Boundary 2
Why do changes occur in Boundary 2?
• 1. mass migrations: significant numbers
of people left one are and traveled to
• 2. imperial conquest: an empire of country
deliberately conquers territory outside its
• 3. cross-cultural trade and exchange:
widespread contact among regions brings
new goods, ideas and customs
Major events in Boundary 2
• Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism, and
Buddhism came to become more important than
political organizations and defined regions of the
• The Mongols had a huge impact on the people
they came into contact with
• Islam began in the 7th century and spread
rapidly throughout the Middle East, Northern
Africa, Europe, and Southeast Asia
• Europe became connected to major trade
routs, and some of its kingdoms were
beginning to assert world power by 1450
• China grew to have hegemony over many
other areas of Asia and became one of the
larges and most prosperous empires of
the time (Tang, Song, Yuan, early Ming)
• Long distance trade continued to develop
along previous trade routes, but the
amount and complexity of trade and
contact increased significantly
The Growth of Islam
• Muhammad died in 643 CE, but by that time
Islam had spread over much of the Arabian
• The government set up a caliphate (ruled by a
caliph) selected by the leaders of the umma.
• Abu-Bakr, one of Muhammad’s close friends,
became the first caliph.
• By the middle of the 8th century Muslim armies
had conquered land from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Indus River, and the caliphate stretched
6000 miles east to west.
• Muslim commanders used effective war tactics
and the armies were efficiently organized.
• The Byzantine and Persian Empires were weak
so the Muslim armies were aided by the
weakness of the empires they sought to conquer
• The Qur’an forbid forced conversions, so
conquered people were allowed to retain their
own religions. Muslims considered Jews and
Christians superior to polytheistic people
because they were monotheistic and people of
the book. Many people converted because of
the appeal of Islam, and the fact that they did not
have to pay a poll tax.
Sunni/Shi’ite split
• When Ali died in 661 a civil war started.
The Umayyad family emerged to take
control but there was a division.
• 1. Sunni: leader should be selected by
the leaders of the Muslim community
• 2. Shi’a: caliph should be a relative of the
Prophet, and they rejected the Umayyads’
The Changing Status of Women in
Arabia due to Islam
• Patriarchal in structure, but women in Arabia had
some rights that were not found in other regions
such as inheriting property, divorcing husbands,
and engaging in business ventures.
• The Qur’an outlawed female infanticide and
provided dowries go directly to brides.
• It reinforced male dominance and recognized
descent through the male lines to ensure
legitimacy of heirs.
• The Qur’an allowed men to take up to four wives
and adopted a custom of veiling women and
women could only venture outside the house in
the company of servants or chaperones.
Art, Science, and Technology in
• Since Islam was a missionary religion the ulama,
and the qadis (judges) helped to bridge cultural
differences throughout the Islamic lands (dar alIslam.)
• Higher education schools (madrasas) appeared
in the 10th century and were established by the
12th century.
• The madrasas were supported by the wealthy
and attracted scholars from all over.
• Persian became the principle language of
literature, poetry, history, and political
• They adapted mathematics form the
people they conquered and mad the
“Arabic numerals.” Muslims are also
credited with the development of algebra.
• There was an interest in Greek philosophy,
science, and medical writings.
• Nasir al-Din studied and made a
heliocentric model for the solar system
that was later used by Copernicus.
Interregional Networks and
• Contacts between societies in the M.E., India,
and Asia increased significantly.
• Europeans are first involved through Venice and
• Trans-Saharan trade became more vigorous as
major civs. developed south of the Sahara.
• The Med. Sea and the Indian Ocean linked the
Muslim Empire and Arabic sailors dominated
trade where they set up banks throughout the
caliphate and the cities on the trade routes
became very cosmopolitan.
African Societies and Empires
• Around 640, Islam spread into the northern part
of Africa and brought the unifying forces of
religious practices and the law (the shari’a)
• Many African rulers converted to Islam and
centralized states began to form.
• Some African peoples retained their identities
and tribal loyalties although they adopted the
new religion. This allowed for a nonviolent
spread of Islam that was good for trade,
especially since Africa had gold.
Major Empires in West Africa
• Ghana: By the 700’s Ghana was growing rich
from taxing the goods that traders carried
through their territory. Their most important
asset was gold that they traded for salt.
Ghana’s king had exclusive rights to the gold
and kept the price high. The king had an
impressive army and the empire thrived. Many
of Ghana’s rulers and elites converted to Islam,
but most of the regular people retained their
native religions. Ghana is conquered in the 11th
• Mali: By the 13th century the Mande-speaking
people south of Ghana made a larger, more
powerful, and richer society than Ghana had
been. Wealth was based on gold and new
deposits were found and this became the basic
commodity in long distance trade.
• Mali’s first great king was Sundiata who
defeated surrounding kingdoms and was very
• Mansu Musa, a 14th century ruler traveled on the
hajj to Mecca and expounded the city of
Timbuktu as a center for world trade, education
and sophistication.
• The Swahili city-states: Trade cities along
the eastern coast of Africa that provided
an important link for long distance trade.
• These cities are not united, but were well
developed and sophisticated. Most of the
people were Muslim and their sailors were
renown for their ability to maneuver their
small boats through the Indian Ocean to
The Crusades
• In 1095 Pope Urban II called for the
Christian Crusade to defend the Christian
Middle East (the Holy Lands,) and the
Eastern Mediterranean.
• In 1453 Constantinople was taken by the
Muslims and renamed Istanbul.
• The Crusades brought Europe into the
major world trade circuit.
• The societies of the M.E. were much rich
than European kingdoms, and the knights
encountered more sophisticated cultures
here. (Created “want” for silk, spices, gold)
The Mongols
• Pastoralists who were organized loosely
into kinship groups called clans.
• Around 1200 CE Temujin (Genghis Khan)
took the title (universal leader) and used
horseman ship and military skills to
conquer vast amounts of land.
• They used generals who were either
kinsmen or trusted friends, and surprised
tactics, catapults, and gunpowder.
• The Mongols stopped in Eurasia when
Ogodai (G.K.’s son) died.
• The Mongols were also contained by the
Mamluk armies of Egypt.
• The Mongol invasion disrupted major trade
routes, but they worked hard to recover
them through organization.
• The Mongols defeated an area through
brutal tactics, but were usually content to
extract tribute from them and allowed the
conquered people to keep many of their
Two Travelers (1200-1300)
• Marco Polo: late 1200’s left Venice and traveled
to China. Met with the Chinese ruler Kublai
Khan (G.K.’s g.s.) who showed him around
China. He stayed for 17 years before he tried to
return and was imprisoned in Genoa.
• Ibn Battuta: 1300’s traveled throughout the
Islamic Empires. From Morocco and traveled to
Mecca, Kilwa (African coast), India, the Black
Sea, Spain, Mali, and central Asia. He wrote
about the customs and practices of these
• During boundary 2, China is the richest and
most powerful empire in the world and was
extended over most of Asia.
• The Han Dynasty fell in the 3rd century CE and
China went through a period of chaos.
• The Sui Dynasty (589-618) lasted for a very
short time, but was able to restore centralized
imperial rule.
• They were responsible for building the Grand
Canal (an enormous waterworks project.) It
helped with internal trade an contact.
The Tang Dynasty (618-907)
• Three major accomplishments:
• 1. A strong transportation and communication
system: The Grand Canal, an advanced road
system with established cities
• 2. The equal-field system: the emperor tried to
ensure that land distribution was fair and
equitable. Caused problems later b/c he limited
the land to rich families (In 900 the rich will start
to get land back and will cause an end to the
• 3. Merit-based bureaucracy: developed during
the Han, but more efficient b/c they recruited
well educated, loyal, and efficient gov. officials
• Tang China extracted tribute from neighboring realms
and people
• In 688 Tang China conquered Korea.
• Mahayana Buddhism was popular during Tang China
and Empress Wu (690-705) was a strong supporter of
Buddhism by giving lots of money to monasteries and
• Buddhism ran into problems with Confucian and Daoist
thought because Buddhism encourages supporters to
withdraw from society and encouraged personal
meditation while C. and D. thought emphasized a
personal duty to one’s society, obedience, and hierarchy.
• In the 800’s Confucian scholar-bureaucrats convinced
emperors to take land away from the monasteries during
the equal-field system. Confucianism will emerge as the
central ideology of Chinese civilization.
Song Dynasty
• The Song dynasty was invaded by nomadic
• In 960 a military commander emerged to reunite
China and began the Song Dynasty.
• The Song Emperors emphasized civil
administration, industry, education, and the arts.
• They did not have hegemony over as much
land, but this was a “golden age” in Chinese
history as it was a time of prosperity,
sophistication, and creativity.
• They encouraged the bureaucracy based on
merit and pushed Confucian philosophy.
Problems Under the Song
• Finances: The expanding bureaucracy
made expenses skyrocket. They raised
taxes and the peasants rebelled.
• Military: They needed a strong military b/c
of the nomadic invaders. The Juchens
(N.) overran northern China and captured
the Song capital.
• The southern part of the Empire was taken
over by the Mongols in 1279.
Economic Changes in the Tang and
• Increasing agricultural production: China had
produced wheat and barley, now they can grow
rice (b/c southern areas.) Used new equipment
(heavy plows, and water buffalo)
• Increasing Population: growth b/c of agricultural
revolution, and the Grand Canal brought food
and supplies to far regions.
• Urbanization: Cosmopolitan cities with markets,
public theatres, restaurants, and craft shops
opened. Farmers could grow fruits and
vegetables instead of only rice.
• Technological Innovation: Tang craftsmen
produced lighter, thinner, more beautiful
porcelain (china.) Produced better quality
iron and steel. Between the 9th and 12th
centuries gunpowder, movable type
printing, and seafaring aids were invented
and used.
• Financial inventions: copper became
scarce, so they developed paper money.
They also let “flying cash” (checks.)
• During the Song period Neo-Confucianism
helped with the tension between
Buddhism and Confucianism.
• The Neo-Confucianism used the social
and political structure of Confucianism
while adopting the idea the nature of the
soul, the individual’s spiritual relationships,
and the universal spirit found in Buddhism.
Women in the Tang and Song
• Patriarchal societies so women’s status
low and confined to the home.
• Foot binding became very popular proving
that they did not need women to work.
• Peasants and middle class women did not
bind their feet b/c they needed to be able
to walk but the practice shows their
subservience to their male guardians.
The Yuan Dynasty
• Kublai Kan (G.K.’s g.s.) captrued the capital of
the Song Empire and moved the new capital to
Beijing (Khanbaluk.)
• China was unified and its borders grew
• Mongols replaced the top bureaucrats, but the
lower Confucian officials remained in place and
they respected Chinese customs and
• Trade flourished, but merchants had a much
lower status than scholars in the beginning, but
as more land was conquered the status of
merchants also rose which upset Confucian
• The Mongols increased tributes and
established “tax farming” where middle
men were responsible for collecting taxes
because it was expensive to have such a
vast empire.
• Tax farming led to corruption, rural poverty
grew, and a plague spread devastating the
• A conspiracy was developed among the
Confucian scholars, they overthrew the
Mongols and established the Ming Empire
in 1279.)
Boundary 3
Why is B. 3 important?
• 1. For the first time in history the western
hemisphere is in contact with the eastern
hemisphere. This is due to technological
innovations, strengthened political
organization, and economic prosperity
which altered world trade patterns.
• 2. Sea-based trade is going to gain
control and prestige over land-based
• 3. European nations emerge as a world
• 4. Nomadic power dwindled as sea-based
trade became more important. They
continued to cause some problems with
the land-based empires.
• 5. Labor systems are changed with the
acquisition of colonies in the Americas.
The mita, encomienda, and African slave
labor are all used. In addition indentured
servitude will be used in N. America by the
• 6. “Gunpowder Empires” emerge in the
Middle East and Asia. These empires
used new weapons and technology to gain
strength, but will have problems with
communication, defense, and financial
stressors so their power will decline by the
end of this boundary. (Safavid Empire,
Mughal Empire, Ottoman Empire)
• In the end of boundary 2 (~1400) Ming
Emperor Yongle sent Zheng He and his
treasure ships (junks) to regain hegemony
over surrounding areas.
• Yongle wanted to convince other
civilizations that China had regained their
power and they also wanted to reinstitute
• ~1450 European monarchs wanted to
establish trade routes that benefited
themselves, and wanted to spread
• Portugal and Spain were the first
European nations to explore seriously.
Portugal already dominated the Indian
Ocean Trade but wanted to expand, while
Spain wanted a piece of the maritime
trade pie.
• Portugal and Spain, upon finding the Americas,
split up the land with the Pope’s permission in
the Treaty of Tordesillas.
• In the 1500’s Portuguese power will decline
while Spain will continue to take more land in the
Americas. Hernan Cortes will have a huge
effect when he conquers the Aztec capital of
Tenochtitlan in 1519. In the 1520’s Francisco
Pizarro defeated the Inca.
• The French and English took control of North
America, did not clash over land until the 1700’s.
Consequences of the Americas
• Great Circuit: connects N. America, S.
America, Europe, and Africa. This is a
significant change.
• Columbian Exchange: the exchange of
foods, animals, and disease along the
Great Circuit between the four continents.
• These goods had tremendous results on
diet and health, but disease had
devastating results on populations.
How did this Maritime Revolution
• Guns and gunpowder: adapted from
Chinese invented explosives, these two
items intimidated Native Americans
• Ships technology: deep drafts and round
hulls allowed for sailing on the Atlantic
• Compass: technology taken from the
Arabs, needed for accurate location
• Astrolabe: technology taken from the
Arabs needed for accurate location
• Cartography: art of mapmaking is taken
more seriously and accurately.
• Mercator Projection: relatively accurate
map for lands around the equator
• Chart: p. 94: Compare and Contrast
Colonial Political and Social Structures of
Spain and England
The Gunpowder Empires
• This is a time of growth for Islamic
civilization and a prosperity for Muslim
• Each of the three Muslim Empires
(Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal) were
founded by Turkic nomads, but there was
political division and military clashes
between them.
• They all had courts modeled on earlier
Islamic dynasties.
Similar problems
• Inadequate transportation and communication
systems to support such a large land-based
• Military leadership operated independent from
the government while the bureaucracies were
weak and unable to control the warrior elite
• European countries that were smaller in size
(territory and population) could mobilize easier
and the Muslim Empires focused too much on
one another and left Europe to new discoveries
and reform.
Patronage in the Islamic Empires
• The emperors in the Islamic Empires competed
to attract the best scholars, literary writers,
artists, and architects to their courts.
• Suleyman the Magnificent built a religious
complex in the Ottoman Empire.
• The Safavid Empire, Isfahan, was very beautiful
• In the Mughal Empire, Emperor Shah Jahan,
dedicated the white marble mosque and tomb,
the Taj Majal, to the memory of his wife
Weakened Ming Dynasty
• Changes in the climate brought uncontrollable
weather which led to drought and famine.
• The 1500’s saw the reemergence of the
Mongols who bestowed the leader of Tibet the
title dalai lama for supporting him.
• Korea, a tributary state of China, was attacked
by Japan and needed to be supported militarily.
• Sea trade is becoming more important and
pirates began stalking Chinese and Japanese
ships. This also brings an end to the Silk Road
and the economic security it once brought.
• The emperors in the Forbidden City were
completely cut off from the unhappy
The Early Qing Dynasty
• The Manchu overthrew the Ming in 1644
and called the empire Qing (pure) because
they saw themselves as returning China to
• They were not truly viewed as Chinese,
however, because they were from the
North and were “outsiders” like the
• They adopted the mandate of heaven,
which they used as justification for taking
over the Ming.
• They kept their ethnic identity and forbid
marriage between Manchus and Chinese.
• They outlawed the Chinese from learning
Mandarin, and required Chinese men to
shave their heads and grow long queues
as the back of their heads as a sign of
• Until the late 1700’s, China is in a golden
age where two leaders have long,
prosperous reigns (Kangxi and Qianlong)
• Kangxi was a brilliant ruler who was a Confucian
scholar, poet, supporter of education, and a
conquering warrior.
• In the early Qing days, China was so prosperous
it cancelled taxes several times because the
government simply did not need the money.
• Contact with the West is going to increase
during the early Qing period.
• The Jesuits are going to be very aggressive
about going into China. Matteo Ricci impressed
the Chinese with his education, brilliance, and
respect for Chinese culture. They also showed
off their skills in science and technology.
• The Jesuits had little success converting the
people, and when the Pope denied ancestor
worship, Kangxi ordered an end to the Jesuit
• The Europeans, in the mean time, had
become hooked on silk, tea, porcelain,
wallpaper, and other decorative items.
• The European elite boasted Kangxi as a
philosopher king, and he in turn created
the Canton system.
• All trade was supervised and the Chinese
were very wary of the Europeans.
Cultural and Intellectual Life in
• The Ming and early Qing emperors looked to Chinese
traditions to strengthen cultural and intellectual life.
• New-Confucianism becomes very strong and numerous
Confucian schools are founded by emperors to reinforce
• The civil service exams were maintained, and Chinese
literature, philosophy, and histories are written during this
• The printing press makes popular novels available to
literate businessmen and books are now being put in the
hands of more than just the scholars.
Tokugawa Japan
• Until the early 1600’s,the Japanese daimyos
(regional lords) operated independently from the
• In the early 1600’s the daimyos became united
under the very powerful Tokugawa family.
• The Tokugawa Shogunate was honored in
ceremony and a capital was placed at Edo.
Daimyos were forced to attend council at Edo
every other year which gave them less time to
work on their armies back home. This ensured
safety to the Shogunate.
• The Japanese are wary of Christian
missionaries due to their observation of
the Spanish conquest of the Philippines.
• They were also worried that some
daimyos might conspire with the
Europeans to overthrow the T.S.
• In the 1630’s Japan was closed to foreign
trade and forbid all Japanese from going
abroad and expelled all Europeans form
• They carefully controlled trade with other
Asians. The policies were very strict, but
hard to control at great distances.
The Russian Empire
• By the 1600’s, while China is in a golden age,
Russia has expanded almost to its present
• They shared problems with China, including
attacks by nomads.
• Peter the Great looked westward for guidance in
strengthening a growing empire.
• Russia’s early days had been shaped by the
Byzantine Empire, but the tsar power faded
when Byzantium fell at the hands of the
Ottomans in 1453.
• Before Peter, Russia had almost no
contact with Western Europe and it lacked
the warm water ports to participate in seabased trade.
• The feudalistic structure meant czars had
a hard time controlling boyars (Russian
nobility) who often plotted against them.
• The tsars practiced absolutism which was
backed by a divine right to rule granted by
the Russian Orthodox Church.
• Peter the Great was intrigued by Europeans at a
young age and turned his country more western
by imitating western ways through a variety of
• 1. He built an army by offering better pay and
drafted serfs to serve as professional soldiers.
• 2. He organized roads and communication
systems through the development of
• 3. Gained territory along the Baltic Sea from the
Swedish, and tried unsuccessfully to gain
territory along the Black Sea from the Ottomans.
• 4. He created a system for the
government to more effectively tax the
citizens. Peter replaced the boyars as tax
collectors and hired merit based
employees which eventually did away with
the titles of nobility.
• 5. He moved the capital and his court
from Moscow to St. Petersburg which had
European architecture.
• Catherine the Great will further strengthen
the Russian Empire during her reign.
African Kingdoms
• Songhay was the largest and most organized
empire in Africa (NW.) It was earlier controlled
by Mali, and brought trade to Timbuktu and
• The cities were beautiful and prosperous. Islam
was the religion supported by the elite.
• They did not have guns and were defeated by
Moroccan forces in 1591.
• The Swahili city-states were also captured by
the Portuguese in the 1500’s.
• The Kingdom of Kongo in central Africa and the
Atlantic Ocean was a centralized state in the
1300’s. The Portuguese traded with them in the
1400’s and converted the king to Christianity.
• The Portuguese traded textiles, weapons,
advisors, and craftsmen for gold, silver, ivory,
and slaves.
• The African slave trade existed before the Great
Circuit, but the number increased dramatically
as a result of the founding of the Americas.
Slaves were captured during conflict between
The Slave Trade
• The Americas valued strong male slaves
to work the plantations.
• The Middle East and India valued women
for wealthy harems, or household duties.
Some males were desirable as well to
serve in the armies for the Gunpowder
Trade in the Americas
• The Great Circuit involved 3 legs
• 1. Europe to Africa: hardware, guns,
Indian cotton
• 2. Africa to Americas: middle passage
carried slaves
• 3. Americas to Europe: plantation goods
Labor Systems in the Americas
• Early on the Spanish and Portuguese
used the Native Americans for slave labor
in the mita and the encomienda.
• In the Inca mita every male worked 1/7 of
his life working for the state at a few
months each year. The Spanish used this
with the silver mines, but found too many
Amerindians were dying.
• The encomienda was in use during the
16th century for agricultural work.
• From 1750 on most slaves went to the
Caribbean for sugar cane cultivation.
There was a strong demand for tea from
China and sugar from the Americas.
• In North America tobacco plantations will
require intense labor although the climate
is generally more suitable for maintaining
health and even population growth.
• As plantations spread south other crops,
such as cotton, kept the slave trade alive.
Major Shifts in Demographics
• 1. European population rising: due to
new foods and lack of plague
• 2. Population in Americas decreasing: due
to Amerindian death
• 3. No population decrease in Africa: some
areas reflected population losses, but
overall the population was on the rise
Cultural/Intellectual Developments
• Trade, as a result of the Crusades, made some
city-states very wealthy (Venice, Genoa,
• Wealthy families will become patrons for artists
during the Renaissance (Leonardo da Vinci and
• The Renaissance is an attempt to revive the
values of the classical civilizations of the
Mediterranean (Greece and Rome.)
• There was an emphasis on the capabilities of
humans rather than God (humanism.)
• This interest also sparked a new interest in math
and science.
• Mathematical traditions had been preserved and
built upon by Muslim scholars.
• Copernicus will us Nasir al-Din’s calculations
and conclude a heliocentric model which was
not published until after his death.
• Galileo Galilei built on C.’s model while
Johannes Kepler calculated the movement of
planets in an elliptical orbit.
• In the late 17th, early 18th century, Isaac Newton
formulated a set of mathematical laws for the
force of gravity.
• The printing press, used first in 1454 inspired
writers and creative interests throughout Europe.
The Protestant Reformation
• The Catholic Church will be loosing power
during B.3
• Scientists and literary writers are beginning to
challenge the church, and the Pope’s political
power was compromised as centralization of
government gave more authority to kings.
• The Catholic Church was very rich by the early
1500’s and many kings resented the amount of
land that was owned by the Church.
• Martin Luther believed that Christians who
have faith form a strong bond with God.
• He believed that the church practice of
accepting indulgences directly
contradicted the notion that a true believer
naturally does good works. He did not like
the fact that the church was offering
promises of salvation for a price.
• Luther’s writings became widely accepted
in Germany where Protestantism took a
firm hold.
• John Calvin will start up Calvinism in
Scotland. Calvinism focuses on
• King Henry VIII of England will also
provide the Catholic Church with a blow
when he starts the Anglican Church in
defiance to The Pope.
• These religious movements lead Europe
Christian but deeply divided feeding into
more competition between the European
The Early Enlightenment
• During the 17th century, the Sci. Rev. began to be applied
to social and political areas of life: the Enlightenment.
• Enlightenment philosophers were inspired by the
scientists and the Reformation, and believed that there
were laws that governed social and political behavior.
• In England, the English Civil War resulted in the
decapitation of the king, political authority going to the
Parliament, and John Locke reconsidering the nature of
the government.
• He argued that the right to rule came from the consent of
the governed, not by God. If monarchs overstepped
their boundaries the people should rebel.
Boundary 4 (1750-1914)
• Europeans dominate long-distance trade
throughout the world
• The Industrial Revolution gives huge
economic and political advantages and
creates a dichotomy based on economics
• Inequality increases due to imperialism
• Political revolutions are inspired by
democracy and a desire for independence
• The I.R. altered communication and
contact. The Suez and Panama canals
are built
• Migration to the Americas from Europe
and Asia
• Serf and slave systems became less
• Italy and Germany become nations
• The West (Europe, U.S. and Australia)
dominate the world
The Industrial Revolution
• Began in England in the late 18th century.
• Substituted hand labor with machine labor
and was helped by the following factors:
• 1. The Agricultural Revolution: the
enclosure movement fenced off private
land and farmers began crop rotation.
Jethro Tull’s seed drill planted seeds more
effectively. Less farmers needed, so
population moves to the city. (end of b.3)
• 2. Technological Revolution: inventions of
mass production, mechanization, and
interchangeable parts speed up human
• 3. Natural Resources: large, accessible
supplies of coal and iron
• 4. Economic Strength: solid middle class
that had experience with trading and
manufacturing. Banks and loans were
• 5. Political stability: No wars on British
soil, and the government was not seriously
questioned. By 1750, the Parliament’s
power exceeded the kings.
New Inventions
The flying shuttle (John Kay)
The spinning jenny (James Hargreaves)
The water frame (Richard Arkwright)
The spinning mule (Samuel Crompton)
The power loom (Samuel Crompton)
Transportation Improvements
• Steam Engine (James Watt) 1790’s
• Railroad engine connected the British
• 1. Manufacturers had a cheap way to
transport materials and finished products
• 2. New jobs for rr workers and miners
• 3. New industries and inventions and
increased productivity
• 4. Transported people for work and
The IR Spreads
• By 1800’s it had spread to the rest of Europe,
the United States, Russia, and Japan
• British entrepreneurs and gov. officials forbade
the export of machinery and technology
• Industry developed in the U.S. in the 1820’s b/c
of labor shortages. Then slowed due to the Civil
War. During the 1870’s there was a lot of
expansion to the West.
• In the late 1800’s industry spread to Russia and
Japan at the hands of the government. (By
1900 Russia can reach both sides of it’s vast
country, and Japan is the most industrialized
nation in Asia.
Patterns of World Trade
• Industrialization increased the economic, military, and
political strength of the societies that embraced it.
• Countries with government support did the best in
• An international division of labor resulted: people in
industrialized countries produced manufactured
products, and people in less industrialized countries
produced manufactured products, and people in less
industrialized countries produced the materials
necessary for that production.
• Many countries in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa,
south Asia, and SE Asia became highly dependent on
one cash crop such as sugar, cotton, and rubber. This
earned L.A. countries the nickname “Banana Republics.”
• The division of labor in countries increased
the use of raw materials, manufacture
goods, and the volume world trade
End of the Slave Trade
• The American and French revolutions spurred a
strong abolitionist movement.
• Olaudah Equiano: a west African recounted his
experience as a slave taken from Africa to the
New World
• In the Caribbean, a revolution, led by Toussaint
L’Ouverture resulted in the liberation of slaves in
Haiti and the creation of the first black state in
the Americas.
• Manufacturers started looking at Africa as a
place for raw materials.
• Slave trade had been abolished by 1820 in
Britain, the U.S., France, the Netherlands,
and in 1847 Spain.
• Britain pressured the government to send
patrol ships to the west coast of Africa to
search and seize violating ships.
• The British abolished slavery in 1833,
France in 1848, and the U.S. in 1865.
• The last country to abolish slavery in the
Americas was Brazil.
Immigration to the Americas
• European and Asian immigrants traveled to
North America and Canada to work in factories,
railroad construction sites, and plantations.
• Migrants to Latin America went to work on
agricultural plantations.
• Birth rates will decline in industrialized nations.
Children are no longer as useful in
industry/farming and supporting a large family is
hard in an industrialized society.
Environmental Changes
• Deforestation is a problem as farmers
clear forests and soil becomes depleted.
• Large cities will grow in industrialized
Working Conditions
• Most industrial jobs were boring,
repetitious, and required long days with
few breaks.
Family Life
• People now left their homes for work and
did not return home until late in the day.
• Husband and wife worked away from
home as did older children.
• In early industrialization women held jobs
as domestic servants.
• Industrialists encouraged women to bring
their children to work so that they could
work also.
Changes in Social Classes
• Wealth was increasingly based on money
and success in business enterprises,
although the status of inherited titles of
nobility based on land ownership remained
in place.
• Most members of the middle class were
not wealthy, but had comfortable lifestyles
and higher social status than factory
• The urban poor were at the mercy of the
business cycles (the swings between hard
times and times of growth)
• Unemployment was difficult and recurrent
unemployment could lead to drunkenness
and fighting.
• The middle class will push for sobriety
thrift, industriousness, and responsibility.
• Social Darwinism develops where Spencer
argues that human society operates by a
system of natural selection, whereby
individuals and ways of life automatically
gravitate to their proper station.
Forces for Political Change
• The Enlightenment: more humanistic
approach to the creation of a better
government. John Locke wrote of a social
contract. Voltaire and Jean-Jacques
Rousseau spread new ideas to France
where the king and queen epitomized
• The Bourgeoisie: commercialization of the
economy meant the growth of the middle
class is size and wealth.
• The American Revolution: American colonists
resented Britain’s attempt to raise taxes and to
tell them where they could live.
• The French Revolution: The French people
(97%) of the population held little of the land
(5%) and paid 100% of the taxes. They called
for a National Assembly and wrote the
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
• Reaction to the F.R.: conservative Napoleon
Bonaparte promised stability and conquest. He
was defeated at Vienna in 1815 and the
Congress of Vienna (Britain, Austria, and
Russia) sought to restore the balance of powermonarchies restored and France kept in check.
• Hatian Revolution: Rebellion in 1791 b/c
the slaves wanted equal rights and carried
out a successful insurrection. It was
declared free in 1804.
Revolutions in Latin America
• Brazil: Portugal’s royal family fled to Brazil
when Napoleon stormed Portugal. He
instituted reforms, etc. but returned to
Portugal in 1821. His son Pedro declared
Brazil’s independence and established a
constitutional monarchy.
• Mexico: Hidalgo led a rebellion that led to
independence in 1821. Zapata and Villa
worked for equality in 1910.
• Spanish South America: the “junta” were
local governments who wanted to
overthrow the colonial power. The two
centers of junta power were in Venezuela
(Caracas-Simon de Bolivar) and Argentina
(Buenos Aires-Jose de San Martin)
• Chart on page 140 compares
constitutional experiements in North and
South America.
Ideological Consequences of
• Conservatism: wanted a return to absolute
monarchy, but came to accept constitutional
• Liberalism: supported republican democracy, or
a government with an elected legislature who
represented the people in political decisionmaking. Supported liberty more than equality
• Radicalism: advocated drastic changes in
government that supported equality more than
Reform Movements
• Women’s Rights: especially strong in
North America, Britain, and France.
• Conservative Reactions to Reform:
scientific racism and social darwinism
• Maxism: Karl Marx believed that
conditions in capitalist countries would
eventually become so bad that the
workers would join together to overcome
the bourgeoisie.
• A feeling of identity within a common
group of people
• Especially connected to the rise of western
dominance between 1750 and 1914 that
created a world of “have nots” and “haves”
New European Nations
• Italy and Germany
• Spurred more competition between
European nations
Eurasian Empires
• Russian Empire: Catherine the Great built
upon Peter the Great’s rule. She was
closely connected to the West and
Enlightenment ideals. Russians were
defeated in the Crimean War (against the
Ottomans) and Tsar Alexander II
emphasized industrialization by
emancipating the serfs.
• The Ottoman Empire (The Sick Man of
• Problems with economics (tax farmin was
• Problems with the Janissaries: operated
separately from the sultan’s court and
were brutal and corrupt
• Revolts in the Balkans and Greece b/c of
ethnic nationalism
Types of Imperialism
• Colonial Imperialism: virtual complete takeover
of an area, with domination in all areas:
economic, political, and socio-cultural.
• Economic Imperialism: allowed an area to
operate as its own nation, but the imperialist
nation almost completely controlled its trade and
other business (China)
• Political Imperialism: country may have had its
own government with natives in top political
positions, it operated as the imperialist country
told it to do. (late Qing China)
• Socio-cultural Imperialism: dominating country
deliberately tried to change customs, religions,
and languages in these countries. (British India)
Imperialism in Africa
• Muhammad Ali and his grandson Ismail led
Egypt to be the strongest Muslim state of the
19th century, rich from cotton export, but this
market collapsed.
• Starting in the 1850’s Europeans began
exploring the interior of Africa and by 1914 there
were only 2 free countries.
• Belgium established Belgian Congo and this set
off the Scramble for Africa where Britain, France,
Germany, and Italy competed with Belgium for
land in Africa.
• The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 allowed
European diplomats to draw lines on maps and
carve Africa into colonies.
Imperialism in India
• The Mughal emperor, in a declining state, made
agreements with the British East India Company
that took advantage of the collapsing state.
• The British “Raj” (1818-1857): The BEIC was in
a strange position because depended on the
people of India to support them, and they abided
by Indian customs and rules but administered
governmental affairs and initiated social reforms
that reflected British values.
• In 1857 the Sepoy Rebellion caused the British
government to intervene on behalf of the BEIC.
• British officials began pouring into India and
controlled its trade b/c it was important for trade
with China (opium.) The British worked on the
infrastructure in India.
• Industrialization created a middle class of Indian
officials in the late 1800’s. These officials could
travel to England for higher education and
began to use those values in their situation.
Rammouhan Roy advocated unity for Indians.
• The Indian National Congress was formed in
1885 and had goals of promoting political unity
and appointing more Indians to higher positions.
This was controlled by Hindus.
• The All-India Muslim League was a nationalistic
group established in 1906 for Muslims.
• By 1914 both these groups were demanding
Indian independence from the British.
Imperialism in China
• Problems in the Qing Dynasty began in the early
1800’s b/c of its inability to defend and challenge
borders, and lack of communication. The
Manchu (rulers of the Qing Dynasty) were
increasingly corrupt.
• In 1759 Emperor Qianlong restricted European
trade and was closely supervised.
• The British found that the Chinese were
interested in buying opium, and by the time the
time the government tried to intervene the
people were already addicted.
• The Opium Wars forced a series of unequal
• The Treaty of Nanjing: The Chinese agreed to
allow the trade of opium and open other ports to
exclusive trade with Britain. It also gave the
British control over Korea, Vietnam, Burma, and
Hong Kong.
• The Qing Dynasty was also significantly
weakened by the Taiping Rebellion where
unhappy farmers captured the city of Nanjing as
their capital and came close to toppling the
government in Beijing. They needed help from
the Europeans to end this civil war.
• In the 1900 Boxer Rebellion Chinese
nationalism was more apparent when they
expressed their purpose to recover “China
for the Chinese.”
Boundary 5
Major Characteristics
• Repositioning of the “West”: Western
dominance turns to the United States after
WWII. The United States emerged as the
dominant world power after the Soviet Union
collapsed in 1991.
• International Contacts: globalization occurs as a
result of technological advancements. Long
distance connections could be made in a matter
of hours instead of weeks.
• Democratic Transition: Monarchies all over the
world are replaced by democratic governments
or authoritarian regimes.
• Changes in Belief Systems: Trend away
from religion and a new reliance on nonreligious philosophies. People in western
nations rely less on religious explanations
and more on science.
• Questioning of Social Inequality: Civil
Rights movements, women’s rights
movements, and the successful bid for
freedom from colonial rule.
WWI-Causes (Nationalism)
• 1. National rivalries: unification of Germany threatened
to topple the balance of power. Britain controlled 1/3 of
the industrial output in 1870. All industrialized nations
will be increasing their military.
• 2. Nationalist aspirations: nations tried to unify their
states based on ethnicity, language, and/or political
ideals. The Slavic people-Poles, Czechs, Slovaks,
Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes were viewed as “problems”
for nationalist aspirations.
• 3. Entangling alliances: Two hostile camps emerged
bound by treaties. The Triple Entente (Russia, England
and France) vs. The Triple Alliance (Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy.)
WWI-Spark for War
• Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian
nationalist group called the Black Hand
assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the heir to
the Austrian throne.
• Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia,
who had an alliance with Russia. Russia
declared war on Austria-Hungary, requiring
Germany to declare war on Russia, etc.
Nature of the War
• Allied Powers: England, France, Russia, Italy
• Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and
the Ottoman Empire
• Two Fronts- Western Front (Germany against
French and British) problems b/c machine guns,
poison gas, and trenches. Eastern Front
Germany and Austria-Hungary fought Russia
along this battle line.
• Russia will withdraw in 1917 when the
Bolsheviks took the government and
assassinated the tsar.
The Treaty of Versailles
• 27 nations gathered, but Great Britain, the United States,
and France made the final decisions in the treaty.
• Germany lost land along all borders
• German military was restricted
• Germany had to pay high reparations
• The League of Nations was created
• Germany’s overseas possessions were placed under the
control of the League
• Eastern Europe was redrawn along ethnic lines
• The Ottoman Empire is dismantled and designated as
mandates, not independent countries.
• The treaty infuriated many people and left the world
ready to fight again.
The Roots of WWII
• The Rise of Japan: as China’s power
diminished, Japan’s grew. When WWI broke
out, Japan entered on the side of the Allied
powers and claimed German territories. They
took over a great deal of Chinese trade and
production. In 1931 they invaded Manchuria
and intended to expand their empire.
• Hitler and Mussolini both appealed to
nationalism and the rebuilding of their nations to
prior glory (pre-WWI Germany and Ancient
• Germany claimed areas outside the
borders of the TofV. When he took part of
Czechoslovakia he received a reaction.
• England (Chamberlain) and France
reached an agreement focused on
appeasement where Hitler promised not to
take any more land.
• Winston Churchill said appeasement was
The Nature of WWII
• Allied Powers: Britain, France, Russia, and
the U.S.
• Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan
• Worldwide participation: fought on all
corners of the globe
• Fighting in “theatres” or “arenas”: Europe
(including N. Africa) and the Pacific
• Technology: major war technology (aircraft
carriers) allowed for a different type of war.
The atom bomb was introduced toward the
end of the war.
• Widespread killing of civilians: bombings
destroyed industrial infrastructure as well
as civilian areas. The German Nazis
deliberately killed Jews and other people
they considered inferior to them.
The Course of the War
• Germany introduced blitzkrieg (lightning war) to
quickly conquer Poland, Denmark, Norway,
Holland, Belgium, and France.
• Germany also employed the German Luftwaffe
to fight against the Royal Air Force in the Battle
of Britain (air warfare.)
• Germany invaded Russia in 1941 causing
Russia to enter the war on the Allied side, and
Germany had its first defeat in Stalingrad in
• In December 1941 the U.S. entered as a result
of the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
• American and British generals began an assault
in northern Africa and then moved up Italy. In
1944 the Allied forces stormed the beaches of
• The U.S. fought a great sea-air war that resulted
in the blocking of Japanese attacks of Midway
Island. The “island hopping” campaign bringing
them closer to Japan, but opted to drop atom
bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August
1945 rather than do a land invasion of Japan.
Post-WWII International Organizations
• The United Nations: the main purpose was to
negotiate disputes among nations, but it also
addressed other world issues, such as trade,
women’s conditions, child labor, and
environmental protection
• NATO: formed in 1949 as a defensive alliance
among the U.S., Canada, and western European
• Warsaw Pact: included the Soviet Union and
eastern European nations.
• This new type of political warfare created the
Cold War.
The Cold War
• The Yalta Conference: early 1945 the three
countries split Germany into four pieces (US,
Britain, USSR, and France)
• The Potsdam Conference: The USSR already
occupied eastern Poland and eastern Germany
and they were allowed to continue occupation.
Tensions were high during this July 1945
• The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. seized lands in Asia
and the USSR bushed its boundaries into
eastern Europe.
• The Marshall Plan was a program created in the
US to help democratic nations rebuild.
New Nationalism
• Africa: Christian missionaries set up schools and taught
a new native elite that noticed the contrast between
democratic ideals and the reality of the discrimination
that they saw around them.
• In Senegal, Blaise Diagne agitated for African
participation in politics and fair treatment by the French
• In South Africa, the African National Congress pushed to
defend the interests of black Africans in 1912. They led
a bloody struggle against apartheid, which led to Nelson
Mandela’s election as the first black president of South
Africa in 1994.
• In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie led Ethiopian troops
into his capital city to reclaim his title. In exchange for
promises of liberation they helped the Allies defeat the
• In Algeria: war broke out in 1954 with great
brutality. It took Algeria 8 years to gain
• India was given independence in 1947 after
violent clashes between the British and the
Indians. Mohandas K. Gandhi pushed for nonviolent protest including the Walk to the Sea (or
the Salt March.)
• Jawaharlal Nehru (Indian National Congress)
and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League)
clashed openly and violent riots broke out
between Hindus and Muslims.
• Pakistan was formed as a Muslim state and
India remained a Hindu state. Gandhi was
assassinated by a Hindu who was angered by
the fact that he was going to have to move from
his home.
• In Southeast Asia there are many wars/conflicts
over the spread of communism (including Korea
and Vietnam.)
• In Mexico, after a violent revolution led by Emiliano
Zapata and Pancho Villa a democratic-based
Constitution was established in 1917. Lazaro
Cardenas (PRI) became the first long-term
president and started a long reign of PRI presidents
until the 1990’s when a non-PRI president was
• In Argentina and Brazil authoritarian rule continued
into the second half of the century at the hands of
military dictators Getulio Vargas and Juan Peron.
• The Cuban Revolution, led by Fidel Castro, helped
Cuba become communist in 1959.
The Great Depression
• In 10/1929 the economy took a downturn
and investors lost millions.
• Industrial production dropped 36%
between 1929 and 1932.
• It ended with the advent of WWII.
New Developments
• Faster transportation
• Computers replace typewriters, transform
• Multinational Corporations- General Motors,
Exxon, Microsoft, Honda, Sony cross national
• The Pacific Rim (Japan, South Korea,
Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) develop
into economic strongholds. The Asian Tigers
(S.Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore)
followed the model of close cooperation
between government and industry.
Ideologies and Revolutions
• Communism: USSR as a result of the
1917 revolution and China in 1949 as a
result of Mao Zedong’s revolution.
• Fascism: an authoritarian political
movement that sought to subordinate
individuals to the service of the state
(Mussolini-Italy and Hitler-Germany.)
Communism in the USSR
• Became the first communist regime in the 20th
• Stalin took control after Lenin’s death. He
focused on industrial goals and collectivization
by force.
• Economic Crisis: Gorbachev attempted to revive
his country in the mid 1980’s through perestoika
(economic reforms,) glasnost (openness,) and
• His reforms backfired, the USSR fell, and Boris
Yeltsin became the first president of Russia.
Communism in China
• In 1934-1935 Mao Zedong gained a lot of followers
during the Long Mach when he and his followers evaded
Chiang Kai-shek’s army.
• In 1949 Mao Zedong claimed main land China for
communism and renamed it the People’s Republic of
• He instituted the Great Leap Forward to compensate for
the loss of Soviet aid when he refused to industrialize as
quickly as Stalin wanted.
• In 1966 the Cultural Revolution encompassed political
and social change as well as economic change to
remove all vestiges of the old China and its hierarchical
bureaucracy and emphasis on inequality.
• Emphasis was put on elementary education.
• Deng Xiaoping followed Mao in 1976 and
encouraged a mix of socialism and
capitalism. Tensions erupted in 1989
Beijing at Tienanment Square.

APWH REVIEW - San Marcos Unified School District