Los mandatos: el imperativo
• In Spanish all commands, positive or
negative go back to the present tense
“Yo” form of the verb, drop the “o” and
add the opposite endings (EXCEPT when
commanding the “tu” and “vosotros”
positively.
• Positive command: Eat your vegetables!
• Negative command: Don’t eat dirt!
So what tense/time period are
we talking about?
• We make commands in the present!
– How do you conjugate verbs in the present?
-AR Verbs
-o
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an
-ER Verbs
-o
-es
-e
-emos
-éis
-en
-IR Verbs
-o
-es
-e
-imos
-ís
-en
Things to remember
• There is no such thing as a “Yo” command
• To make all commands we…
– Go to the YO
– Drop the ‘O’
– Add the opposite appropriate endings
AR verbs use ER endings
ER/IR verbs use AR endings (see the next page)
• Positive ‘tú’ & ‘vosotros’ forms are different
– Positive tú: go to the normal tú form drop ‘s’
– Positive vosotros: take the infinitive, drop ‘r’,
add ‘d’
Sample conjugations
Tomar

Leer
Tomemos

No tomemos
Leamos
No leamos
Toma
Tomad
Lee
Leed
No tomes
No toméis
No leas
No Leáis
Tome
Tomen
Lea
Lean
No tome
No tomen
No lea
No lean
Samples continued…
Escribir

escribamos
No escribamos
Escribe
Escribid
No escribas
No esbribáis
Escriba
Escriban
No Escriba
No escriban
4 things to remember
• Commands are in the present tense
• Most commands go to the yo, drop the o,
and add opposite appropriate endings
• + Tú commands: go to the tú form regular
present tense and drop the ‘s’
• + Vosotros commands: take the infinitive,
drop the ‘r’, and add ‘d’
4 problems that I have
1. Spelling changes
Car / Gar / Zar verbs
–AR verbs that end in C, G, & Z will have
problems. Ie…tocar, jugar, cazar
–To keep the correct spelling we need to
change some letters around.
•
•
•
Tocar = no toques, toque, toquemos, toquen
Jugar = no jugues, jugue, juguemos, juguen
Cazar = no caces, cace, cacemos, cacen
4 problems that I have
2. Go verbs & their
+tú forms
Venir
– My problem is:
irregular tú
commands
• Ten, ven, pon, sal,
di, ve, haz, y sé con
accento.
– These irregulars are
mostly inside of the
go verbs!

vengamos
No vengamos
Ven
Venid
No vengas
No vengáis
venga
vengan
No venga
No vengan
4 problems that I have
3. Irregulars
Ser
– Remember this
chant:
• Sepa, sea, haya, dé,
esté, vaya
• Saber, ser, haber,
dar, estar, ir
– These six verbs
continue the same
pattern that we are
used to: example…?

seamos
No seamos
Sé
Sed
No seas
No seáis
sea
sean
No sea
No sean
4 problems that I have
• Stem-changers
– Because we are
working in the present
tense… we need to
remember that we
occasionally have
stem-changers…aka
boot verbs.
– This means that we
won’t stem-change in
the nosotros nor
vosotros forms.
Almorzar

almorcemos
No almorcemos
Almuerza
Almorzad
No almuerces
No almorcéis
almuerce
almuercen
No almuerce
No almuercen
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Los mandatos: el imperativo