked on the infrastructure in India. • Industrialization created a middle class of Indian officials in the late 1800’s. These officials could travel to England for higher education and began to use those values in their situation. Rammouhan Roy advocated unity for Indians. • The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 and had goals of promoting political unity and appointing more Indians to higher positions. This was controlled by Hindus. • The All-India Muslim League was a nationalistic group established in 1906 for Muslims. • By 1914 both these groups were demanding Indian independence from the British. Imperialism in China • Problems in the Qing Dynasty began in the early 1800’s b/c of its inability to defend and challenge borders, and lack of communication. The Manchu (rulers of the Qing Dynasty) were increasingly corrupt. • In 1759 Emperor Qianlong restricted European trade and was closely supervised. • The British found that the Chinese were interested in buying opium, and by the time the time the government tried to intervene the people were already addicted. • The Opium Wars forced a series of unequal treaties. • The Treaty of Nanjing: The Chinese agreed to allow the trade of opium and open other ports to exclusive trade with Britain. It also gave the British control over Korea, Vietnam, Burma, and Hong Kong. • The Qing Dynasty was also significantly weakened by the Taiping Rebellion where unhappy farmers captured the city of Nanjing as their capital and came close to toppling the government in Beijing. They needed help from the Europeans to end this civil war. • In the 1900 Boxer Rebellion Chinese nationalism was more apparent when they expressed their purpose to recover “China for the Chinese.” Boundary 5 1914-Present Major Characteristics • Repositioning of the “West”: Western dominance turns to the United States after WWII. The United States emerged as the dominant world power after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. • International Contacts: globalization occurs as a result of technological advancements. Long distance connections could be made in a matter of hours instead of weeks. • Democratic Transition: Monarchies all over the world are replaced by democratic governments or authoritarian regimes. • Changes in Belief Systems: Trend away from religion and a new reliance on nonreligious philosophies. People in western nations rely less on religious explanations and more on science. • Questioning of Social Inequality: Civil Rights movements, women’s rights movements, and the successful bid for freedom from colonial rule. WWI-Causes (Nationalism) • 1. National rivalries: unification of Germany threatened to topple the balance of power. Britain controlled 1/3 of the industrial output in 1870. All industrialized nations will be increasing their military. • 2. Nationalist aspirations: nations tried to unify their states based on ethnicity, language, and/or political ideals. The Slavic people-Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes were viewed as “problems” for nationalist aspirations. • 3. Entangling alliances: Two hostile camps emerged bound by treaties. The Triple Entente (Russia, England and France) vs. The Triple Alliance (Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy.) WWI-Spark for War • Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne. • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, who had an alliance with Russia. Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, requiring Germany to declare war on Russia, etc. Nature of the War • Allied Powers: England, France, Russia, Italy • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire • Two Fronts- Western Front (Germany against French and British) problems b/c machine guns, poison gas, and trenches. Eastern Front Germany and Austria-Hungary fought Russia along this battle line. • Russia will withdraw in 1917 when the Bolsheviks took the government and assassinated the tsar. The Treaty of Versailles • 27 nations gathered, but Great Britain, the United States, and France made the final decisions in the treaty. • Germany lost land along all borders • German military was restricted • Germany had to pay high reparations • The League of Nations was created • Germany’s overseas possessions were placed under the control of the League • Eastern Europe was redrawn along ethnic lines • The Ottoman Empire is dismantled and designated as mandates, not independent countries. • The treaty infuriated many people and left the world ready to fight again. The Roots of WWII • The Rise of Japan: as China’s power diminished, Japan’s grew. When WWI broke out, Japan entered on the side of the Allied powers and claimed German territories. They took over a great deal of Chinese trade and production. In 1931 they invaded Manchuria and intended to expand their empire. • Hitler and Mussolini both appealed to nationalism and the rebuilding of their nations to prior glory (pre-WWI Germany and Ancient Rome) • Germany claimed areas outside the borders of the TofV. When he took part of Czechoslovakia he received a reaction. • England (Chamberlain) and France reached an agreement focused on appeasement where Hitler promised not to take any more land. • Winston Churchill said appeasement was dangerous. The Nature of WWII • Allied Powers: Britain, France, Russia, and the U.S. • Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan • Worldwide participation: fought on all corners of the globe • Fighting in “theatres” or “arenas”: Europe (including N. Africa) and the Pacific Ocean. • Technology: major war technology (aircraft carriers) allowed for a different type of war. The atom bomb was introduced toward the end of the war. • Widespread killing of civilians: bombings destroyed industrial infrastructure as well as civilian areas. The German Nazis deliberately killed Jews and other people they considered inferior to them. The Course of the War • Germany introduced blitzkrieg (lightning war) to quickly conquer Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, and France. • Germany also employed the German Luftwaffe to fight against the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain (air warfare.) • Germany invaded Russia in 1941 causing Russia to enter the war on the Allied side, and Germany had its first defeat in Stalingrad in 1942. • In December 1941 the U.S. entered as a result of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. • American and British generals began an assault in northern Africa and then moved up Italy. In 1944 the Allied forces stormed the beaches of Normandy. • The U.S. fought a great sea-air war that resulted in the blocking of Japanese attacks of Midway Island. The “island hopping” campaign bringing them closer to Japan, but opted to drop atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 rather than do a land invasion of Japan. Post-WWII International Organizations • The United Nations: the main purpose was to negotiate disputes among nations, but it also addressed other world issues, such as trade, women’s conditions, child labor, and environmental protection • NATO: formed in 1949 as a defensive alliance among the U.S., Canada, and western European nations. • Warsaw Pact: included the Soviet Union and eastern European nations. • This new type of political warfare created the Cold War. The Cold War • The Yalta Conference: early 1945 the three countries split Germany into four pieces (US, Britain, USSR, and France) • The Potsdam Conference: The USSR already occupied eastern Poland and eastern Germany and they were allowed to continue occupation. Tensions were high during this July 1945 conference. • The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. seized lands in Asia and the USSR bushed its boundaries into eastern Europe. • The Marshall Plan was a program created in the US to help democratic nations rebuild. New Nationalism • Africa: Christian missionaries set up schools and taught a new native elite that noticed the contrast between democratic ideals and the reality of the discrimination that they saw around them. • In Senegal, Blaise Diagne agitated for African participation in politics and fair treatment by the French army. • In South Africa, the African National Congress pushed to defend the interests of black Africans in 1912. They led a bloody struggle against apartheid, which led to Nelson Mandela’s election as the first black president of South Africa in 1994. • In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie led Ethiopian troops into his capital city to reclaim his title. In exchange for promises of liberation they helped the Allies defeat the Germans. • In Algeria: war broke out in 1954 with great brutality. It took Algeria 8 years to gain independence. • India was given independence in 1947 after violent clashes between the British and the Indians. Mohandas K. Gandhi pushed for nonviolent protest including the Walk to the Sea (or the Salt March.) • Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress) and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League) clashed openly and violent riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims. • Pakistan was formed as a Muslim state and India remained a Hindu state. Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu who was angered by the fact that he was going to have to move from his home. • In Southeast Asia there are many wars/conflicts over the spread of communism (including Korea and Vietnam.) • In Mexico, after a violent revolution led by Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa a democratic-based Constitution was established in 1917. Lazaro Cardenas (PRI) became the first long-term president and started a long reign of PRI presidents until the 1990’s when a non-PRI president was elected. • In Argentina and Brazil authoritarian rule continued into the second half of the century at the hands of military dictators Getulio Vargas and Juan Peron. • The Cuban Revolution, led by Fidel Castro, helped Cuba become communist in 1959. The Great Depression • In 10/1929 the economy took a downturn and investors lost millions. • Industrial production dropped 36% between 1929 and 1932. • It ended with the advent of WWII. New Developments • Faster transportation • Computers replace typewriters, transform communication • Multinational Corporations- General Motors, Exxon, Microsoft, Honda, Sony cross national borders • The Pacific Rim (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) develop into economic strongholds. The Asian Tigers (S.Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) followed the model of close cooperation between government and industry. Ideologies and Revolutions • Communism: USSR as a result of the 1917 revolution and China in 1949 as a result of Mao Zedong’s revolution. • Fascism: an authoritarian political movement that sought to subordinate individuals to the service of the state (Mussolini-Italy and Hitler-Germany.) Communism in the USSR • Became the first communist regime in the 20th century. • Stalin took control after Lenin’s death. He focused on industrial goals and collectivization by force. • Economic Crisis: Gorbachev attempted to revive his country in the mid 1980’s through perestoika (economic reforms,) glasnost (openness,) and democratization. • His reforms backfired, the USSR fell, and Boris Yeltsin became the first president of Russia. Communism in China • In 1934-1935 Mao Zedong gained a lot of followers during the Long Mach when he and his followers evaded Chiang Kai-shek’s army. • In 1949 Mao Zedong claimed main land China for communism and renamed it the People’s Republic of China. • He instituted the Great Leap Forward to compensate for the loss of Soviet aid when he refused to industrialize as quickly as Stalin wanted. • In 1966 the Cultural Revolution encompassed political and social change as well as economic change to remove all vestiges of the old China and its hierarchical bureaucracy and emphasis on inequality. • Emphasis was put on elementary education. • Deng Xiaoping followed Mao in 1976 and encouraged a mix of socialism and capitalism. Tensions erupted in 1989 Beijing at Tienanment Square.