Formal (usted/ustedes)
Commands
Sra. Roberta Kuonen
[email protected]
English Connection
In English, we form commands by
removing the subject “you”
Statement: You eat vegetables.
Command:
Eat the vegetables.
Use Ud. Commands:
• To tell someone respectfully to do
something.
• To tell someone respectfully to not
do something.
• If the subject is plural, use Uds.
commands.
Formation of Ud./Uds.
Commands
Begin with the yo form present-tense of the
verb
canto
cantar
drop the “o” ending canto
Then, for Ud. commands, add an –e ending
for –ar verbs and an –a ending for –er or –ir
ending verbs.
For Uds. commands add an –en for –ar
verbs and an –an for –er or –ir
ending verbs.
Cantar
Ud.- ¡Cante! = Sing! (Speaking to one person)
Uds.- ¡Canten! = Sing! (to more than one person)
To make the command negative, just put “no” in
front of the command form.
Ud.- ¡No cante! = Don’t sing!
Uds.-¡No canten! = Don’t sing!
-er/-ir ending verbs
Vender
vendo
Venda
Vendan
No venda
No vendan
*Regular –ir ending verbs will end this
same way.
vivir
viv o
viva/vivan
Irregular yo forms
Salir
Salgo
Salga
Salgan
No salga
No salgan
*Notice the importance of
beginning with the YO form stem.
Very irregular yo forms
Some verbs have very irregular yo forms and
are therefore irregular in the command
form…you have to MEMORIZE these
irregulars!
Ud./Uds.
Verb Yo form
command
Dar
(doy)
dé/den
Estar (estoy)
esté/estén
Ir
(voy)
vaya/vayan
Saber (sé)
sepa/sepan
Ser
(soy)
sea/sean
-car/-gar/-zar Ending
Verbs
In order to retain the same sound, -car,
-gar, and –zar ending verbs have a spelling
change in the formal command forms.
-car -que/-quen
practique/practiquen
-gar -gue/-guen
juegue/jueguen
-zar -ce/-cen
empiece/empiecen
Commands with Pronouns
Reflexive Verbs and Affirmative Commands
Attach the reflexive pronoun to the end
of the affirmative command.
For a formal command, the reflexive
pronoun will always be “se”.
Examples: ¡Váyase! – Go away! (1 person)
¡Duérmanse! – Go to sleep! (all of you)
Don’t forget the accent mark!
Negative Commands
Place the reflexive pronoun (se) in
front of the command.
Examples:
¡No se vaya! – Don’t go!
¡No se duerman! – Don’t fall asleep!
Commands with Object
Pronouns
If a direct or indirect object pronoun is
used with a command, use the same
placement procedures as with reflexive
commands.
Examples:
¡Déme el dinero! – Give me the money!
¡Dígannos la verdad! – Tell us the
truth!
¡No lo ponga aquí! – Don’t put it here!
Práctica
Change the following verbs to commands.
Bailar(Ud.) Dance!
Hacer la (Uds.) Do it!
Comprar les (Ud.) Don’t buy for them!
Mirarse (Uds.) Look at yourselves!
Repetir (Ud.) Repeat!
Abrir los (Uds.) Don’t open them!
Comer lo (Ud.)- Don’t eat it!
Respuestas
Baile
Háganla
No les compre
Mírense
Repita
No los abran
No lo coma
More Help
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www.classzone.com
www.studyspanish.com
Cliff Notes
Direct Commands
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Formal (usted/ustedes) Commands