Los perfectos Perfect Tenses •Any perfect tense is a compound tense. But what is a compound tense? •Easy!! A compound word is 2 words put together like: home + work= homework play + ground= playground. •A compound tense is 2 verbs used together to form 1 tense. Past Participle All perfect tenses are made up of two parts: the helping verb haber and the past participle of the main verb: helping verb past participle He has eaten. They have left. I have studied. helping verb past participle We have seen. You have finished. She has fallen. ¿Qué es el presente perfecto? The present perfect is formed by combining: The helping verb HABER (“have” or “has”) + the past participle Past Participle All perfect tenses are made up of two parts: the helping verb and the past participle of the main verb: helping verb I have You have He has She has past participle helping verb past participle studied. We have seen finished. eaten. They have left. fallen. You all have helped. This is how you form the past participle in Spanish: Drop the –ar and add –ado: hablar pensar llegar hablado pensado llegado nadar almorzar estar nadado almorzado estado Drop the –er or –ir and add –ido: comer aprender asistir comido aprendido asistido poder querer venir podido querido venido There are, of course, irregular past participles in Spanish as there are in English. call jump look eat bring have called have jumped have looked have eated???? have bringed???? have eaten have brought R E V V roto escrito visto vuelto M A C muerto abierto cubierto P H D D puesto hecho dicho devuelto Not exactly irregular but… -er and –ir verbs whose stems end in a vowel have past participles ending in –ído caer → caído leer → leído reír → reído creer → creído oír → oído traer → traído Click here to go to a brief practice exercise. Para formar en español • In Spanish we form the present perfect by combining the present tense of the verb haber (the helping verb, or el verbo auxiliar) with a past participle – For example: • Yo he bailado. I have danced. • Nosotros no hemos estudiado para el examen. We haven’t studied for the test. The present tense of haber he hemos has habéis ha han Para formar… Here are the present perfect forms of estudiar: he estudiado has estudiado ha estudiado hemos estudiado habéis estudiado han estudiado Now you try… On your notes, see if you can figure out the present perfect forms for the verb hablar: he ________ hemos _______ has ________ habéis ________ han ________ ha ________ Is this what you came up with? he hablado hemos hablado has hablado habéis hablado ha hablado han hablado Let’s try another… Now see if you can form the present perfect forms of the verb tomar: __ ________ ____ _______ ___ ________ _____ ________ ___ ________ __ ________ Is this what you got? he tomado hemos tomado has tomado habéis tomado ha tomado han tomado Let’s try another one…see if you can come up with the present perfect tense of ir: __ ___ _____ ___ ___ ___ ______ ___ __ ___ ___ ______ Is this what you came up with? he ido hemos ido has ido habéis ido ha ido han ido Many of you may have assumed that ir had an irregular past participle. Afterall, it does have an irregular present participle. But ir is actually regular in this form. Click here to go to a brief practice exercise. Pluperfect (Past Perfect) (Pluscuamperfecto) The past perfect (also called the pluperfect and, in Spanish, the pluscuamperfecto), remember, is the past of the past and translates with “had” in English. ALL perfect tenses get a helping verb and a past participle: present perfect past perfect future perfect conditional perfect he has eaten he had eaten he will have eaten he would have eaten As you saw, the present perfect tense has a set of helping verbs that come from “haber”: he has ha hemos habéis han The same is true of the past perfect. The helping verbs for the past perfect are the imperfect form of “haber”: había hablado habías hablado había hablado habíamos hablado habíais hablado habían hablado Note that the endings on “haber” for the past perfect are the endings for the imperfect tense: había habías había habíamos habíais habían The present perfect is the PRESENT tense of “haber” + the past participle. The past perfect tense is the IMPERFECT (PAST) tense of “haber” + the past participle. Guess what the future perfect tense is composed of. But that’s another lesson. Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.