Present and Pluperfect
Subjunctive
Present Perfect Subjunctive
Remember how the present perfect indicative is
the present (indicative) of “haber” + the past
participle? Well, the present perfect subjunctive
is the present subjunctive of “haber” (which, like
the present indicative of “haber,” is irregular) +
the past participle:
haya hablado
hayas hablado
haya hablado
hayamos hablado
hayáis hablado
hayan hablado
As you might expect, the present perfect
subjunctive translates just like the present
perfect indicative:
ha hablado
he has spoken
haya hablado he has spoken
You use the present perfect subjunctive
whenever you need the subjunctive:
Sabemos que Juan ha comido.
– We know that Juan has eaten.
Dudamos que Juan haya comido. – We doubt that Juan has
eaten.
Pluperfect (Past Perfect) Subjunctive
The past perfect subjunctive is the past
(imperfect) subjunctive of “haber” + the past
participle. Remember that the way you get
the past (imperfect) subjunctive root is to go
to the third person plural of the preterit. The
preterit of “haber” is “hubieron.”
hubiera hablado hubiéramos hablado
hubieras hablado hubierais hablado
hubiera hablado hubieran hablado
The pluperfect subjunctive translates the same
way the pluperfect indicative does:
había hablado
hubiera hablado
he had spoken
he had spoken
You use the pluperfect subjunctive whenever you
need the subjunctive rather than the indicative:
Sabíamos que había comido. – We knew that he had eaten.
Dudábamos que hubiera comido. – We doubted that he
had eaten.
Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.
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Present and Pluperfect Subjunctive