Summary
of
Tenses
There are nine indicative tenses:
present
preterit
imperfect
future
conditional
present perfect
past perfect
future perfect
conditional perf.
habla
he speaks
habló
he spoke
hablaba
he was speaking
hablará
he will speak
hablaría
he would speak
ha hablado
he has spoken
había hablado he had spoken
habrá hablado he will have spoken
habría hablado he would have spoken
There’s a trick to keeping the perfect tenses straight. First of all, of course,
all four have the past participle (hablado, comido, vivido). Then . . .
The PRESENT perfect is the
PRESENT of “haber” (which is
irregular) + past participle:
he
has
ha
hemos
habéis + hablado
han
The FUTURE perfect is the FUTURE
of “haber” + past participle:
habré
habrás
habrá
habremos
habréis
+ hablado
habrán
The PAST perfect is the
PAST (imperfect) tense of
“haber” + past participle:
había
habías
había
habíamos
habíais + hablado
habían
The CONDITIONAL perfect is the
CONDITIONAL of “haber” + past part.:
habría
habrías
habría
habríamos
habríais + hablado
habrían
Also remember that, in English . . .
future = will
conditional = would
perfect = have, has, or had
Therefore,
future perfect = will have
conditional perfect = would have
Click here to go to a brief
practice exercise.
On the next page you’ll
find a summary of ALL
indicative AND
subjunctive tenses.
Indicative
present
preterit
imperfect
future
conditional
pres.perf.
pluperf.
future perf.
cond. perf.
Translation of Subjunctive
both ind. & subj.
habla
habló
hablaba
hablará
hablaría
ha hablado
había hablado
habrá hablado
habría hablado
he speaks
hable
he spoke
he was speaking hablara*
he will speak
he would speak
he has spoken
haya hablado
he had spoken
hubiera hablado
he will have spoken
he would have spoken
*Because there is no preterit subjunctive, the imperfect
subjunctive serves as the only past tense in the subjunctive and
can translate as the imperfect does AND as the preterit does.
Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.
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Summary of Indicative Tenses